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Experimental Investigations on CO2 Recovery from Engine Exhaust Using Adsorption Technology

ARC,SMEC,Vellore Institute of Technology-Saravanan S, Chidambaram Ramesh Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2577
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is an energy-consuming process compared to the catalytic converters. The best way to reduce CO2 is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industrial applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. In comparison to other CO2 separation methods, adsorption technique consumes less work and energy. Moreover, the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust manifold. The selected engine was a single-cylinder Briggs and Stratton petrol engine. The experiments were conducted in two…
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Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI Academy-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…
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Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends on GDI Engine to Reduce Cost of Vehicle Ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi, Karthikeyan N Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion engine development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline, and CNG are such alternative fuels. Reducing the consumption of Gasoline also helps India’s dependence on import of crude oil.The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was…
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Development of Low Cost Closed Crankcase Ventilation With Oil Mist Separation System on Light Duty Diesel Engine

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Vishal Kailas Walhekar, Sujit Gavade, Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2578
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Currently automotive industry is facing bi-fold challenge of reduction in greenhouse gases emissions as well as low operating cost. On one hand Emission regulations are getting more and more stringent on other hand there is major focus on customer value proposition.In engine emission the blow by gases are one of the source of greenhouse gases from engine. Blow-by gases not only consist of unburnt hydrocarbons but also carry large amount of oil. If oil is not separated from these gases, it will led to major oil consumption and hence increase total operating cost of Vehicle.Considering the above challenges, effort taken to develop a low-cost closed crankcase ventilation with oil mist separation system on diesel engine. For cost-effective solution, two different design and configuration of oil mist separation system developed.Further, engine with two different above said configuration has been tested for blow-by gasses and oil consumption measurement on Engine test bed and vehicle to understand the behavior in real environment. Further results compared for both configuration and further actions proposed.
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Environmental and Health Impact of Electric and Hydrogen Light Vehicles: The Case of an Italian Small City

University of Roma Tor Vergata-Luca Andreassi, Giacomo Falcucci
University of Tuscia-Andrea Luigi Facci, Stefano Ubertini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell electric vehicles have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation.In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances.In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such…
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Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations

GIFT, Bhubaneshwar-Alok Kumar Mohapatra
VIT Universtity Vellore-Tapano Hotta
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gas emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present article aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied. Selected exergetic measures under consideration are Exergy Efficiency, Fuel Exergy Depletion Ratio, Relative Exergy Consumption Ratio, Exergetic Improvement potential and Productivity Lack ratio. The total fuel exergy depletion ratio of the turboprop engine is estimated to be around 64.7 % at 100% loading. Also,…
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Development of a Low Friction High Performance Wheel Bearing Seal

ILJIN USA Corporation-Seungpyo Lee
Iljin Bearing GmbH-Reinhold Mahr
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The ever tightening of fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards globally continues to challenge bearing companies toward lower torque, lower mass products. This paper focuses on improving fuel efficiency by considering the torque of automotive wheel bearing seals. This study establishes the level of drag torque reduction achieved through the structural design of the bearing seals. Wheel bearing seals are a critical component that must pass stringent torque, water exclusion, and other critical OEM and supplier performance specifications. They are designed as non-serviceable and must maintain full performance through the life of the vehicle.As a result of the application of specialized structural design, the drag torque, per the study, is reduced by more than 50% compared to existing bearing specifications. Electric vehicle companies are also seeking low friction wheel bearing solutions to further reduce CO2 (indirect or wheel-to-wheel) emissions. This research findings can assist the OEM’s in meeting the rigid emissions and fuel economy standards through drag reduction in the wheel bearings.
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Knock and Pre-Ignition Limits on Utilization of Ethanol in Octane-on-Demand Concept

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Eshan Singh, Robert Dibble
Saudi Aramco-Kai Morganti
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Octane-on-Demand (OoD) is a promising technology for reducing greenhouse emissions from automobiles. The concept utilizes a low-octane fuel for low and mid load operating conditions, and a high-octane additive is added at high load operating conditions. Researchers have focused on the minimum ethanol content required for operating at high load conditions when the low-octane fuel becomes knock limited. However, it is also widely known that ethanol has a high tendency to pre-ignite, which has been linked with its high laminar flame speed and surface ignition tendency. Moreover, ethanol has a lower stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, requiring a larger injected fuel mass per cycle. A larger fuel mass increases the potential for oil dilution by the liquid fuel, creating precursors for pre-ignition. Hence, the limits on ethanol addition owing to pre-ignition also need consideration before the technology can be implemented. In this regard, experiments were performed using light naphtha (RON 68) and ethanol in direct and port-fuel injection configuration, respectively. The engine load was parametrically swept by simultaneously increasing the intake air and fuel quantity until the…
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Literature Review on Dual-Fuel Combustion Modelling

Lund University-Menno Merts, Sebastian Verhelst
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time control. As precursor for such a model, the current state of art of dual fuel combustion modelling is investigated in this work.The focus is on high speed dual fuel engines for heavy duty and marine applications, with a varying gas/diesel ratio. Modelling is limited to the closed part of the 4-stroke engine cycle. A methodology part…
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Inverted Brayton Cycle as an Option for Waste Energy Recovery in Turbocharged Diesel Engine

Universita degli Studi dell Aquila-Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone, Roberto Carapellucci
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0060
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Energy recovery in reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) is one of the most investigated options for the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions saving in the transportation sector. In fact, the energy wasted in ICE is greater than that converted in mechanical form. The contribution associated with the exhaust gases is almost one third of the fuel energy, calling for an urgent need to be recovered into mechanical form. An extensive literature is oriented toward this opportunity, strongly oriented to ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle)-based power units.From a thermodynamic point of view, one option, not extensively explored, is certainly represented by the Inverted Brayton Cycle (IBC) concept and by the corresponding components which make possible this recovery. IBC is a thermodynamic (exhaust) gas cycle which considers an expansion (made by a turbine under the ambient pressure), an isobaric cooling and a compression in a sequence which restores the pressure which is needed to evacuate the exhaust gases toward the atmosphere. Thanks to the expansion which decreases the pressure below the ambient pressure, mechanical work produced…
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