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Real-World Emission Modeling and Validations using PEMS and GPS Vehicle Data

US Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Carl Fulper, Joseph McDonald, Michael Olechiw
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0757
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) are used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure emissions from vehicles in normal, in-use, on-the-road operation to support many of its program, including emissions compliance assessment from on-road vehicles, emissions factor assessment for in-use fleet modeling, and collection of in-use vehicle operation data to support vehicle simulation modeling programs. This paper discusses EPA’s use of GPS measured altitude and vehicle speedometer data to provide real-world road grade data for a GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model. The GPS measured altitudes and vehicle speeds were filtered and smoothed by an open-source, Python-based Savitzky Golay filter to estimate the road grades. Ambient temperature, ambient pressure, humidity, wind direction and speeds were used to simulate actual driving environment conditions. Complete engine maps, transmission efficiencies and vehicle data were used as inputs into the GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model to estimate fuel economy, greenhouse (GHG) CO2 and NOx emissions of a hybrid electric vehicle and a vehicle equipped with a 12-volt start/stop system. The model-simulated fuel economy, GHG and NOx emissions, engine torque/speed, and vehicle speeds…
 

Cylinder to Cylinder Variation Related to Gas Injection Timing on a Dual-Fuel Engine

HAN University of Applied Sciences-Quintin Pet, Peter Mesman
Lund University-Menno Merts, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1162
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engine is an interesting technique to reduce greenhouse gas emission. A limitation of this concept is the emission of un-combusted methane. In this study we analyzed the influence of PFI gas-injection timing on cylinder to cylinder gas-distribution, and the resulting methane emissions. This was done on a 6 cylinder HD engine test bench and in a GT-power simulation of the same engine. The main variable in all tests was the timing of the intake port gas injection, placed either before, after, or during the intake stroke. It showed that injecting outside of the intake window resulted in significant variation of the amount of trapped gaseous fuel over the 6 cylinders, having a strong impact on methane emissions. Injecting outside of the intake stroke results in gas awaiting in the intake port. Both testing and simulation made clear that as a result of this, cylinder 1 leans out and cylinder 6 enriches. The simulation showed how this is caused by the airflow into the manifold, which enters the manifold close to cylinder…
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Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

ExxonMobil Fuels and Lubricants Co.-Abdelhadi Sahnoune
ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.-Bryan Chapman, Dedric Joseph, Nagore Sabio, Jeffrey Farenback-Brateman, Christopher Goheen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0629
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration. Two engine designs were considered: one which could take little advantage of higher octane fuel to increase efficiency, and one which could be adjusted further to take advantage of the higher octane. WTW GHG emissions were analyzed within a life cycle analysis framework, where the upstream emissions of raw material and utility inputs to the refinery were added to…
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Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines For Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long Haul Trucks

MIT-Daniel Cohn
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Leslie Bromberg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0565
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, can play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high NOx emissions. In this paper we describe features of flex fuel alcohol enhanced gasoline engines in series hybrid powertrains where the engines have the same or greater efficiency of diesel engines while also having 90% lower NOx emissions. Ethanol or methanol is employed to increase knock resistance and provide improved combustion. The engines use special features, including high efficiency high rpm operation, to enable fueling with mainly gasoline when desired. If needed, high rpm operation can be facilitated by a prechamber enhanced by alcohol use. These engines can also employ alcohol-enhanced exhaust heat recovery…
 

Validation of Control-Oriented Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Models for Non-Standard Ambient Conditions

TNO Automotive-Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0196
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Complying to both the increasingly stringent pollutant emissions as well as (future) GHG emission legislation - with increased focus on in-use real-world emissions - puts a great challenge to the engine/aftertreatment control development process. Control system complexity, calibration and validation effort has increased dramatically over the past decade. A trend that is likely to continue considering the next steps in emission and GHG emission legislation. Control-oriented engine models are valuable tools for efficient development of engine monitoring and control systems. Furthermore, these (predictive) engine models are more and more used as part of control algorithms to ensure legislation compliant and optimized performance over the system lifetime. For these engine models, it is essential that simulation and prediction of system variables during non-nominal engine operation, such as non-standard ambient conditions, is well captured.This paper presents the validation of a semi-empirical control-oriented diesel engine model for non-standard ambient conditions. Measurements on a Heavy-Duty Diesel engine for long haulage applications are performed using TNO’s Climate Altitude Chamber. Inhere, ambient conditions are varied ranging from -15°C to + 30°C…
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Investigation of drag reduction technologies for light-duty vehicles using surface, wake and underbody pressure measurements to complement aerodynamic load measurements

National Research Council Canada-Fenella de Souza, Arash Raeesi
Röchling Automotive SE & Co. KG-Andreas Schmitt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0644
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In a multi-year, multi-vehicle study to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies for light-duty vehicles, technologies were evaluated through full-scale testing in a large low-blockage closed-circuit wind tunnel equipped with a Ground Effect Simulation System (GESS) and a Road Turbulence System (RTS). This study was commissioned by Transport Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada to support potential updates to light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission regulations. The technologies investigated include active grille shutters, production and custom underbody treatments, air dams, ride height control, side mirror removal and combinations of these. This paper focuses on mean surface, wake, and underbody pressure measurements recently introduced to complement aerodynamic force measurements. Surface pressures were measured by installing up to 40 surface pressure disks at strategic locations on four sedans and two small SUVs. Using a 2 m-high rake of 41 equally-spaced Pitot probes, wake total pressures were mapped in two cross-flow planes located from 0.1 to 0.4 vehicle lengths downstream of four sedans, two small SUVs, one minivan and one pick-up truck. A smaller…
 

