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Autonomous Car in India

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Siddharth Agnihotri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2522
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Automation is expanding in every possible direction and it was only time before it reached the Automobile sector. There has been tremendous traction towards autonomous cars since last 2-3 yrs as a probable solution to reduce accidents and promote safe and comfortable commute. Many companies have expressed their interest in developing some part(s) of it and when would all of this culminate resulting in a fully autonomous car. But as every coin has two aspects so same does automation. This paper covers the future of autonomous cars from Indian perspective, covering possible challenges, complex use cases, advantages, technology enablers, economy outlook etc. India has the dubious honor of ranking first in road deaths in the world at present & accounts for 10 percent of global road accidents with more than 1.46 lakh fatalities annually. Major automotive and tech companies in world are moving towards Autonomous technology for vehicles to make roads safer and reduce the no. of deaths due to road accident. Many companies have already started testing their vehicle on roads, created separate verticals…

Countering the Destabilizing Effects of Shifted Loads through Pneumatic Suspension Design

Virginia Tech, USA-Yang Chen, Mehdi Ahmadian
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-01-0001
Published 2019-11-08 by SAE International in United States
This article proposes a novel approach to reduce the destabilizing impacts of the shifted loads of heavy trucks (due to improper loading or liquid slosh) by pneumatic suspension design. In this regard, the pneumatically balanced suspension with dual leveling valves is introduced, and its potential for the improvement of the body imbalance due to the shifted load is determined. The analysis is based on a multi-domain model that couples the suspension fluid dynamics, shifted-load impacts, and tractor-semitrailer dynamics. Truck dynamics is simulated using TruckSim, which is integrated with the pneumatic suspension model developed in AMESim. This yields a reasonable prediction of the effect of the suspension airflow dynamics on vehicle dynamics. Moreover, the ability of the pneumatic suspension to counteract the effects of two general shifted loads - static (rigid cargo) and dynamic (liquid) - is studied. The simulation results indicate that the dual-leveling-valve suspension results in a reduction in roll angle and roll rate of the vehicle body for both static and dynamic load-shifting cases, as compared to the conventional single-leveling-valve suspension. Suppression of…
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A Heavy Tractor Semi-Trailer Stability Control Strategy Based on Electronic Pneumatic Braking System HIL Test

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Aptiv PLC, USA-Bin Li
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, China-Hongyu Zheng, Yangyang Miao
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0016
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Aiming to improve the handling performance of heavy tractor semi-trailer during turning or changing lanes at high speed, a hierarchical structure controller is proposed and a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is developed to validate the proposed controller. In the upper controller, a Kalman filter observer based on the heavy tractor semi-trailer dynamic model is used to estimate the yaw rates and sideslip angles of the tractor and trailer. Simultaneously, a sliding mode direct yaw moment controller is developed, which takes the estimated yaw rates and sideslip angles and the reference values calculated by the three-degrees-of-freedom dynamic model of the heavy tractor semi-trailer as the control inputs. In the lower controller, the additional yaw moments of tractor and trailer are transformed into corresponding wheel braking forces according to the current steering characteristics. The HIL test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is built to verify the effectiveness of the strategy. Double lane-change maneuver, sinusoidal maneuver, and J-turn maneuver are selected as handling and stability test conditions. The LabView real-time…
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Divergence of Thickness Loss vs. Weight Loss, Friction and Wear Behavior of Heavy Truck Brake Blocks: Development of a New Test Procedure for the Chase Tester

Ask Automotive Pvt, Ltd.-Aman Rathee, Devendra Kumar Sharma, Shivraj Singh
SKR Consulting LLC-Seong Kwan Rhee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Heavy truck brake blocks are found to swell (or expand) permanently during testing or usage, especially so at high temperatures, thus leading to longer durability as measured by thickness loss, similar to light vehicle disc pads. This swelling phenomenon occurs continuously in the layer adjacent to the friction surface during testing or usage; not a one time event. The thickness loss estimated from the weight loss is always greater than measured thickness loss. Brake block wear does not increase linearly with increasing normal load, and the load-sensitivity of block wear is very much dependent on the products. A new test procedure has been developed for generating friction-vs.-temperature and wear-vs.-temperature data at a constant temperature employing intermittent braking on the Chase Brake Lining Quality Tester (SAE J661) and friction material wear can be compared on equivalent-work basis.
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Advanced Applications of Heavy Vehicle EDR Data

