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Mass Optimized Hood Design for Conflicting Performances

General Motors Technical Center-Santosh Swamy, Shivakumar Chidanandappa
University of Agder, Norway-Gulshan Noorsumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2546
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Passenger vehicles have stringent safety regulations for pedestrian protection to meet child and adult head impact requirements to minimize injuries. These pedestrian safety requirements often conflict with stiffness and durability performance criteria, which pose a challenge for most automotive OEMs. There is a growing need for performance balancing to meet both these loadcases. This paper uses Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach involving shape variables to achieve optimized performance for stiffness, durability and pedestrian safety.The current study describes an approach that helps reduce time and efforts needed to resolve performance issues between both stiffness/durability and Pedestrian safety requirements. This approach not only helps find a feasible cross-functional solution but also provides an opportunity to reduce the overall development cycle time and mass whenever possible. It also demonstrates the importance of shapes and dimensions of slots on the inner panel as variables. The slots on inner panel and palm reinforcement are observed to be most sensitive, whereas thicknesses of inner panel, palm and latch reinforcement are the most sensitive size variables. It also involves using a reduced content…
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Design of Additive Manufactured Thermoplastic Component as FMVSS 201U Countermeasure

General Motors Technical Center India-Swaroop Kavi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2547
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research and/or Engineering Questing/Objectives: Safety of the occupant in passenger cars is one of the regulatory requirements in many developed countries. This includes upper interior head impact load case of the unbelted occupant during crash (FMVSS 201U) as one of them. During a crash event the occupant head can collide with the interior parts of the vehicle, such as a headliner, pillar trim and other subsequent components in the loading direction. Injury on the head is quantified in terms of the Head Injury Criterion of a crash test dummy (HIC(d)) value which should be less than 1000 per standard. Several ways can be adopted to reduce the HIC(d) value. These include a change in the design of ribs in the safety plastic components, headliner profile change, use of countermeasure foam between headliner and the exterior sheet metal parts, or a combination of any of these to absorb the energy of impact. Recent developments in the field of manufacturing, such as the Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, have provided an opportunity to design and manufacture components with…
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Injury Reduction in Vehicle to Pedestrian Collision Using Deployable Pedestrian Protection System in Vehicles

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Jitendra Singh Gaur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2551
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Head injuries are the main source of road fatalities when a pedestrian or other vulnerable road user (VRU) such as cyclist or motorcyclist is involved in an accident with the approaching high speed vehicle. The frontal part of a car such as engine hood (bonnet), lower-windshield area and A-pillars are the possible location of head impact in these accidents. The head impact with hard points located in these areas may result in the fatal head injuries. The effect of impact can be reduced by using the deployable pedestrian protection systems (DPPS) such as pop-up hoods and windshield airbag in the vehicle. The study indicates how these systems are effective in reducing the fatalities in pedestrian accidents and how to evaluate the performance of these deployable systems. The pedestrian & VRU road fatalities contribute to more than 33percent of total road fatalities in India. Worldwide regulations for pedestrian protection include the evaluation of head injuries at a relative speed of 35kmph. However, the actual impact can occur at higher speeds many times which results in high…
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Performance Standard for Child Restraint Systems in Transport Category Airplanes

Aircraft SEAT Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5276/1
  • Current
Published 2019-10-31 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards and related qualification criteria for add-on child restraint systems (CRS) which provide protection for small children in passenger seats of transport category airplanes. The AS is not intended to provide design criteria that could be met only by an aircraft-specific CRS. The goal of this standard is to achieve child-occupant protection by specifying a dynamic test method and evaluation criteria for the performance of CRS under emergency landing conditions.
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Performance Assessment of Pyramidal Lattice Core Sandwich Engine Hood for Pedestrian Safety

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Anish Jafrin Thilak Johnson
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Road accidents are increasing now-a-days, Safety of pedestrian is the great concern. In average, 10% of urban pedestrian accidents are fatal. Statistics show that the impact on front side of cars is the major cause of pedestrian deaths (83.5%). The function of a vehicle’s engine hood is to keep its engine covered and allow access to the engine compartment as required for maintenance and repair. The hood structure not only protects the engine cavity, but also keeps pedestrians away from the parts of that cavity. The absorption capability and stiffness of hood structures are the key points considered when designing a vehicle’s hood. The impact of the pedestrian head on automotive hood results in major injuries and sometimes in death. Conventional engine hood results in greater Head Injury Criterion (HIC) values. GFRP pyramidal lattice core structures are used in automobiles which is used for good energy absorption. GFRP pyramidal lattice core sandwich engine hood absorbs impact energy rather than transmitting it to the head. This will minimize the severity rate of injury of pedestrian during…
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Honda ready with new injury-reducing airbag

Automotive Engineering: October 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP10_08
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Starting next year, Honda will begin fitting vehicles with a new, advanced-design passenger-side front airbag that its engineers said is designed to mitigate brain and neck injuries by cradling the head like a baseball in a catcher's mitt. The design is particularly effective, Honda said, for angled impacts or when an occupant is not in optimal position when the crash occurs, reducing rotational acceleration of the head that can traumatize the brain.

