The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Heat treatment
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Research on Joining High Pressure Die Casting Parts by Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) using Ring-Groove Die Comparing to Heat Treatment Method

Bollhoff Inc.-Xuzhe Zhao
Chang’an University-Dean Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the increasing number of structural high pressure die casting (HPDC) aluminum parts need to be joined with high strength steel (HSS) parts in order to reduce the weight of vehicle for fuel-economy considerations. Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) has become one of the strongest mechanical joining solutions used in automotive industry for the past several decades. Joining HPDC parts with HSS parts can potentially cause joint quality issues, such as joint button cracks, low corrosion resistance and low joint strength. The appropriate heat treatment will be suggested to improve SPR joint quality in terms of crack reduction. But the heat treatment can also result in the blister issue and extra time and cost consumption for HPDC parts. The relationship between the microstructure of HPDC material before and after heat treatment with the joint quality is going to be investigated and discussed for interpretation of cracks initiation and propagation during riveting. The SPR joint quality will be evaluated based on interlock distance, the minimum remaining thickness (Tmin), shear strength etc. Instead of using heat treatment method, the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Coupled Weld-Rupture Analysis of Automotive Assemblies

ESI North America-Yogendra Gooroochurn, Ramesh Dwarampudi, Vijay Tunga
ESI US R&D-Megha Seshadri, Ravi Raveendra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1076
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight driven design in the automotive industry and the push for Electric Vehicles mandate the use of innovative materials such as Steel (HSS, UHSS, AHSS) and Aluminum alloys. For steel suppliers to meet the strength requirements of high strength steels, they often alloy the steel chemistry (depending on mill capability, rolling capacity, quenching capacity, etc.). When used in welded assembly constructions, these steels, as compared to traditional steels, behave differently. Depending on the welding heat input, the material chemistry and thickness, they either harden or soften in the heat affected zone. Similar behavior is observed with the most commonly used aluminum alloys (5000 and 6000 series) in the automotive sector. For both alloy types, different strengthening mechanism are used to meet their initial strength requirements (by work hardening and by heat treating respectively) but they both undergo softening in the heat affected zone during welding. Regardless of the alloys, the material in the heat affected zone is affected and so is the performance of the weldment during service. FE analyzes of Welding and Performance have…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Regeneration of Cathode Mixture Active Materials Obtained from Recycled Lithium Ion Batteries

University of Akron-Hammad Al-Shammari, Siamak Farhad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0864
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The recycling of rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted more attention in the past few years due to its tremendous advantages to the economy and environment. However, none of the currently developed recycling processes are completely economical for all types of LIBs. If the electrode active materials of spent LIBs can be effectively separated and directly regenerated to build new LIBs, the LIBs’ recycling process may become economical. Since all types of LIBs are usually recycled at the same time without sorting them considering the types of electrodes and manufacturers, the separation of electrodes materials in the filter cake, as the product of the recycling facilities becomes crucial. In this paper, we show that the anode and cathode mixture materials in the filter cake can be easily and effectively separated, and the resulted cathode mixture materials can be directly regenerated to be used to build new LIBs with multiple intercalating cathode materials. The proposed process starts with separating the cathode mixture and anode materials by adopting Stokes’ law for mineral separation; then, the separated cathode…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Lumped-Parameter Thermal Model for System Level Simulation of Hybrid Vehicles

Cummins, Inc.-Dina Caicedo Parra, Kesavan Ramakrishnan, Lisa Farrell, Manik Narula, Patrick Sill, Jithin Benjamin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0150
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Commercial vehicle electrification is a path to meeting stringent fuel consumption and emission targets. Considering extended operations in different applications, the powertrain components need to be selected and sized together with the cooling system to ensure consistent performance and longer product life. In order to maintain the interactions between subsystems in the optimization routines, multi-physics models should be utilized. A simplified thermal network model is developed in this work for hybrid powertrain cooling systems based on the analogy between heat transfer and current flow equations. The assumption of a lumped system is valid for these components as the conductive heat transfer is much higher than convective heat transfer (Biot number <0.1). The energy equations are solved to calculate component temperatures in state space form, whereas, in literatures, detailed object-oriented 1-D models are mainly used for this purpose. This approach reduces simulation setup time and computational effort without having a significant impact to model fidelity. In the thermal model, powertrain components are treated as heat exchangers along with cooling system components like radiator and pumps. Heat…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