  • Professional Development
  • C1901
Published 2019-06-28
This class will provide the student with the skills, knowledge, and abilities to interpret, analyze and apply Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) data in real world applications. This course has been designed to build on the concepts presented in the SAE course Accessing and Interpreting Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (ID# C1022). Advanced topics will include associating HVEDR data with collision events through timestamps, odometer logs, and data signatures, validating HVEDR speed data using specified vehicle parameters, performing time and distance analyses using HVEDR data, and correlating HVEDR data to physical evidence from the vehicle and roadway. These higher-level techniques and applications are intended to increase student understanding of applying HVEDR data to a crash reconstruction analysis. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 13 Continuing Education Units (CEUs). Upon completion of this seminar, accredited reconstructionists should mail a copy of their course certificate and the $5 student CEU fee to ACTAR, PO Box 1493, North Platte, NE 69103 . Please note, attendees are required to…
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RDS Phrase Lists

V2X Core Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2540/1_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides a table of textual messages meeting the requirements for expressing “Radio Data Systems” (RDS) phrases commonly used in the ITS industry. They can be used both over the RDS subcarrier transmission media as part of a 37-bit long “Group 8a message” as well as being used to provide a common content list of phrases used in a wide number of other media and applications. This document SHALL define the normative index values to be used, extending the CEN established list to provide phrases needed by US practitioners. This standard provides non-normative textual phrases which MAY be used by implementers to ensure intelligible results. This document SHALL follow the formats and rules established in SAE J2540 in the expressions, manipulations, and use of such tables. It should be pointed out that within the rules established by this document a variety of final table are all considered “compliant” with the document, and may vary as fits the needs of implementers.
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Toyota's proven fuel-cell stack reduces cost, complexity in H2 semi-truck

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2019

Sebastian Blanco
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP06_14
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Hydrogen proponents likely know that Mirai means “future” in Japanese, but Toyota is only just beginning to explore how important the fuel cell stack in its H2-powered passenger car will be to the future of the company.

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An Investigation of the Influence of Close-Proximity Traffic on the Aerodynamic Drag Experienced by Tractor-Trailer Combinations

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

National Research Council Canada-Brian McAuliffe, Mojtaba Ahmadi-Baloutaki
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0648
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recent research to investigate the aerodynamic-drag reduction associated with truck platooning systems has begun to reveal that surrounding traffic has a measurable impact on the aerodynamic performance of heavy trucks. A 1/15-scale wind-tunnel study was undertaken to measure changes to the aerodynamic drag experienced by heavy trucks in the presence of upstream traffic. The results, which are based on traffic conditions with up to 5 surrounding vehicles in a 2-lane configuration and consisting of 3 vehicle shapes (compact sedans, SUVs, and a medium-duty truck), show drag reductions of 1% to 16% for the heavy truck model, with the largest reductions of the same order as those experienced in a truck-platooning scenario. The data also reveal that the performance of drag-reduction technologies applied to the heavy-truck model (trailer side-skirts and a boat-tail) demonstrate different performance when applied to an isolated vehicle than to conditions with surrounding traffic. The results suggest that vehicle shape optimization strategies may differ if the influence of wake effects from surrounding traffic is included in product development cycles. Additionally, truck-platooning benefits should…
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Low Speed Override of Passenger Vehicles with Heavy Trucks

Kineticorp LLC-David Danaher, William Neale, Sean McDonough, Drew Donaldson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In low speed collisions (under 15 mph) that involve a heavy truck impacting the rear of a passenger vehicle, it is likely that the front bumper of the heavy truck will override the rear bumper beam of the passenger vehicle, creating an override/underride impact configuration. There is limited data available for study when attempting to quantify vehicle damage and crash dynamics in low-speed override/underride impacts. Low speed impact tests were conducted to provide new data for passenger vehicle dynamics and damage assessment for low speed override/underride rear impacts to passenger vehicles. Three tests were conducted, with a tractor-trailer impacting three different passenger vehicles at 5 mph and 10 mph. This paper presents data from these three tests in order to expand the available data set for low speed override/underride collisions.
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Modeling of Close-Coupled SCR Concepts to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Yinyan Huang
IAV GmbH-Kristoffer Mc Pherson, Reza Rezaei, David Kovacs, Hendrik Rauch
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system (ATS). Several different aftertreatment architectures and technologies, all based on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are being considered to meet this need. One of these architectures, the close-coupled SCR (ccSCR), was evaluated in this study using two different physics-based, 1D models; the simulations focused on the first 300 seconds of the cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP). The first model, describing a real, EuroVI-compliant engine equipped with series turbochargers, was used to evaluate a ccSCR located either i) immediately downstream of the low-pressure turbine, ii) in between the two turbines, or iii) in a by-pass around the high pressure turbine. These simulations indicate that the location downstream of the low-pressure turbine offers nearly the best NOx conversion, and that the optimal volume of the ccSCR in this location is 25% of a conventional SCR catalyst. The second model describes a conventional heavy-duty aftertreatment system, to which a ccSCR was added. This model was used to examine…
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