Determining the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefit of an Adaptive Cruise Control System Using Real-World Driving Data

General Motors LLC-William Dvorkin, Joshua King, Marc Gray, Shyhyeu Jao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0310
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Adaptive cruise control is an advanced vehicle technology that is unique in its ability to govern vehicle behavior for extended periods of distance and time. As opposed to standard cruise control, adaptive cruise control can remain active through moderate to heavy traffic congestion, and can more effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is derived primarily from two physical phenomena: platooning and controlled acceleration. Platooning refers to reductions in aerodynamic drag resulting from opportunistic following distances from the vehicle ahead, and controlled acceleration refers to the ability of adaptive cruise control to accelerate the vehicle in an energy efficient manner. This research calculates the measured greenhouse gas emissions benefit of adaptive cruise control on a fleet of 51 vehicles over 62 days and 199,300 miles. To our knowledge, the greenhouse gas emissions benefit of an advanced vehicle technology has never been demonstrated in this manner, and no automaker has published such extensive data pertaining to adaptive cruise control. These results highlight the opportunity to further reduce consumer fuel use and…
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Combined Sizing and EMS Optimization of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Powertrains for Commercial Vehicles

AVL Powertrain UK Ltd.-Tommi Jokela, Athanasios Iraklis, Bill Kim, Bo Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0387
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
During the last years, fuel-cell-based powertrains have been attracting a lot of attention from commercial vehicle manufacturers for reducing vehicle-related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to Battery-Electric Vehicles (BEV), fuel-cell-based powertrains has the strong advantage of dealing with range-anxiety, which is crucial for commercial vehicle with high duty-cycle energy requirements. Amongst the different fuel-cell types, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel-Cells (PEMFC) have the greatest potential for utilization in automotive applications, due to their relatively high technical readiness, market availability and utilization of hydrogen (H2) fuel. In addition, Solid Oxide Fuel-Cells (SOFC) show good potential due to existing re-fueling infrastructure for light hydrocarbon fuels or heavier hydrocarbon fuels (e.g. diesel). This study focuses on the application of both PEMFCs and diesel-fueled SOFCs in Fuel-Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV) architectures for commercial vehicles. Delivery vans in the 2.5 t-3.5 t weight range, coach buses and 3-axle tractor-type long-haul trucks are considered energy-driven types and highly suitable for fuel-cell systems, which offer high energy density values. Due to the high number of vehicle application types and system configurations, and…
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Gaseous Fuels Variation Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Small Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine

West Virginia University-Mahdi Darzi, Derek Johnson, Mehar Bade, Parviz Famouri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0560
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Our research focused on the assessment of fuel variation effects on performance of a 34 cc two-stroke, natural gas combustion engine designed for use as the prime mover in either slider-crank or novel linear generator applications. Nearly two-thirds of US homes have either natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas available at low pressures. We tested the engine with three different natural gas blends, pure methane, and pure propane. In order to reduce fuel compression power, we modified the engine to use low-pressure direct injection (LPDI) of gaseous fuels. We examined regulated gaseous emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and combustion trends over a range of delivered air fuel ratios. Start of Injection (SOI) occurred at either 180 or 190 CA BTDC and efficiency improved by reducing fuel slip. However, for natural gas blends, the predominant emissions were methane - a potent greenhouse gas. We showed that while propane had the highest CO2 emissions, it also produced the lowest CO2 equivalent emissions. However, propane also tended to have the highest NOx, NMHC+NOx, and CO emissions. As expected, propane…
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Evaluation of Knocking Tendency and Knock-Limited Thermal Efficiency of Different Combustion Chambers in Stoichiometric Operation LNG Engine

Guangxi Yuchai Machinery Co., Ltd.-Li Sheng, Zan Zhu
Tianjin University-Xumin Zhao, Hu Wang, Zunqing Zheng, Mingfa Yao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1137
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas (NG) engine could provide both reduced operating cost and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Stoichiometric operation with EGR and the three-way catalyst has become a potential approach for commercial NG engines to meet the Euro VI emissions legislation. In the current study, numerical investigations on the knocking tendency of several combustion chambers with different geometries and corresponding performances were conducted using CONVERGE CFD code with G-equation flame propagation model coupled with a reduced natural gas chemical kinetic mechanism. The CFD modeling approach could predict the knock phenomenon in NG engines reasonably well under different thermodynamic and flow field conditions. The threshold between “no knock” and “knock” conditions was found to be in good agreement with experimental results, which therefore provides a valid way to estimate the capability of knock suppression and knock-limited thermal efficiency for the design and optimization of NG combustion system. Based on the CFD model, the effects of combustion chamber structures on turbulent flow and combustion process were discussed. The results showed that lower mean flow velocity and higher…