Oakland University-Srecko Zdravkovic, Sergey Golovashchenko
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0223
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been in production in automotive industry since early 1990s. A substantial amount of experimental work was traditionally required in order to find an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to satisfy the required joint parameters. Presented study is describing the methodology of numerical simulation of SPR process and its experimental validation for Aluminum alloys and steels. Among material properties, the required information for numerical simulation includes stress-strain curves validated for the range of strains taking place in SPR process (up to 2.0 of true strain for sheets and up to 0.4 of true strain for the rivet) and parameters of fracture model for all involved materials: all sheets in the stack and the rivet material. Experimental data on stress-strain curves for extended range of strains was obtained based upon multistep rolling tensile testing procedure for the sheet metals. Parameters of the fracture model for sheets were defined by custom hole expansion test, and the parameter of the fracture model for the rivet was defined via expanding the tubular portion of…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Improved Wear Resistance of Austempered Gray Cast Iron Using Shot-Peening Treatment

Oakland University-Yu Liu, Gary Barber
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University-Weiwei Cui, Bingxu Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, ball-on-plate reciprocating sliding wear tests were utilized on austempered and quench-tempered gray cast iron samples with and without shot-peening treatment. The wear volume loss of the gray cast iron samples with different heat treatment designs was compared under equivalent hardness. The phase transformation in the matrix was studied using metallurgical evaluation and hardness measurement. It was found that thin needle-like ferrite became coarse gradually with increasing austempering temperature and was converted into feather-like shape when using the austempering temperatures of 399°C (750°F). The residual stress on the surface and sub-surface before and after shot-peening treatment was analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Compressive residual stress was produced after shot-peening treatment and showed an increasing trend with austempering temperature. In sliding wear tests, austempered gray cast iron had lower wear volume loss than quench-tempered gray cast iron before and after shot-peening treatment. The wear tracks were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Delamination and smearing were the main wear mechanisms on the gray cast iron samples.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Simulation Methodology to Analyze Overall Induction Heat Treatment Process of a Crank Shaft to Determine Effects on Structural Performance

General Motors LLC-Nilankan Karmakar, Anoop Retheesh, Pankaj Kumar Jha, Michael D. Nienhuis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0506
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Steel crankshaft are subjected to an induction heat treatment process for improving the operational life. Hence, to predict the structural performance of a crankshaft using Computer Aided Engineering early in the design phase, it’s very important to simulate the overall induction heat treatment process. Metallurgical phase transformations during the heat treatment process have direct influence on the hardness and residual stress. The objective of this study is to establish the overall analysis procedure, starting from capturing the eddy current generation in the crank shaft due to rotating inductor coils to the prediction of resultant hardness and the induced residual stress. In the proposed methodology, an electromagnetic analysis is performed first to capture the Joule heating due to the surrounding inductor coil carrying high frequency alternating current. Then coupling is done between the electromagnetic and thermal analysis to capture the resultant temperature distribution due to the rotation of the inductor coil by a novel approach. Subsequent quenching operation is simulated then to capture the metallurgical phase changes and hardness using a python subroutine based on continuous…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Zebra Line Laser Heat Treated Die Development

Synergy Prototype Stamping LLC-Aravind Jonnalagadda
United States Steel Corp.-Hua-Chu Shih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0756
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The thermal deflection associated with the conventional die heat treating procedure usually requires extra die grinding process to fine-tune the die surface. Due to the size of the production die, the grinding is time consuming and is not cost effective. The goal of the study is to develop a new die heat treating process utilizing the flexible laser heat treatment, which could serve the same purpose as the conventional die heat treating and avoid the thermal deflection. The unique look of the developed zebra pattern laser heat treating process is defined as the Zebra Line. The heat-treating parameters and processes were developed and calibrated to produce the laser heat treating on laboratory size dies, which were subjected to the die wear test in the laboratory condition. The USS HDGI 980 XG3TM steel was selected to be carried out on the developmental dies in the cyclic bend die wear test due to its high strength and coating characteristic. The hardness measurements, friction index determined from the die wear tests aligned with the 3D surface scanning profile…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Steel, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 0.95Cr - 0.20Mo - (0.30 - 0.35C) (4132)

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6356J
  • Current
Published 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Aerospace Standard Test Methods for Aerospace Sealants Two-Component Synthetic Rubber Compounds

AMS G9 Aerospace Sealing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5127/1D
  • Current
Published 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) describes test methods to determine the application and performance properties of two-component sealing compounds. It shall be used in conjunction with AS5127 and the applicable material specification. When modifications to these test methods are called out in material specifications, the material specification shall take precedence.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available