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A Novel Prediction Algorithm for Heavy Vehicles System Rollover Risk Based on Failure Probability Analysis and SVM Empirical Model

China Automotive Technology and Reseach Center Co.,Ltd-Zhenfeng Wang, Fei Li, Xinyu Wang
Harbin Institute of Technology-Zheng Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0701
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The study of heavy vehicles rollover prediction, especially in algorithm-based heavy vehicles active safety control for improving road handling, is a challenging task for the heavy vehicle industry. Due to the high fatality rate caused by vehicle rollover, how to precisely and effectively predict rollover of heavy vehicles become a hot topic in both academia and industry. Due to the strong non-linear characteristics of Human-Vehicle-Road interaction and the uncertainty of modeling, the traditional deterministic method cannot meet the requirement of accurate prediction of rollover hazard of heavy vehicles. To deal with the above issues, a probability method of uncertainty is applied to the design of dynamic rollover prediction algorithm for heavy vehicles, and a novel algorithm for heavy vehicle rollover hazard prediction based on the combined empirical model of reliability index and failure probability is proposed. In addition, a classification model of heavy vehicles based on support vector machine (SVM) is established, and Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the failure probability of rollover limit state of heavy vehicles. The fishhook, double lane change…
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Driver response to right turning path intrusions at signal-controlled intersections

Kodsi Engineering-Shady Attalla, Sam Kodsi
University of Guelph-Erika Ziraldo, Michele Oliver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0884
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Previously researched path intrusion scenarios include left turning hazard vehicles which intrude laterally across the path of the through driver. A right turning vehicle, however, creates a scenario where a hazard which was initially traveling perpendicular to the driver can intrude into the through driver's path without also occupying the adjacent through lanes. This hazard scenario has not been previously investigated. The purpose of this research was to determine driver response time (DRT) and response choice to a right turning vehicle that merges abruptly into the lane of the oncoming through driver. A study was conducted using an Oktal full car driving simulator. 107 licenced drivers (NFemale=57, NMale=50) completed a short practice drive followed by an experimental drive containing two conditions of the right turn hazard, presented in a counterbalanced order. In one condition, the hazard vehicle was stopped at the stop bar before accelerating into the path of the participant driver. In the other condition, the hazard vehicle approached the intersection and turned at a constant speed. DRT was defined as the time between…
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Driver response to left incurring path intrusions at sign-controlled intersections

Kodsi Engineering-Shady Attalla, Sam Kodsi
University of Guelph-Erika Ziraldo, Michele Oliver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0886
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Straight intersecting path or “side” collisions account for 12% of all motor vehicle crashes and 24% of fatalities. While previous research has examined driver responses to hazards striking from the right (near side), no research has quantified driver responses to hazards striking from the left (far side) of an intersection. The purpose of this study was to measure driver response time (DRT) and response choice for two versions of this scenario. In one condition, the hazard vehicle was initially stopped at the intersection before accelerating into the path of the participant driver. In the other condition, the hazard vehicle approached and entered the intersection while moving at a constant speed of 50km/h. Testing was conducted using an Oktal full car driving simulator. 107 licenced drivers (NFemale=57, NMale=50) completed a short familiarization drive followed by the experimental drive in which they encountered both the initially stopped and moving conditions of the straight path hazard, in a counterbalanced order. DRT was defined as the time between when the hazard vehicle crossed a trigger located two meters from…
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Influence of Intensity, Duration and Spectral Characteristics on Glare Recovery for Peripheral Visibility

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-Nicholas P. Skinner, John D. Bullough
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0632
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle forward lighting can use a multiplicity of light sources each varying in their spectral characteristics. Present standards for low beam headlight performance also allow variability in the peak intensities that drivers can be exposed to, as well as the durations of those exposures. Previous research has led to mixed results regarding whether the spectral distribution of a headlight source influences the length of time the visual system needs to recover the ability to see objects that might present hazards along the roadway. One recent study showed that the integrated light dose (intensity × duration) but not the spectral distribution impacted recovery times for targets presented in a constant, known location, where they would be viewed with the fovea. An experiment was carried out to assess whether the spectral distribution of a glare source might differentially impact one's ability to see a target using peripheral vision when the location of the target is not known. The findings indicate that a light source with greater short-wavelength light output resulted in longer recovery times when matched for…
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Enriching systems theory based cyber-security and safety analysis using stakeholder value networks

MIT-Allen Moulton
Zenuity AB-Amardeep Sidhu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0143
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
System-theoretic process analysis for security (STPA-Sec) is a powerful safety and security analysis method that focuses on unsafe and unsecure interactions between subsystems rather than component failure and its resulting chain-of-event failure modes. The first step of STPA-Sec requires the analyst to identify the system boundary and list the system losses and hazards. Current approach to performing this first and critical step of STPA-Sec requires interviewing the stakeholders and could potentially result in a narrow focus due to stakeholder’s mental model and resulting answers to questions. In some cases, stakeholders are not available for interviews and we risk influencing the system loss identification by the mental model of the analyst. We believe these two potential issues in the STPA-Sec analysis: narrow focus, and missing access to stakeholder can be address by factoring additional system information through stakeholder analysis. To illustrate the benefit of this approach a mining system with autonomous haul trucks is considered. Stakeholders in the mining system are identified and then classified based on the role that they play in the expected emergent…
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Lookie Here! Designing Directional User Indicators Across Displays in Conditional Autonomous Vehicles

