The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Head
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Patient Demographics and Injury Characteristics of ER visits Related to Powered Scooters

Exponent, Inc.-Heather N Watson, Christina MR Garman, Jeffrey Wishart, Jacqueline Zimmermann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0933
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Electric scooters (e-scooters) have become increasingly popular in the U.S. In 2018, e-scooters usage overtook other shared micro-mobility transportation modes, including bike shares; over 38 million trips were taken on e-scooters. As the popularity increases, so does the societal concern regarding the safety of these devices. To examine the types of injuries associated with e-scooters and the injury rate per trip at a national level, the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), a probability sample of US Hospitals that collects information from emergency room visits related to a consumer product, was utilized. Records from September 2017 to December 2018 were extracted, and those associated with powered scooters were identified. Injury distributions by age, sex, race, treatment, diagnosis and location on the body were explored. The number of person-trips was obtained to perform a risk analysis. Between September 2017 and December 2018, an estimated 17,772 injuries were associated with powered scooters. Nearly 45% of injuries occurred in persons aged 10-29 years and males tended to sustain a higher proportion of injuries compared to females. Almost 87%…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Sarah Sherman, Jessica Isaacs, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Capabilities and Limitations Related to Vehicle Dynamics and Operator Kinematics of Electric Scooter Micro-Mobility Modes

Exponent Inc.-Christina MR Garman, Steven G. Como, Ian C. Campbell, Jeffrey Wishart, Kevin O'Brien, Scott McLean
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0935
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Micro-mobility is a fast-growing trend in the transportation industry with stand-up electric scooters (e-scooters) becoming increasingly popular in the United States. To date, there are over 350 ride-share e-scooter programs in the United States. As this popularity increases, so does the need to understand the performance capabilities of these vehicles and the associated operator kinematics. Scooter tip-over stability is characterized by the scooter geometry and controls and is maintained through operator inputs such as body position, interaction with the handlebars, and foot placement. In this study, testing was conducted using operators of varying sizes to document the capabilities and limitations of these e-scooters being introduced into the traffic ecosystem. A test course was designed to simulate an urban environment including sidewalk and on-road sections requiring common maneuvers (e.g., turning, stopping points, etc.) for repeatable, controlled data collection. A commercially available e-scooter was instrumented to measure acceleration and velocity, steering angle, roll angle, and GPS position. Operators ranging from the 15th percentile to the 85th percentile were instrumented with wearable sensors to gain insight into the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Biomechanics of Passenger Vehicle Underride: An Analysis of IIHS Crash Test Data

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0525
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Occupant dynamics during passenger vehicle underride has not been widely evaluated. The present study examined the occupant data from IIHS rear underride crash tests. A total of 35 crash tests were evaluated. The tests were classified as full-width (n=9), 50% overlap (n=11), and 30% overlap (n=15). A 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacted the rear underride guard of a stationary trailer at 35 mph. The trailer was filled with concrete blocks and attached to a 2001 Kenworth tractor. Several occupant kinematics and dynamics data including head accelerations, head injury criteria, neck shear and axial forces, neck moments, neck indices, chest acceleration, chest displacement, chest viscous criterion, sternum deflection rate, and left/right femur forces/impulses, knee displacements, upper/lower tibia moments, upper/lower tibia indices, tibia axial forces, and foot accelerations were measured. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, and occupant compartment intrusions were also evaluated during these crash tests. The results indicated that the head and neck injury parameters were correlated with driver A-pillar rearward intrusion. The 30% overlap crashes showed significantly higher intrusion and head and neck injury values than…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Study of Driver's Driving Concentration Based on Computer Vision Technology

Chongqing University-Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Xiangjun Peng, Huijie Xu, Yue Fu, Ling Jiang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0572
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Driving safety is an eternal theme of the transportation industry. In recent years, with the rapid growth of car ownership, traffic accidents have become more frequent, and the harm it brings to human society has become increasingly serious. In this context, car safety assisted driving technology has received widespread attention. As an effective means to reduce traffic accidents and reduce accident losses, it has become the research frontier in the field of traffic engineering and represents the trend of future vehicle development. However, there are still many technical problems that need to be solved. With the continuous development of computer vision technology, face detection technology has become more and more mature, and applications have become more and more extensive. This article will use the face detection technology to detect the driver's face, and then analyze the changes in driver's driving focus. Firstly, the problem of detecting the eyes and mouth status of the driver is discussed. The purpose is to capture the driver's long-term closed eyes and yawning and other actions closely related to the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Road Noise Evaluation by Sound Quality Simulation Module

Geely Automobile Research Institute-Perry Gu, Jie Mao, Zhidong Chen, Zhi Ding, Lei Cheng, Zhenying Zhu, Hong Peng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1275
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An objective evaluation of sound quality is a technical bridge connecting sound pressure level (SPL) and human auditory sensation. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for calculating objective evaluation parameters of sound quality (including loudness, sharpness and articulation index), considering acoustic characteristics of human external ear, middle ear and inner ear to reflect auditory sensation. A sound quality simulation (SQS) module is coded according to the algorithm. The module is used for evaluating sound quality of road noise from an SUV in three steps. Firstly, interior noise is predicted by integrating finite-element method (FEM), hybrid FE-SEA method, and statistical energy analysis (SEA) for low frequency (20~315 Hz), medium frequency (315~500 Hz), and high frequency (>500 Hz) in 1/3 octave band, respectively. The predicted interior noise SPLs are compared with the measured results, with deviations less than 3dB in average. Secondly, the sound quality parameters are calculated using the predicted SPLs in the SQS module. The predicted and measured loudness, sharpness, and articulation index are compared, with average deviations less than 5%. Finally, the predicted…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Crevice Corrosion Accelerated Test for Cylinder Head/Gasket/Monoblock Assemblies from Lightweight Engines Exposed to Overheating Cycles

