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Miniaturized and sleek protective device

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Priyanka Marudhavanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2535
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A miniaturized and sleek protective device M. Priyanka, Mahindra&Mahindra, India D. Boobala Krishnan*, Mahindra&Mahindra, India T.Vijayan, Mahindra& Mahindra, India Keywords-Fuse, Lightweight. Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Now-a-days there is lot of advancement coming in automobiles. Earlier the electronics were used in engine and engine compartment areas. Now all hydraulics and transmission have been operated by electronics. The role of electronics like sensors, actuators increasing day by day for lifting and moving operations. With increase in electronics circuit, there is complex in wiring harness and packaging space for fuse box is premium Limitations: Limitations of placing other devices. Occupy more space and weight in the vehicle. Packing constraint due to vibration and thermal management issues. Methodology: Two different fuse of same rating can be given in one fuse and we can reduce the wire size. By this method we can save many fuses and reduce the fuse box size. An optimized fuse box minimizes the length of circuit. It translates the system into less plastics. This type of system is highly useful in systems such as ECU…
 

A Self-Intelligent Traffic Light Control System based on Traffic Environment using Machine Learning

Maharaja Agrasen Inst. Of Technology-Shubham Upadhyaya
Maharaja Agrasen institute of technology-Ananya Bansal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2459
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we will detect and track vehicles on a video stream and count those going through a defined line and to ultimately give an idea of what the real-time on street situation is across the road network. Our major objective is to optimize the delay in transit of vehicles in odd hours of the day. It uses YOLO object detection technique to detect objects on each of the video frames And SORT (Simple Online and Realtime Tracking algorithm) to track those objects over different frames. Once the objects are detected and tracked over different frames a simple mathematical calculation is applied to count the intersections between the vehicles previous and current frame positions with a defined line. At present, the traffic control systems in India, lack intelligence and act as an open-loop control system, with no feedback or sensing network. Present technologies use Inductive loops and sensors to detect the number of vehicles passing by. This is a very inefficient and expensive way to make traffic lights adaptive. Using a simple CCTV camera…
 

Design of an Energy-Efficient Critical Angle Lens Reflector

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34768
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The critical angle lens reflector has commercial applications that supersede ordinary mirrored reflectors. The physics of the critical angle lens reflector are based on the optics principle of total internal reflection. Total internal reflection is characterized as follows: (1) as shown in Figure 2, the light rays are reflected off of the reflecting surface whereby the angle of reflection – with respect to the perpendicular to the reflecting surface – is equal to the angle of incidence of the ray, and (2) the reflection of the light ray takes place with no loss of energy upon reflection.

 

Effects of the Wet Retroreflectivity and Luminance of Pavement Markings on Lane Departure Warning in Nighttime Continuous Rain with and without Glare Sources

3M-Susannah Clear, Thomas Hedblom, Jordan Whitney
Texas A&M Transportation Institute-Adam Pike, Timothy Barrette
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A common challenge for both machine vision (MV) systems based on visible-spectrum cameras and for human drivers is detection of pavement markings in nighttime rainy conditions. This occurs because a layer of water refracts the light differently than air, causing conventional markings to substantially retroreflect the light away from the driver or camera when the marking is immersed. This reduces the marking retroreflectivity in wet conditions, and thus the contrast in the image collected by the camera at longer viewing distances. MV lane departure warning (LDW) systems also depend on pixel data from shorter viewing distances; the contrast here also depends on diffuse luminance of the marking, which typically is reduced if the marking is soiled or worn. The efficacy of LDW systems is also known to be influenced by the presence of glare, as regions of glare test the limits of the high dynamic range of the sensor and reduces the contrast between the marking and the surrounding roadway surface. In this study, the authors explored the effects of wet retroreflectivity and luminance of…
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Evaluation of After-Market Light Emitting Diode Headlight Bulbs

