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Traffic Display and Collision Avoidance Systems

S-7 Flight Deck Handling Qualities Stds for Trans Aircraft
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4102/10B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-07 by SAE International in United States
This document presents criteria for flight deck controls and displays for Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems.
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New-Vehicle Collision Repair Information

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2376_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice defines the various types of information required by the collision repair industry to properly restore light-duty, highway vehicles to their pre-accident condition. Procedures and specifications are defined for damage-related repairs to body, mechanical, electrical, steering, suspension, and safety systems. The distribution method and publication timeliness are also considered.
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Photometric and Colorimetric Measurement Procedures for Airborne Electronic Flat Panel Displays

A-20A Crew Station Lighting
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4260B
  • Current
Published 2019-09-17 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782. Optical measurement procedures for airborne head up displays (HUDs) can be found in ARP5287. Generally, the procedures describe manual single point measurements. The individual procedures may be readily incorporated into automated testing equipment…
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Flight Deck Lighting for Commercial Transport Aircraft

A-20A Crew Station Lighting
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4103A
  • Current
Published 2019-09-17 by SAE International in United States
This document recommends design and performance criteria for aircraft lighting systems used to illuminate flight deck controls, luminous visual displays used for transfer of information, and flight deck background and instrument surfaces that form the flight deck visual environment. This document is for commercial transport aircraft except for applications requiring night vision compatibility.
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Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

University of Michigan-Abhishek Mosalikanti, Pranove Bandi, Sang-Hwan Kim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings.Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference. The primary results were in line with previous research, validating previous claims of the superiority of HUD over HDD in warning delivery. It was also found that the text format of the warning yielded higher response rates along with lower workload, while most participants preferred the dynamic bird’s eye view layout.
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Efficient Method for Head-Up Display Image Compensation by Using Pre-Warping

Hyundai Mobis-Mijin Jeon, Youna Lee
Hyundai Motor Group-Iksoon Lim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A Head-Up Display (HUD) is electrical device that provides virtual images in front of driver. Virtual images are consists of various driving information. Because HUD uses optical system there exist image distortions with respect to image height and driver’s eye position. Image warping is image correction method that makes a geometrical change on image to minimize image distortions. In this paper to minimize image distortions, we use optical data driven warping matrix for each image height. But even though we applied data driven warping matrix, image distortions occur due to assemble and manufacturing tolerances when HUD is built. In this paper, we also suggest pre-warping method to minimize image distortions considering tolerances. We simulated 3 compensation functions to get rid of image distortions from the tolerances. By using proposed pre-warping method we could reduce maximum x, y distance by 31.5%, 39% and average distance by 32.2%, 27.9% of distortions.
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Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

DENSO International America Inc.-Yu Zhang, Te-Ping Kang
University of Michigan-Michael Flannagan, Shan Bao, Anuj Pradhan, John Sullivan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility. The study collected data from seventeen teen participants. Each participant experienced three cuing conditions (focal cuing, peripheral cuing and dual system cuing conditions) as well as three no cuing system conditions (two practice, a…
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2019 Vehicle Technology Review

Automotive Engineering: April 2019

Paul Seredynski
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP04_02
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States

Reviewing the latest tech applications in the automotive space and the trends they're serving.

With massive shifts looming in the automotive engineering space - the titanic trio of Autonomy, Mobility and Electrification (AME) - it's easy to forget that the pace of innovation continues unaltered in the here and now. We've reviewed the latest technologies on the newest OEM models and how they point to current trends in the automotive landscape. Though the AME macro trends represent the majority investment in the automotive space, and work on traditional engineering projects including new powertrains continues, small features that resonate often serve as a guideposts to what's next.

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Rethinking the HUD

Automotive Engineering: March 2019

Dan Carney
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP03_01
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States

New tech solutions move toward augmented reality to bring greater capability to head-up displays.

Head-up displays (HUD) debuted in the late 1950s as a means of providing jet fighter pilots critical information while maintaining situational awareness outside the cockpit. Today these systems for projecting data onto the windscreens of cars and trucks are becoming a vital conduit of information to drivers.

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Standard - Optical System HUD for Automotive

Vehicular Flat Panel Display Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1757-2_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides measurement methods to determine HUD optical performance in typical automotive ambient lighting conditions. It covers indoor measurements with simulated outdoor lighting for the measurement of HUD virtual images. HUD types addressed by this standard includes w-HUD (windshield HUD) and c-HUD (combiner HUD) with references to Augmented Reality (AR) HUD as needed. It is not the scope of this document to set threshold values for automotive compliance; however, some recommended values are presented for reference.
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