Instituto Politecnico Nacional Esime Zac-Gerardo Rodríguez-Bravo, Roberto Vega-Moron
Instituto Politécnico Nacional ESIQIE-Jesús Godínez-Salcedo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1067
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Severe crevice corrosion occurring at the joint of cylinder head/gasket/mono-block from lightweight engines causes accelerated dissolution of lightweight material, in particular, in cylinder head producing the linking of the cooling vessels with the combustion chambers or oil vessels. It is conductive to combustion of coolant or oil, and contamination of oil with coolant or vice versa, which is considered as catastrophic engine failure. Since crevice corrosion is dependent of many of the actual assembly characteristics, coolant and engine operation conditions, full-scale tests are the most frequent alternative for this type of evaluations. Nonetheless, they are very long and expensive, and sometimes, unreliable tests. Alternatively, the standard procedure ASTM-G78 is widely used to evaluate crevice corrosion propensity of different metallic materials under certain specified conditions trough immersion tests in a corrosive media in shorter test times. However, the method does not cover the characteristics and conditions existing at the cylinder head/gasket/mono-block joint. Hence, this paper presents an accelerated test consisting on three-electrode cyclic potentiodynamic anodic polarization and polarization resistance standard trials using special assembly samples to…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Occupant Dynamics During Low, Moderate, and High Speed Rear-End Collisions

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0516
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have evaluated occupant kinematics and dynamics in “low-speed” rear-end impacts. Occupant biomechanics during “moderate-to-high” speed rear impacts (delta-V ≥ 15 mph), however, has not been thoroughly examined. This study characterized the motions and forces experienced by the occupant head, neck, torso, hip, and left/right femur during these collisions. The publicly available NHTSA rear-end crash test data were examined. More specifically, the FMVSS 301 Fuel System Integrity tests were used. The test procedure involved a 30 mph moving barrier impacting the rear of the vehicles. Instrumented 50th percentile male Hybrid III ATDs were positioned in the left front driver seat. Occupant data including head accelerations, upper/lower neck shear and axial forces, upper/lower neck moments, lower neck acceleration, torso accelerations, torso deflection, hip accelerations, and left/right femur axial forces were measured and compared to published IARV tolerance data. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, occupant position data, seat angular velocity, seat rotation and seatbelt forces were also evaluated during these crash tests. The occupant data for the “low-speed” rear-end impacts were extracted from the literature. The…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

MTCNN-KCF-deepSort:driver face detection and tracking algorithm based on cascaded kernel correlation filtering and deep-SORT

Hunan University-Jiacai liao, Qiuli Wang, Libo Cao, Jiahao Xia, Yiting Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1038
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The driver’s face detection and tracking method in the fatigue driving detection system is important to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving in various situations. The deep-SORT algorithm has integrated appearance information, motion model and the intersection-over-union (IOU) distance methods, and applied to face tracking, but it completely depends on detection information at every frame, once the detection information lacks, it will wait until the target detect bounding boxes appear again, even if the target is not disappeared or shielding. Hence, we propose to use a new tracker that doesn’t depend on the detection algorithm to cascade with the deep-SORT algorithm to realize stable driver’s face tracking base on detection. At First, driver’s face detection and tracking will be accomplished by MTCNN-deep-SORT algorithm, Multi-task convolutional neural network (MTCNN) will complete the driver's face detection, and the detect face bounding boxes will be transferred into deep-SORT tracking algorithm, at this step, we will get the driver’s face detection and tracking bounding boxes. Then, the detection bounding boxes are transferred to the kernel correlation filtering…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Effect of Active and Conventional Head Restraints on Front Seat Occupant Responses in 16 km/h Rear Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Ian C. Campbell, Stephanie A. Pasquesi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1217
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study assesses front seat occupant responses in rear impacts with active head restraints (AHR) and conventional head restraints (CHR) using field accident data and test data from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). 2003-2015 NASS-CDS data were analyzed to determine the injury rate in 1997+ model year seats equipped with AHR and CHR. Results indicated that only 3.1% of occupants were in seats equipped with AHR. More than 58% of occupants were uninjured, irrespective of AHR presence. In <24 km/h delta-V crashes, AHRs were 35.6% effective in reducing MAIS 1-2 injury overall and 26.4% in reducing MAIS 1-2 cervical injury. In IIHS 16 km/h rear sled tests, an instrumented BioRID was evaluated on seats with AHR and CHR. The biomechanical responses were analyzed. HIC15 and concussion risk were calculated from head acceleration data. Test data with AHR and CHR were matched by make and model. First, older model seats with CHR were compared to models with AHR. Then, the models with AHR were compared to newer models with CHR. These analyses showed a…