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Effects of On-Road Conditions on HVAC Noise

Univ. Of Erlangen-Nuremberg-Andreas Logdesser, Stefan Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1555
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Noise inside the passenger cabin is made up of multiple sources. A significant reduction of the major sound sources such as the engine, wind and tire noise helped to improve the comfort for passengers. As a consequence, the HVAC sound (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) is unmasked as a primary noise source inside the passenger cabin and has to be taken into consideration when designing passenger cabin sound. While HVAC sound is often evaluated at stop, the most common situation of its use is while driving. In case of fresh air as mode of operation, the HVAC system is coupled to the environment through the air intake. Any change in the boundary conditions due to on-road driving events and gusts of wind affects the flow field in the HVAC system and in turn influences HVAC noise. This study investigates the effect of mass flow and pressure fluctuations on the HVAC noise. In a first step, major influences on the HVAC system are identified in an on-road test. For further investigation, the HVAC system is analyzed in…
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Iterative study to improve Air flow distribution on ventilation unit duct using CFD analysis

Subros Limited-ANIT SEN
Subros Ltd-SOMNATH SEN, Arunkumar Goel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0030
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to optimize ventilation unit to meet desirable flow distribution on various ports of the ventilation unit. The adapter is modified and simulation is done on the various design changes. CFD analysis is carried out on the ventilation unit with iterative design and achieved the target airflow and distribution. The analysis been carried out on star CCM+ software. The same been validated on the final proto part developed and tested.
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Innovative Rear Air Blower Design Application for Improving Cabin Thermal Comfort with improved Air Distribution and Air Quality.

Subros Ltd-Ravi Garg, Suraj maske, Yogendra Singh Kushwah
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0034
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, overall thermal comfort and air quality requirement have increased for vehicle cabin by multifold. To achieve increased thermal comfort requirements, multiple design innovation has happened to improve HVAC performance. Most of the advance and add on features like Multizone HVAC, dedicated rear HVAC, Automatic climate control, Advance Air filters, and Ionizers etc lead to increase in cost, power consumption, weight, and integration issues. Besides this in the vehicle with only front HVAC, airflow is not enough to meet rear side comfort for many cars in the B/C/SUV segment. This study aims to analyze the various parameters responsible for human thermal comfort inside a car with the focus on lightweight, low power consumption, compact Rear Blower to make passengers more comfortable by providing optimum airflow inline of mean radiant temperatures and cabin air temperature. The new design of Rear blower external surfaces has a set of air modifier surfaces in the direction of flow outlet. The second set of air modifier surfaces & an air deflator portion provided just upstream of outlet portion.…
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Methodology to quantify the undesirable effects of the localized inefficiency of heat pick-up in suction line on an automotive air-conditioning system

Y.S.Sarath Reddy
Tata Motors Ltd-Suresh Tadigadapa, Santosh Ghorpade, Ankit Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0036
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being paid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance. Even though most of the automotive HVAC engineers are fairly aware of the undesirable effects of heat pick-up in suction line,…
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Climate comfort strategy for Electric Vehicle

Tata Motors Ltd-Datta Panchare
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Bhavik Mehta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0023
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In current days electric vehicles (EVs) are being promoted on significant scale through various government initiative as zero-emission means of transport. However the major hurdle for wider customer acceptance of EVs are higher cost, lack of charging station infrastructure and technologies, limited driving range. It is known that Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is major contributor in overall power consumption of electric vehicles. The HVAC system architecture and working logics in EVs are different from the one in fuel based vehicle. EVs are equipped with electric compressor for refrigeration cycle, PTC heater for heating purpose and also has additional cooling system for high voltage battery to maintain its temperature within a given limit. It is understood that HVAC system should work in manner which provides passengers thermal comfort as well as battery energy management. Our work discusses the operation and working logics of various HVAC components which ensures cabin comfort at various ambient conditions with minimum stress on power consumption and thus optimizing the range at various ambient conditions. The control strategies on…
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Experimental Investigation of Dual AC System used for Battery cooling plate

