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Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

International Centre For Automotive Tech-Aditya Gautam
International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Vijayanta Ahuja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2427
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings. Concluding the fact that there are various aspects of environmental degradation henceforth we start by picking one of the hazards trying to execute a method to resolve every respective issue on a micro level, thus eliminating maximum threats onto the environment.…

Modulation Strategy for Minimisation of Leakage Current in Grid-Connected PV Panels

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Anitha Daniel, Uthra Rangarajan, Kalaiarasi Nallathambi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0114
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a switching strategy for the cascaded multilevel H bridge inverter of five levels to reduce the leakage current in the grid connected transformerless PV system. Minimization of the leakage current in solar panels is vital in a transformerless grid connected PV panels. But due to the absence of transformers which provide galvanic isolation, CMV techniques are applied which results in leakage currents from PV panel to ground. This current causes hazards to humans and large currents may lead to fire hazards. The proposed switching strategy reduces the continuous transients at switches, hence avoiding high frequency switching. This switching technique requires only a single modified carrier wave for all 2m+1 levels of operation. The sinusoidal carrier waveform is modified as humped sinusoidal waveform to reduce switching losses. In this paper, the progressed switching strategy has been incorporated to PV fed five level multilevel inverter connected to grid and its effectiveness has been validated.

Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2990_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-29 by SAE International in United States

xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement.


PreHaz: A Premortem Functional Safety Hazard Assessment Technique for Autonomous Vehicles

DISTek Integration-Daniel Aceituna
Published 2019-06-14 by SAE International in United States
When performing functional safety hazard assessments, the challenge is anticipating all the things that can go wrong during a system’s operation. Hazard assessment tends to be performed in an ad hoc (where do I begin assessing?) and open-ended (when do I stop assessing?) manner. It is difficult for humans to factor in all the variables that affect a system’s nominal interaction with the environment and then predict all the combinational behaviors (good or bad) resulting from those variables. Quite often, after the system is built, a hazardous situation will occur that no one expected, and perhaps even assumed improbable. At those times engineers may employ a postmortem and realize that, with enough forethought, the hazard could have been assessed and anticipated. In contrast to the postmortem, there is the premortem, which tries to assess what can go wrong, before it actually occurs. This paper introduces a technique based on the premortem that can be applied to the development of a product and, in particular, to the assessment of hazardous situations that could arise from the…
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Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

Delphine Leroy
Airbus-Alice Grandin, Fabien Dezitter
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step. Complementary to previous studies reporting on MMD values calculated from the HAIC-HIWC dataset, this paper deals with the uncertainty in MMD by comparing two different approaches for the retrieval of the mass-size (m-D) relationship. The analysis encompasses the data collected in the…
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Sound Attenuation of Neoprene Wetsuit Hoods as a Function of Dive Depth and Acoustic Frequency: Hyperbaric Chamber Trials

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34337
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The U.S. Navy is interested in strategies that divers could employ to protect them from loud underwater sounds. Sonar transmissions and other forms of underwater sound, such as that produced by noisy underwater tools, are an occupational hazard for U.S. Navy divers.


Sound Attenuation of Neoprene Wetsuit Hoods as a Function of Dive Depth and Acoustic Frequency: Hyperbaric Chamber Trials

Aerospace & Defense Technology: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP05_10
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Data gathered during testing will help develop strategies to protect Navy divers from loud underwater sounds.

The U.S. Navy is interested in strategies that divers could employ to protect them from loud underwater sounds. Sonar transmissions and other forms of underwater sound, such as that produced by noisy underwater tools, are an occupational hazard for U.S. Navy divers.

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Development of Evaluation Methods for Steering Loss of Assist

General Motors-Ibrahim A. Badiru, Valarie Boatman, Steve Gornick, Brian Latouf, Peter Shear, Richard Krentz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Loss of power steering assist (LoA) is viewed as a potential hazard in certain vehicle operational scenarios. Despite the importance of this steering failure mode, few published test protocols for the objective or subjective evaluation of vehicle performance in a loss of assist situation exist.The first part of this paper examines five of the key steering failure modes that can result in LoA and discusses why LoA persists as a key industry challenge. The second part analyzes the situational dynamics affecting vehicle controllability during a LoA event and proposes a subjective evaluation driving course that facilitates evaluations in various LoA scenarios. A corresponding objective test procedure and metric is also proposed. These evaluation methods support consistent performance evaluation of physical vehicles while also enabling the prediction of vehicle characteristics early in the vehicle development process (VDP). The final section of this paper gives an overview of a steering system design method aimed at first classifying the level of risk associated with any LoA induced hazard (Automotive Safety Integrity Level - ASIL) and then taking appropriate…
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Effectiveness of Warning Signals in Semi-Autonomous Vehicles

Ohio State University-Simon Trask, Madeline Stewart, Thomas Kerwin, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The rise of automation in the automotive industry has ensured significant progress in vehicle safety and infrastructure. During the transition to full autonomy, the driver is often the redundancy and safety feature in the event of a hazard or automation error. Understanding driver behavior in the transition from non-driver to driver is important for safety. Proper handling of transitions will be more critical as these events become less common and users trust automated driving systems. This research investigates the case of SAE level-3 automated driving systems, where the driver need not constantly pay attention but is responsible for reaction during hazards. Findings include quantitative and qualitative assessment of various warning modes for a distracted driver responding to an automated driving failure situation. Driver response time and behavior for these events are compared to instances with minimal warning systems. The results offer insight into human-vehicle interfaces during the transition towards full autonomy.
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Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

DENSO International America Inc.-Yu Zhang, Te-Ping Kang
University of Michigan-Michael Flannagan, Shan Bao, Anuj Pradhan, John Sullivan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility. The study collected data from seventeen teen participants. Each participant experienced three cuing conditions (focal cuing, peripheral cuing and dual system cuing conditions) as well as three no cuing system conditions (two practice, a…
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