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-Yi-wei Liu, John Bullough
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Taking advantage of growing consumer interest in light emitting diode (LED) headlights, an increasing number of after-market LED replacement bulbs is available on the market. They are designed to have similar socket shapes and sizes as halogen bulbs, in order to fit into existing headlight housings. Although none of these LED replacement bulbs conform to present federal headlighting regulations, and some are labeled for "off road use" only, others claim to meet current regulations. Regardless, many different LED bulbs can be easily purchased and installed by vehicle owners, who may or may not be aware of their regulatory status. Several different LED replacement bulb kits, each designed to replace a conventional 55-W H11 halogen bulb, were purchased and tested in three different low-beam headlight units. Photometric measurements at several critical test points for headlight performance revealed that none of the resulting distributions met all of the test point photometric requirements. Some intensity values were lower than allowed minima while others exceeded allowed maxima. Photographs of the resulting beam patterns for each combination of LED bulb…
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Nighttime Visibility in Varying Moonlight Conditions

4M Safety-Michael Kuzel
Kineticorp LLC-William Neale, James Marr, Nathan McKelvey
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
When the visibility of an object or person in the roadway from a driver’s perspective is an issue, the potential effect of moonlight is sometimes questioned. To assess this potential effect, methods typically used to quantify visibility were performed during conditions with no moon and with a full moon. In the full moon condition, measurements were collected from initial moon rise until the moon reached peak azimuth. Baseline ambient light measurements of illumination at the test surface were measured in both no moon and full moon scenarios. Additionally, a vehicle with activated low beam headlamps was positioned in the testing area and the change in illumination at two locations forward of the vehicle was recorded at thirty-minute intervals as the moon rose to the highest position in the sky. Also, two separate luminance readings were recorded during the test intervals, one location 75 feet in front and to the left of the vehicle, and another 150 feet forward of the vehicle. These luminance readings yielding the change in reflected light attributable to the moon. In…
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Influence of LED Spectral Characteristics on Glare Recovery

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-Nicholas Skinner, John Bullough
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Headlight glare is a major concern of the driving public. In the past couple of years there have been concerns expressed about the use of light emitting diode (LED) lighting technologies and possible impacts LEDs may have on people, including circadian disruption, retinal hazards, and glare. Under typical use cases, vehicle headlight exposures are insufficient to cause circadian disruption or retinal damage, but can result in disability and discomfort glare, as well as glare recovery. In general, white LEDs used for illumination have greater short-wavelength content than halogen lamps used in many headlights, and short wavelengths have been implicated in visual discomfort from bright lights at night. Previous literature is inconsistent regarding whether the spectral (color) content of a glare source affects the amount of recovery time needed to see objects, following exposure to a bright light such as a vehicle headlight. Warm and cool white LEDs were used as glare sources in the present study. They were energized and exposed to study participants at one of two illuminances (low, high) for either 3 or…
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Development of Surfactant-Free Anti-Fogging Coating for Automotive Headlamps

Hyundai Motor Company-Min Jin Choi
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Recently, the design of automotive headlamps has become diversified and complicated according to customer needs. Hence, structural complexity of the headlamps has also increased. Complex structure of the headlamps inevitably causes a disturbance in air circulation. For this reason, inadvertent micro-sized water droplets, called fogging, are condensed on the inner surface of headlamp lens due to temperature difference between the inner and outer lens surfaces. To circumvent fogging inside of the headlamp lens, an anti-fogging coating is indispensable. Conventionally, diverse surfactants have been adopted as substantial material for the anti-fogging coating. However, the usage of the surfactants causes undesirable side effect such as water mark arising from vapor condensation, which is an important issue that must be fully resolved. In this study, we developed an innovative anti-fogging coating material without using conventional surfactant. For this purpose, crosslinkable hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer was utilized. The detailed experimental procedure is as follows: (1) Thermosetting resin composed of hydrophobic monomer (methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate), hydrophilic monomer (ADEKA™ Resoap ER-10, Adeka Corp.), and crosslinker was synthesized. It should be…
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Motorcycle Auxiliary Front Lamps

Motorcycle Lighting Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1306_201808
  • Current
Published 2018-08-13 by SAE International in United States
This engineering design specification provides parameters and general requirements for auxiliary front lamps to be used on motorcycles.
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Reflex Reflectors

Signaling and Marking Devices Stds Comm
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J594_201806
  • Current
Published 2018-06-19 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for reflex reflectors.
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