Georgia Institute of Technology-Wei Wang, Hongnan Lin
Harman Connected Services-Pranav Nair
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1201
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Based on the SAE’s classification (J3016), drivers’ attention will be gradually released from the driving task as the level of automation in the vehicle increases. It allows drivers to complete more non-driving related tasks in information and entertainment system. The trigger point for the major transition in driver control happens in the progression from level 2 to level 3 when the automated driving system (ADS) starts to perform a major part of the dynamic driving task (DDT) in the allowed conditions, but meanwhile it still needs the drivers are ready for takeover control or other interventions in a short time. In this paper, we investigated whether providing directional alerts to a user’s active screen with non-driving related tasks can augment their ability in regaining situational awareness on road hazard when traveling in a conditional autonomous vehicle. A user study (N=15) was conducted to compare solutions between the central and peripheral field across displays where subjects were seated in an autonomous vehicle simulator and distracted by playing a game on a tablet screen (iPad). With different…
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AI enhanced methods for virtual prediction of short circuit in full vehicle crash scenarios

Applus + Idiada-Cristian Jimenez
CRF SCpA-Stefano Menegazzi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0950
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new artificial intelligence (model order reduction) / finite element coupled approach will be presented for the risk assessment of battery fire during a car crash event. This approach combines standard crash finite element for the main car body with a reduced order model for the battery. Simulation is today used by automotive engineering teams to design lightweight vehicle bodies fulfilling vehicle safety regulations. Legislation is rapidly evolving to accommodate the growing electrical vehicle market share and is considering additional battery safety requirements. The focus is on avoiding internal short circuit due to internal damage within a cell which may result in a fire hazard. Assessing short circuit risk in CAE at the vehicle level is complex as there involves phenomena at different scales. The vehicle deforms on a macroscale level during the impact event. The battery cells deform locally and damage extremely thin components such as the separator, generating short circuits at the meso scale level. It is therefore necessary to evaluate phenomena from macroscale to microscale. AI methods will help to bridge the…
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Functional Safety Development of Bi-directional on-board charger for new energy vehicles

China FAW Group Co., Ltd.-Jian Liu, Wei Li, Jiwei Wen, Tianqiang Zhang, Deping Wang, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang, Qi Sun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0608
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
BOBC (Bi-directional on-board charger) is a power conversion system component for AC charging and discharging of new energy vehicles. It has two working modes: AC charging mode and AC discharge mode. In the two working modes, the BOBC belongs to both the controller and the actuator. In some extreme cases such as communication and control failure of the AC charging mode, new energy vehicles have the risk of high-voltage battery overcharging and overtemperature, which will lead to high-voltage battery fire or even explosion. In the AC discharge mode, it involves the actual operation of the users on electricity, and the risk of short circuit and open circuit may happen in the process, which endangers the safety of the users. Based on the risks brought by the two working modes, it should pay more attention to the safety of the BOBC. ISO26262 provides the corresponding guiding analysis method and quantitative index for the hazard caused by the failure of automobile electronics and electrical appliances. It is necessary for BOBC to carry out functional safety design according…
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What if the speed had been less? Causation with distance limited and time limited hazards.

Road Accident Analysis-John Searle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0881
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT: WHAT IF THE SPEED HAD BEEN LESS? CAUSATION WITH TIME LIMITED AND DISTANCE LIMITED HAZARDS. With a path intrusion incident, it is almost always the case that the collision would have been avoided if the pedestrian had not run out, or if the vehicle on the minor road had stopped, or so on. However should the other party be thought to have been travelling at an excessive speed, often the reconstructionist is asked to make a calculation of what whether the collision would, at some alternative speed say equal to the speed limit, still have occurred. In that way causation is addressed. The paper distinguishes between those hazards which are distance limited and those which are time limited, giving definitions of the two types. Distance limited hazards are deterministic, but time limited hazards have a probabilistic basis. This difference has important implications for causation. For a hazard at a fixed distance, there is a well known formula for calculating whether the collision would have been avoided at a slower alternative speed. However a time…
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Human Health Risk Assessment of Space Radiation

University of Pittsburgh-Ashmita Rajkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0020
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Mars has been the topic of colonization and discovery for the last few decades but there have been hindrances in implementing the mission. This focus on Mars colonization has only deepened after the discovery of water on its surface. The discovery of water on Mars has led researchers to believe that its sustainability of life is higher than any other uncolonized planet. Although, life can survive on Mars, it is highly unethical to send communities to Mars without acknowledging the risks, especially those concerning the well being of humans. The risks of living on Mars are slowly unraveling through extensive research, but it is evident that certain health care measures must be taken in order to prevent potentially fatal conditions. One of the biggest problems is health concerns that astronauts face after returning from Mars. Health problems in space have been increasingly difficult to deal with because of the lasting circumstances that astronauts suffer upon returning back to Earth. As a result of these issues, NASA has delayed its Mars mission to circa 2028. Another…