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Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Vijayanta Ahuja, Aditya Gautam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2427
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings. Concluding the fact that there are various aspects of environmental degradation henceforth we start by picking one of the hazards trying to execute a method to resolve every respective issue on a micro level, thus eliminating maximum threats onto the environment.…
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Study on Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Front Collision Hazard of Intelligent Vehicle

Beihang University-Deng Weiwen
Jilin Normal University-Sumin Zhang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Collision avoidance technology is one of the key areas in the longitudinal safety research of intelligent vehicles. For the research of collision avoidance system, the existing methods usually use the evaluation index based on time interval or braking process to carry out risk assessment. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the formulas for describing the longitudinal hazard degree established in most studies, such as great differences, inconsistent standards and weak normalization, a comprehensive evaluation method for the longitudinal hazard in front-impact scenarios is established. This method takes into account both the analysis of time interval and braking process, and considers the non-linear variation of the longitudinal hazard degree with the real-time distance and speed of two vehicles. It can describe the longitudinal hazard degree of vehicles in dangerous traffic scenarios. Compared with the existing longitudinal hazard assessment methods, the effectiveness and universality of the pre-collision hazard assessment method proposed in this paper are demonstrated.
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Modulation Strategy for Minimization of Leakage Current in Grid-Connected PV Panels

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Anitha Daniel, Uthra Rangarajan, Kalaiarasi Nallathambi
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a switching strategy for the cascaded multilevel H bridge inverter of five levels to reduce the leakage current in the grid-connected transformerless PV system. Minimization of the leakage current in solar panels is vital in transformerless grid-connected PV panels. But due to the absence of transformers which provide galvanic isolation, CMV techniques are applied to reduce leakage currents from PV panel to ground. This current causes hazards to humans and large currents above 300mA may lead to fire hazards. The proposed switching strategy reduces the continuous transients at switches, hence avoiding high frequency switching. This switching technique requires only a single modified carrier wave for all 2m+1 levels of operation. The sinusoidal carrier waveform is modified as a humped sinusoidal waveform with to reduce switching losses. In this paper, the switching strategy with the modified sinusoidal carrier has been incorporated to PV fed five level multilevel inverters connected to the grid and its effectiveness has been validated.
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Cab air quality: A CRITICAL COMPONENT OF OPERATOR COMFORT

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: October 2019

Jeff Moredock
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP10_04
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Focus on defining cab air quality, measuring it, and designing the needed performance into cabin designs and HVAC systems is intensifying.

Review the design specs for any new haul truck, excavator, dozer or other off-road machine, and you're not likely to find requirements related to cab air quality-yet. However, standards are changing and the need to optimize cab enclosure environments for air quality will grow.

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Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2990_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-29 by SAE International in United States
xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement. Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries used for vehicle propulsion power are the assumed battery system of this RP. This chemistry is the prevailing technology associated with high voltage vehicle electrification today and the foreseeable future. The hazards associated with Li-ion battery chemistries are addressed in this RP. Other chemistries and alternative propulsion systems…
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PreHaz: A Premortem Functional Safety Hazard Assessment Technique for Autonomous Vehicles

DISTek Integration-Daniel Aceituna
Published 2019-06-14 by SAE International in United States
When performing functional safety hazard assessments, the challenge is anticipating all the things that can go wrong during a system’s operation. Hazard assessment tends to be performed in an ad hoc (where do I begin assessing?) and open-ended (when do I stop assessing?) manner. It is difficult for humans to factor in all the variables that affect a system’s nominal interaction with the environment and then predict all the combinational behaviors (good or bad) resulting from those variables. Quite often, after the system is built, a hazardous situation will occur that no one expected, and perhaps even assumed improbable. At those times engineers may employ a postmortem and realize that, with enough forethought, the hazard could have been assessed and anticipated. In contrast to the postmortem, there is the premortem, which tries to assess what can go wrong, before it actually occurs. This paper introduces a technique based on the premortem that can be applied to the development of a product and, in particular, to the assessment of hazardous situations that could arise from the…
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Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

Delphine Leroy
Airbus-Alice Grandin, Fabien Dezitter
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step. Complementary to previous studies reporting on MMD values calculated from the HAIC-HIWC dataset, this paper deals with the uncertainty in MMD by comparing two different approaches for the retrieval of the mass-size (m-D) relationship. The analysis encompasses the data collected in the…
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Sound Attenuation of Neoprene Wetsuit Hoods as a Function of Dive Depth and Acoustic Frequency: Hyperbaric Chamber Trials

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34337
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The U.S. Navy is interested in strategies that divers could employ to protect them from loud underwater sounds. Sonar transmissions and other forms of underwater sound, such as that produced by noisy underwater tools, are an occupational hazard for U.S. Navy divers.

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Sound Attenuation of Neoprene Wetsuit Hoods as a Function of Dive Depth and Acoustic Frequency: Hyperbaric Chamber Trials

Aerospace & Defense Technology: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP05_10
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Data gathered during testing will help develop strategies to protect Navy divers from loud underwater sounds.

The U.S. Navy is interested in strategies that divers could employ to protect them from loud underwater sounds. Sonar transmissions and other forms of underwater sound, such as that produced by noisy underwater tools, are an occupational hazard for U.S. Navy divers.

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Development of Evaluation Methods for Steering Loss of Assist

General Motors-Ibrahim A. Badiru, Valarie Boatman, Steve Gornick, Brian Latouf, Peter Shear, Richard Krentz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Loss of power steering assist (LoA) is viewed as a potential hazard in certain vehicle operational scenarios. Despite the importance of this steering failure mode, few published test protocols for the objective or subjective evaluation of vehicle performance in a loss of assist situation exist.The first part of this paper examines five of the key steering failure modes that can result in LoA and discusses why LoA persists as a key industry challenge. The second part analyzes the situational dynamics affecting vehicle controllability during a LoA event and proposes a subjective evaluation driving course that facilitates evaluations in various LoA scenarios. A corresponding objective test procedure and metric is also proposed. These evaluation methods support consistent performance evaluation of physical vehicles while also enabling the prediction of vehicle characteristics early in the vehicle development process (VDP). The final section of this paper gives an overview of a steering system design method aimed at first classifying the level of risk associated with any LoA induced hazard (Automotive Safety Integrity Level - ASIL) and then taking appropriate…
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