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Parametric Analysis and Optimization of Variables Affecting the Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC) in Various Crash Scenarios

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Bowhead (Systems and Technology Group), United States-Vikas Hasija
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, United States-Erik G. Takhounts, Matthew J. Craig
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0005
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Incompressibility of the brain makes it susceptible to damage from shear strains. Head rotational motion can easily produce high shear strains causing brain injury. Since head injury criterion (HIC) does not account for rotational motion, a brain injury criterion (BrIC) was developed. To design potential countermeasures for reducing BrIC, it is important to investigate the parameters that influence BrIC. This article focuses on parametric analysis to examine the sensitivity of BrIC to vehicle design and crash-related parameters, and identifying important parameters which can be controlled in developing countermeasures for reducing BrIC. Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male simplified human finite element (FE) model was used in this study. Four different analyses were conducted: a Design of Experiments (DOE) study to investigate sensitivity of BrIC to impact direction and crash pulse severity b DOE studies, with fixed crash severity, for frontal, far side oblique, and near side oblique crash modes to identify important vehicle design parameters influencing BrIC c Optimization for frontal, far side oblique, and near side oblique crash modes to minimize…
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Study of Optimization Strategy for Vehicle Restraint System Design

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Guosong Li, Ching-Hung Chuang, Kevin Pline
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint systems are optimized to maximize occupant safety and achieve high safety ratings. The optimization formulation often involves the inclusion or exclusion of restraint features as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria such as Head Injury Criterion (HIC), chest deflection, chest acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meets or exceeds all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) requirements. Typically, Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimizations are applied because of their capability to handle discrete and continuous variables simultaneously and their ability to jump out of regions with multiple local optima, particularly for this type of highly non-linear problems. However, the computational time for the GA based optimization is often lengthy because of the relatively slow convergence comparing to derivative based algorithms. This study compares GA and multi-strategy optimization algorithms on driver’s side full frontal 90-degree rigid barrier impact MADYMO simulations at different impact speeds with belted and unbelted occupants. The…
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Residual Injury Situation and Accident Characteristics of Severe Motorcycle Accidents

Hannover Medical School-Dietmar Otte
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The total number of persons severely and fatally injured in road traffic accidents has reduced considerably in recent decades. However, the number of motorcyclists involved in accidents has not reduced to the same extent, and some countries have even recorded an increase. The aim of this study is to analyse the circumstances of motorcycle accidents in Germany involving vehicles with a cubic capacity of over 125 cm3 with particular reference to severely or fatally injured riders. An analysis is to be made of the characteristics and patterns of injuries suffered by the most severely injured motorcyclists and proposals developed for injury prevention. The study included accident data from 464 motorcycle accidents collected in Hanover and Dresden between 2010 and 2015 by an academic research team in the course of the GIDAS project (German In-Depth Accident Study). This data represents a statistically representative sample from real accidents occurring in Germany. The analysis of the current injury situation shows that motorcyclists are often severely injured, i.e. suffered injuries of grade MAIS 3+ (so called serious injuries) in…
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An Analytical Approach to Derive Free Package Space Requirement for Pedestrian Head Form

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Pratap Daphal, Ashish Mahapatre
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrians are a vulnerable road user group, comprising 22% of global road traffic deaths [1]. In Japan, pedestrian fatalities accounted for 28% of total road fatalities and approximately 16% in Australia. These figures compare with 13% for the USA and 40-50% for India and Thailand [2]. Various pedestrian safety requirements are mandated in different markets in recent years worldwide. For pedestrian head-form, vehicle front-end styling and the free package space below bonnet plays a vital role in deciding the pedestrian head-form safety performance. Currently during initial phase of vehicle development, the free package space requirement is decided based on benchmark data. However, the benchmarking data does not give any insight into the physics involved and is subjective in nature as it varies from vehicle to vehicle. This paper gives an analytical approach for defining the free package space requirements for meeting the targeted pedestrian head form performance requirements. The analytically derived Head Injury Criteria Vs package space is also compared with physical test results. Using analytical approach, an ideal two-step Head-form decelerations waveform is also…
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