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Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

ARC,SMEC,Vellore Institute of Technology-Saravanan S, Chidambaram Ramesh Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2577
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to effectively store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust port of the engine. The selected engine…

Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra-Karthikeyan N Krishnan
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was run to simulate the high-speed exhaust temperature & low speed knock intensity, this is…

Environmental and Health Impact of Electric and Hydrogen Light Vehicles: The Case of an Italian Small City

University of Roma Tor Vergata-Luca Andreassi, Giacomo Falcucci
University of Tuscia-Andrea Luigi Facci, Stefano Ubertini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0250
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent, the electric and fuel cell electric vehicles have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and consumers. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles (PAB) popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, they are zero emission vehicles with low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances. In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB, and hydrogen fuel cell PAB. For such vehicles, the respective utilization stages are considered, i.e. without considering the manufacturing process. The analysis has been carried out comparing different vehicles performance along different routes of an…

Electromagnetic Characteristic Comparison of Superconducting Synchronous Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

IHI Corporation-Hitoshi Oyori
The University of Tokyo-Yutaka Terao, Yusuke Ishida, Hiroyuki Ohsaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1912
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft service has been increasing today and it also results in the increase of the greenhouse gas emission. To solve this problem, the electric aircraft propulsion system is the key solutions to realize the clean and high efficiency aircraft, while demanding higher output density motors. So far, though 5 kW/kg is realized with permanent magnet type synchronous motors, the electric aircraft for over 100 passengers demands motors with 16 -20 kW/kg. Superconducting (S.C.) technology is one of the effective candidates for higher output density motors. In comparison with copper wires, the S.C. wires have higher current density at less than –200 ℃. And we can make a lighter weight coil with the S.C. wires. So far, many groups have been studying the S.C. motors over 16 kW/kg. Generally, there are two kinds of S.C motors. One is the S.C. motors made of the S.C. field coils and copper armature windings. The other is the fully S.C. motors using S.C. field and armature windings. We have been studying the fully S.C. motors with two kinds of…

Development of a Low Friction High Performance Wheel Bearing Seal

ILJIN USA Corporation-Seungpyo Lee
Iljin Bearing GmbH-Reinhold Mahr
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2135
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The ever tightening of fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards globally continues to challenge bearing companies toward lower torque, lower mass products. This paper focuses on improving fuel efficiency by considering the torque of automotive wheel bearing seals. This study establishes the level of drag torque reduction achieved through the structural design of the bearing seals. Wheel bearing seals are a critical component that must pass stringent torque, water exclusion, and other critical OEM and supplier performance specifications. They are designed as non-serviceable and must maintain full performance through the life of the vehicle. As a result of the application of specialized structural design, the drag torque, per the study, is reduced by more than 50% compared to existing bearing specifications. Electric vehicle companies are also seeking low friction wheel bearing solutions to further reduce CO2 (indirect or wheel-to-wheel) emissions. This research findings can assist the OEM’s in meeting the rigid emissions and fuel economy standards through drag reduction in the wheel bearings.

Knock and Pre-Ignition Limits on Utilization of Ethanol in Octane–on–Demand Concept

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Eshan Singh, Robert Dibble
Saudi Aramco-Kai Morganti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0108
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Octane-on-Demand (OoD) is a viable technology for reducing global greenhouse emissions from automobiles. The concept utilizes a low-octane fuel for most operating conditions. Previous research has focused on the minimum ethanol content required for achieving a specific load at a given speed as the low-octane fuel becomes knock limited as the load increases. However, it is also widely known that ethanol has a high tendency to pre-ignite, attributed by few to its high laminar flame speed and surface ignition tendency. Moreover, ethanol has a lower calorific value, requiring a larger fuel mass to be injected to achieve similar power. A larger fuel mass increases the oil dilution by the liquid fuel, creating precursors for pre-ignition. Hence the limits on ethanol addition owing to pre-ignition also needs consideration before the technology can be implemented. In this regard, experiments were performed using light naphtha RON 68 gasoline and ethanol, in direct and port injection configuration respectively. Load was parametrically swept by increasing the intake air and fuel quantity, until pre-ignition limited IMEP was reached. Three different engine…

Inverted Brayton Cycle as an Option for Waste Energy Recovery in Turbocharged Diesel Engine

Universita degli Studi dell Aquila-Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone, Roberto Carapellucci
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0060
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Energy recovery in reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) is one of the most investigated options for the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions saving in the transportation sector. In fact, the energy wasted in ICE is greater than that converted in mechanical form. The contribution associated with the exhaust gases is almost one third of the fuel energy, calling for an urgent need to be recovered into mechanical form. An extensive literature is oriented toward this opportunity, strongly oriented to ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle)-based power units.From a thermodynamic point of view, one option, not extensively explored, is certainly represented by the Inverted Brayton Cycle (IBC) concept and by the corresponding components which make possible this recovery. IBC is a thermodynamic (exhaust) gas cycle which considers an expansion (made by a turbine under the ambient pressure), an isobaric cooling and a compression in a sequence which restores the pressure which is needed to evacuate the exhaust gases toward the atmosphere. Thanks to the expansion which decreases the pressure below the ambient pressure, mechanical work produced…

Literature Review on Dual-Fuel Combustion Modelling

Lund University-Menno Merts, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0120
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time control. As precursor for such a model, the current state of art of dual fuel combustion modelling is investigated in this work. The focus is on high speed dual fuel engines for heavy duty and marine applications, with a varying gas/diesel ratio. Modelling is limited to the closed part of the 4-stroke engine cycle. A methodology…

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Timing of HVO, RME and Diesel Fuel in a Euro6 Car Engine During Transient Driving Cycles

Czech University of Live Sciences-Martin Pechout, David Macoun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0138
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The current targets to decrease greenhouse gases production, to reduce fossil fuel dependency and to gain energy security and sustainability are driving demand on combustion engine fuels from renewable sources. Over last more than two decades, the effort resulted in utilization of first generation biofuels. Unfortunately, these fuels brought new dilemmas and challenges in general, such as food production competition and land use and, in case of fatty acid methyl esters for compression ignition engines, also technical challenges such as storage stability and deposit formation. The technical aspects are more pronounced as advanced technologies employed to mitigate pollutants related adverse effects are applied, mandating stringent fuel properties, while demand for fuels from renewable sources is rising. Utilization of particle filters and sensitive fuel systems are driving effort to develop compatible renewable biofuels which can be utilized at higher than current shares. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO), as industrially produced biofuels, exhibits some beneficial properties compared to traditional fatty acid methyl esters especially in terms of oxidation stability, injector fouling, energy content and cetane number. Different combustion…