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Integrating SOTIF and Agile Systems Engineering

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Kyle Post, Christopher K. Davey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0141
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles and advanced drive assistance systems have functionality realized across numerous distributed systems that interact with a dynamic cyber-physical environment. This complexity raises the potential for emergent behaviors which are not intended for the system’s operational use. The need to analyze the intended functionality of these emergent behaviors for potential hazards, which may occur in absence of faults, are aspects of the ISO PAS 21448, Safety of The Intended Functionality (SOTIF). This paper describes a methodology for applying SOTIF, within the context of the systems engineering pipeline, to facilitate higher levels of automated systems. By using an agile systems engineering framework, along with the Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) method, system developers can identify potential hazards and identify previously unknown hazardous scenarios before system testing. This facilitates functional and technical improvements during the development process which can be traced back to the system design when using model based system engineering techniques. In addition, verification and validation result of the system can be fed into the analysis to aide in addressing technical limitations.

Effectiveness of Warning Signals in Semi-Autonomous Vehicles

Ohio State University-Simon Trask, Madeline Stewart, Thomas Kerwin, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1013
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The rise of automation in the automotive industry has ensured significant progress in vehicle safety and infrastructure. During the transition to full autonomy the driver is often the redundancy and safety feature in the event of a hazard or automation error, accommodations must be made to ensure the best behavior from the driver in these events. Properly handling these events will be more critical as these events become less common and people begin to trust automated driving systems more. This research investigates the case of SAE level-3 automated driving systems, where the driver need not constantly pay attention but is responsible for reaction during hazards. This description can also be applied to abused level-2 systems and prototype systems for higher levels. Findings show valuable quantitative and qualitative assessment of various warning modes for a distracted driver injected into an automated driving failure. Driver response time and behavior for these events are compared to instances with minimal warning systems. The results offer insight into human-vehicle interfaces during the transition towards full autonomy.

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-track Evaluation on Mcity

DENSO International America Inc.-Yu Zhang, Te-Ping Kang
University of Michigan-Michael Flannagan, Shan Bao, Anuj Pradhan, John Sullivan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0399
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There is strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is greatly influenced by their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver, and relies on drivers’ focal vision (Focal Cuing System - FCS). The second system presents similar information, but in drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (Peripheral Cuing System - PCS). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted on the Mcity test-track facility to study driver responses to the systems. The study recruited eighteen participants. Each participant experienced three cuing conditions: FCS, PCS, and both FCS + PCS. The order of cuing system exposure was balanced among participants.…

Tracking of Extended Objects with Multiple Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Automotive Millimeter Wave Radar

Automotive Sensors Group-Libo Huang
Tongji University-Jie Bai, Bin Tan, Xin Bi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0122
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Estimating the motion state of peripheral targets is a very important part in the environment perception of intelligent vehicles. The accurate estimation of the motion state of the peripheral targets can provide more information for the intelligent vehicle planning module which means the intelligent vehicle is able to anticipate hazards ahead of time. To get the motion state of the target accurately, the target’s range, velocity, orientation angle and yaw rate need to be estimated. Three-dimensional High-resolution automotive millimeter wave radar can measure radial range, radial velocity, azimuth angle and elevation angle about multiple reflections of an extended target. Thus, the three-dimensional range information and three-dimensional velocity information can be obtained. With multiple three-dimensional high-resolution automotive millimeter-wave radar, it is possible to measure information in various directions of a target. For tracking of extended objects with multiple three-dimensional high-resolution automotive millimeter wave radar, firstly, the information of one target in different radar is obtained by the clustering algorithm, and then it is fused by an unscented Kalman filter, and the tracking algorithm needs to consider…

Exhaust Plume Analyzer

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33600
Published 2019-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Exhaust plumes emanating from smoke stacks at power plants or other industrial facilities can have adverse impacts on local aviation during periods of calm winds. Adverse impacts can be exacerbated if the temperature is low or the atmosphere is unstable. While low oxygen concentrations and elevated temperatures inside the plume can be detrimental to slow-flying or hovering helicopters, the turbulence generated from the upward motion of the plume is the main potential hazard to light, fixed-wing aircraft at low altitudes.

Theory of Collision Avoidance Capability in Automated Driving Technologies

Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan-Toshiki Kindo
Toyota Research Institute-North America, USA-Bunyo Okumura
  • Journal Article
  • 12-01-02-0004
Published 2018-10-29 by SAE International in United States
To evaluate that automated vehicle is as safe as a human driver, a following question is studied: how does an automated vehicle react under extreme conditions close to collision? In order to understand the collision avoidance capability of an automated vehicle, we should analyze not only such post-extreme condition behavior but also pre-extreme condition behavior. We present a theory to analyze the collision avoidance capability of automated driving technologies. We also formulate a collision avoidance equation on the theory. The equation has two types of solutions: response driving plans and preparation driving plans. The response driving plans are supported by response strategy on which the vehicle reacts after detection of a hazard and they are highly efficient in terms of travel time. The preparation driving plans are supported by preparation strategy on which the vehicle simulates each hazard before detecting hazards and they are safer than the response driving plans but it is not always efficient. The theory suggests that applicative driving plan of automated vehicle is as follows: 1) the automated vehicle takes the…
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Direct-Current Detector for Emergency Responder Safety

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-32863
Published 2018-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a direct-current detector technology to help emergency responders safely detect high voltages, which they have licensed to North Carolina-based Hotstick USA.

High-Kinetic-Energy Penetrator Shielding and High-Wear-Resistance Materials Fabricated with Boron Nitride Nanotubes and BNNT Polymer Composites

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-32831
Published 2018-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In recent years, anti-penetration materials have been more widely used for armor, bulletproof vests, and micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection layers for space-suits, space vehicles, and structures. Micrometeoroids develop very high kinetic energies as they travel through space, and pose a significant hazard to spacecraft and astronauts. The velocities of micrometeorites can reach 20 kilometers per second prior to impact on the lunar surface. Therefore, a new protective system utilizing new materials is needed to effectively shield the space vehicles and structures against the high-kinetic-energy penetrators as well as provide penetration-resistant spacesuits. In order to maximize the protection ability against high-kinetic-energy penetrators, the following two major material properties should be considered: high hardness for rebounding and/or gross mechanical deformation of the penetrator, and high toughness for effective energy absorption during the mechanical deformation (and heating) of the protecting materials.

Rapidly Deployable Communications Platform

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-32857
Published 2018-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

First responders often have trouble communicating with each other in emergencies. They may use different types of radios, they may be working in rural areas lacking wireless coverage, or they may be deep inside large buildings that block connections. To demonstrate improvements to emergency communications and foster research on systems that can be quickly placed in strategic locations, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) worked with industry partners to integrate commercial technologies into a mobile wireless communications system.

Radiation Detection with Plastic Scintillators

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29026
Published 2018-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

It has been established opinion since the 1950s that organic crystals and liquid scintillators can work for detecting neutrons, but that plastics are not suitable for neutron detection. For years, plastic materials have been used in large, low-cost detectors for portals and high-energy physics facilities, and while they could detect neutrons and gamma rays, they have been incapable of distinguishing one from the other, which is key to identifying nuclear substances such as uranium and plutonium from benign radioactive sources.