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PTW Passive Safety: Numerical Study of Standard Impact Scenarios with Rider Injury Risk Assessment

Tianjin University of Science and Technology-Wenle Lv
University of West Bohemia-Tomasz Bonkowski, Ludek Hyncik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0930
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Powered two-wheeler (PTW) drivers and passengers are among the group of vulnerable road users (VRU). This group uses the road transportation system together with other better-protected users such as passenger cars and truck drivers. The main vulnerability of PTW driver lies in their unequal position during the crash, due to the inability of application of the crashworthiness concept during the PTW vehicle design. This inequality could be somehow mitigated by the design of personal protective equipment (PPE). Mostly the design of the PPE's is led by the standards which often are obsolete and takes into account only simple drop-tests (ECE 22.05). Those test did not take into account complicated kinematics of the motorcycle accidents and biomechanics of the human body. The authors propose a virtual approach for the PTW rider injury risk assessment, which coupled with the pre-impact conditions, could be used for the new PPE protection standards preparation. In this paper, authors want to present a numerical study on most common PTW Impact Scenarios, which are described in ISO 13232. The simulations of the…
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Acoustic Study on Motorcycle Helmets with Application of Novel Porous Material

AcouTech Lab, Dept of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,-Jüri Lavrentjev, Hans Rämmal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0531
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A critically high noise level inside protective helmet is a prevalent concern for motorcyclists. Especially at highway speeds where the noise level, regardless of helmet type can exceed 100 dB(A) and approaches threshold of discomfort, often resulting in temporary hearing loss. Despite of large share of persons exposed to such noise disturbance around the world, the in helmet noise levels have not significantly decreased over the last decades. Only few scientific publications can be found to systematically address this issue. Furthermore, in respect of driving safety even moderate noise levels are reported to impair reaction times and reduce attention of motorcyclists. At higher speeds the dominant helmet noise source is linked to aerodynamic turbulence around the helmet shell. The loudness and spectral contents mainly depend on the driving speed, windscreen configuration, riding position and helmet geometry. In this paper a series of on-road tests and laboratory experiments with three main types of helmets (“full face”, “flip up” and “open face” type) have been performed with the focus on in-helmet acoustics. Noise spectra at the location…
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Sensing Applied Load and Damage Effects in Composites with Nondestructive Techniques

Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP12_08
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Comparing and correlating piezoelectrically induced guided waves, acoustic emission, thermography, and X-ray imaging to determine the effects of applied load on a composite structure.

Composite materials are desirable for aeronautical and aerospace applications for many reasons including their high strength-to-weight ratios, fatigue and corrosion resistance, design adaptability, and performance capabilities in harsh environments. Because of these qualities, composites are useful in many applications such as in armor, helmets, and helicopters, and as structural components.

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Sensing Applied Load and Damage Effects in Composites with Nondestructive Techniques

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35672
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Composite materials are desirable for aeronautical and aerospace applications for many reasons including their high strength-to-weight ratios, fatigue and corrosion resistance, design adaptability, and performance capabilities in harsh environments. Because of these qualities, composites are useful in many applications such as in armor, helmets, and helicopters, and as structural components.

Pearl-Like Coating Enhances Lightweight Armor

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35453
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

By mimicking the outer coating of pearls (nacre or mother of pearl), researchers created a lightweight plastic that is 14 times stronger and eight times lighter (less dense) than steel. It could be applicable to vests, helmets, and other types of body armor as well as protective armor for ships, helicopters, and other vehicles.

Ballistic Helmets

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34133
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

3M St. Paul, MN 888-364-3577

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Tech Briefs: August 2018

  • Magazine Issue
  • 18AERP08
Published 2018-08-01 by SAE International in United States
Designing a High-Speed Decoy Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)Using Thermoplastics in Aerospace ApplicationsIn-Flight Real-Time Avionics AdaptationUsing Turbine Flow Meters for Aerospace Test and Measurement ApplicationsCommunicating from Space: The Front End of Multiscale ModelingLaser-Based System Could Expand Space-to-Ground CommunicationHydraulic Testing of Polymer Matrix Composite 102mm Tube Section Research could lead to development of a composite material that can be processed at a low temperature and still be used at 1000°F.Permeation Tests on Polypropylene Fiber Materials Study attempts to determine if polypropylene nanofiber materials can be used in air filtration systems to remove toxic vapors.Inter-Laboratory Combat Helmet Blunt Impact Test Method Comparison Ensuring consistent test methods could reduce the risk of head injuries.

Inter-Laboratory Combat Helmet Blunt Impact Test Method Comparison

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-32726
Published 2018-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

As the medical community learns more about brain injury, the importance of blunt impact mitigation becomes more apparent. As such, it is critical to make sure that research labs are not only capable of performing testing in this field, but also show inter-laboratory consistency and reproducibility. This study is a comparison between the two validated blunt impact testing labs (Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) and National Technical Systems (NTS) Chesapeake Testing Services (CTS)), and Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC).

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Evaluation on Properties of Industrial Workers Safety Helmet Using Natural Hybrid Composite

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Thanikachalam J, Vasiraja N, Vignesh V
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
In this project work, composites were prepared by using matrix method in which good adhesion was generated by a combination of hand layup method. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the suitability of natural fiber composites using luffa fiber, palm fiber and bamboo fiber and to fabricate the safety helmet by combining these three fibers. Initially these fibers were treated in sodium hydroxide solution in order to improve fiber interfacial bonding. Generally, composites that contain treated fiber have a higher tensile modulus and greater flexural modulus than do untreated fiber composites. Here using 40% fibers and 60% matrix for fabricating natural composites and to investigate its tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength and hardness strength. It was observed that the effects of reinforcing epoxy resin matrix with the fibers caused the composites to be more flexible and easily deform due to high strain values and reduction of high resonant amplitude. In the present study, an attempt has been made to reinforce, epoxy resin matrix with this proportion of these natural fibers and to characterize its…
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Open Access

Cellular Helmet Liner Design through Bio-inspired Structures and Topology Optimization of Compliant Mechanism Lattices

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Indiana University, Purdue University-Joel C. Najmon, Jacob DeHart, Zebulun Wood, Andres Tovar
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1057
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The continuous development of sport technologies constantly demands advancements in protective headgear to reduce the risk of head injuries. This article introduces new cellular helmet liner designs through two approaches. The first approach is the study of energy-absorbing biological materials. The second approach is the study of lattices comprised of force-diverting compliant mechanisms. On the one hand, bio-inspired liners are generated through the study of biological, hierarchical materials. An emphasis is given on structures in nature that serve similar concussion-reducing functions as a helmet liner. Inspiration is drawn from organic and skeletal structures. On the other hand, compliant mechanism lattice (CML)-based liners use topology optimization to synthesize rubber cellular unit cells with effective positive and negative Poisson’s ratios. Three lattices are designed using different cellular unit cell arrangements, namely, all positive, all negative, and alternating effective Poisson’s ratios. The proposed cellular (bio-inspired and CML-based) liners are embedded between two polycarbonate shells, thereby, replacing the traditional expanded polypropylene foam liner used in standard sport helmets. The cellular liners are analyzed through a series of 2D extruded…
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