Subros Ltd-Kamlesh Kumar Singh
Subros, Ltd.-Somnath Sen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0021
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
As the global warming due to carbon footprint is very alarming, vehicle emissions are getting stringent day by day. In such situation vehicle hybridization or fully electric vehicles are of obvious choices. However in any of the cases the battery cooling is a big concern area. As the heat produced by the battery need to be dissipated within no time to prevent failure, it is of utmost need to develop and understand the battery cooling system. Present paper describes the experimental investigation of a battery cooling circuit. A complete bench comprising of both primary and secondary circuit is used for the testing. The primary circuit has a cooling unit with TXV, condenser and electric compressor run by high voltage. The secondary circuit consists of a chiller (integrated with TXV) unit responsible for battery cooling. The whole circuit typically resembles with one of dual air conditioning unit and uses one of known refrigerant used in vehicle AC system. However each circuit is connected with a valve for controlling the loop. The battery heat was represented by…
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CFD Analysis and Validation of Automotive Windshield De-Fogging Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.https://www.sae-Gopinath Sathianarayanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0039
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays Climate component system plays a vital role in JD power rating of automotive vehicle. Apart from customer point of view, stringent homologation norms pose challenge in designing climate control system components. At extreme cold climate conditions either mist/ fog forms on the automobile windshield. This makes visibility issue on driver/Co driver side. To overcome this issue efficient demister system is required. Development of Demister system requires thorough knowledge on velocity spread over windscreen and thermal performance of heater (HVAC). This work is aimed for simulating windshield demisting patterns of a vehicle as described by ECC norms. New methodology was developed to simulate the actual behaviour of condensation and evaporation of mist on the windscreen. Transient demisting patterns were simulated with the CFD code and validated with experimental test results.
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Simulation of the performance of solar driven thermoelectric based rotary desiccant wheel HVAC system

Vellore Inst. of Technology, Vellore-Selvaraji Muthu, Sekarapandian N
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0041
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive applications, the main functionality of the HVAC system includes, heating, ventilation, and cooling or air-conditioning of the vehicle interior to achieve the desired indoor thermal comfort. In the current scenario conventional vapor compression based HVAC system are widely used for this application. The typical refrigerants used to operate this equipment include HFCs and HFOs which are susceptible to cause environmental hazard. The aim of this article is to assess the performance of a hypothetical solar driven thermoelectric based rotary desiccant wheel HVAC system (D-HVAC) to be used for automotive applications. The D-HVAC system uses desiccant wheel to remove the latent heat, energy wheel to remove the sensible heat, evaporating coolers to achieve further cooling, the regeneration of the desiccant wheel by hot air and water as the refrigerant. In the case of solar driven–DHVAC system, the solar energy is utilized for regeneration of desiccant wheel in place of hot air. However, the intensity of incident solar energy varies throughout the day. To compensate for this energy fluctuation an an additional thermoelectric system…
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Numerical Investigations on Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Climate Control Systems in Electric Vehicles

Pranav Vikas India Pvt Ltd-Vijayaraghavan S, Govindaraj D
Pranav Vikas India Pvt Ltd.-Mahendravarman Radha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0010
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Earth's surface temperatures would increase from 2.90 C to 3.40 C by the year 2100 due to global warming, leads to conceivable calamitous effects on human livelihoods, livestock, ecosystems and biodiversity. Overall globally several policies were made to reduce the carbon dioxide emission and other greenhouse gases. The transportation sector is one of the prominent sources of carbon dioxide emissions. On account of the significant emissions caused by conventional buses, migrating to electric buses which have zero tailpipe emissions for public transport fleets is essential. Taken into consideration of the energy density of traction batteries, and cost, energy utilized for HVAC applications should be optimized. Heat transfer and flow characteristics in the condenser and the evaporator zone of climate control system for electric buses were numerically studied and compared with experimental results. Grid independence and turbulence studies were carried out to develop the CFD methodology for this analysis. Air velocity and temperature was measured at different locations in the climate control system to calculate the flow and thermal performance. Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics…
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Thermal Management and Performance Characteristic of Electric Vehicle

Tata Motors Ltd-Sanjoy Biswas, Asmita Ghate
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0022
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Thermal Management System is one of key parallel branch for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle over 4 decades as it ensures performance of power train/engine or after treatment system or HVAC (Climate control). In automotive industry, Range Anxiety and safety of Electric Vehicle (EV) are the hot topic of discussion. This paper is dealing with some importance aspects of thermal management system and their link with the performance/Safety Parameter of Electric vehicle. Battery Cooling or Battery thermal management System (BTMS or BCS) and Traction cooling system (TCS) are coupled with near conventional HVAC circuit. BTMS plays important role to ensure performance of Li-ion Battery pack which is indirectly related with Range and safety of electric vehicle. Similar, other 2 Cooling circuit has major role to ensure vehicle performance and comfort. Here, Thermal management system become utmost important to overcome the challenge of range and safety concern of EV along with many other factors. Also, Thermal management system sited in key research arena along with battery technology for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle.