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Assessment of the Potential of Power to Gas Fuels for Replacement of Fossile Fuels in Switzerland

EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Florian Kiefer, Karin Schröter, Christian Bach
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0027
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In Switzerland, road traffic is responsible for one third of greenhouse gas emissions respectively 40% of the CO2 emissions and therefore accounts for the largest single share of all sectors. These emissions have even increased slightly since 1990 (from 15.5 to 16.2 million tCO2). Private individual road transport achieves a mileage of approximatively 91.0 billion pkm (person-kilometer) and 17.2 billion tkm (tons-kilometer) per year. Therefore, 3.3 billion liters of gasoline and 3.2 billion liters of diesel are used, resulting in 16.2 million tCO2 emissions in total. Thereof, 10.2 million tons of CO2 are emitted by passenger cars and 1.7 million tons by trucks, the two most important means of transport concerning CO2 emissions. The rest is produced by vans, buses, motorcycles, railways and shipping, national air traffic and fuel tourism. The passenger cars are the most relevant application in terms of CO2 emissions with a share of 63% of the road vehicle CO2 emissions. To comply with the 95 g/km target, low CO2 vehicles have to be introduced. In the following, the number of such…
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Natural Gas: Meeting CO2 Emission Targets Here and Now

Westport Fuel Systems-David Mumford
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0024
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Global energy consumption trends are running counter to the need to rapidly and drastically reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The increasing demand for energy and associated growth in emissions means that we must deploy market-ready, commercially-available solutions now. Europe’s recently enacted heavy-duty CO2 regulations require truck OEMs to achieve a fleet average CO2 reduction of 15% (by 2025) and 30% (2030) from the 2019 industry baseline, with significant fines for missing these targets. OEMs are under considerable pressure to abandon the internal combustion engine (ICE) and move toward fuel cells and battery electric solutions. This drive away from ICEs has gathered considerable momentum, but also misses the short term reality – the infrastructure and overwhelming mass of existing product is built on the ICE, and it will take time and considerable investment to replace. In the automotive sector, the path to electric vehicles is already starting to evolve, however cost-competitive, commercially available production solutions are still in their infancy for the commercial heavy-duty trucking sector. This paper will focus on alternative fuel options for heavy-duty…
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Numerical Investigations on Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Climate Control Systems in Electric Vehicles

Pranav Vikas India Pvt Ltd-Vijayaraghavan S, Govindaraj D
Pranav Vikas India Pvt Ltd.-Mahendravarman Radha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0010
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Earth's surface temperatures would increase from 2.90 C to 3.40 C by the year 2100 due to global warming, leads to conceivable calamitous effects on human livelihoods, livestock, ecosystems and biodiversity. Overall globally several policies were made to reduce the carbon dioxide emission and other greenhouse gases. The transportation sector is one of the prominent sources of carbon dioxide emissions. On account of the significant emissions caused by conventional buses, migrating to electric buses which have zero tailpipe emissions for public transport fleets is essential. Taken into consideration of the energy density of traction batteries, and cost, energy utilized for HVAC applications should be optimized. Heat transfer and flow characteristics in the condenser and the evaporator zone of climate control system for electric buses were numerically studied and compared with experimental results. Grid independence and turbulence studies were carried out to develop the CFD methodology for this analysis. Air velocity and temperature was measured at different locations in the climate control system to calculate the flow and thermal performance. Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics…
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Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses: Modelling and Analysing Suitability from an Operator and Environmental Perspective

Queen's University Belfast-Darryl Doyle, Andrew Harris, Steve Chege, Lucinda Douglas, Juliana Early
Wrightbus-Robert Best
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1172
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Global commitments to decrease greenhouse gas emissions have led to a shift to alternative powertrains in the transport sector. In addition to this, stricter controls on air quality within cities has seen the introduction of zero emission zones, requiring vehicles with full zero emission capabilities. As a result, there is growing interest in hydrogen fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) as a zero local emission vehicle with superior range, operational flexibility and refuelling time than other clean alternatives e.g. battery electric buses (BEBs). This is illustrated in increased investment through projects such as JIVE/JIVE2, which are deploying nearly 300 FCEBs and refuelling infrastructure in Europe by the early 2020s. This paper details the performance and suitability analysis of a proposed FCEB, using a quasistatic backwards-facing Simulink powertrain model. The model is validated against existing vehicle data (Mk1), allowing it to be further leveraged for predictions of an advanced future production vehicle (Mk2) with next generation motors and fuel cell stack. The modelled outputs are used for a comparison of the FCEB performance to an equivalent BEB…
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Modeling, Validation and Control Strategy Development of a Hybrid Super Sport Car based on Lithium Ion Capacitors

Automobili Lamborghini Spa-Riccardo Parenti, Maurizio Reggiani
University of Bologna-Alessandro Franceschi, Nicolo Cavina, Enrico Corti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0442
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, the contribution of the transportation sector on greenhouse gases is evident. The fast consumption of fossil fuels and its impact on the environment have given a strong impetus to the development of vehicles with better fuel economy. Hybrid electric vehicles fit into this context with different targets, starting from the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption, but also for performance and comfort enhancement. Lamborghini has recently invested in the development of a hybrid super sport car, due to performance and comfort reasons. Aventador series gearbox is an Independent Shift Rod gearbox with a single clutch and during gear shifts, as all the single clutch gearbox do, it generates a torque gap. To avoid the additional weight of a Dual Clutch Transmission, a 48V Electric Motor has been connected to the wheels, in a P3 configuration, to fill the torque gap, and to habilitate regenerative braking and electric boost functions. This paper discusses the usage of a control-oriented vehicle and powertrain model to analyze the performance of the first Lithium Ion Capacitor-based hybrid V12 by…
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A Competitive Approach to an Active Exhaust Heat Recovery System Solution

Tenneco Inc.-Adam Kotrba, Timothy Gardner, John Stanavich, Raphael Bellard, Brian Kunkel, Nicholas Morley
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0161
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As greenhouse gas regulations continue to tighten, more opportunities to improve engine efficiency emerge, including exhaust gas heat recovery. Upon cold starts, engine exhaust gases downstream of the catalysts are redirected with a bypass valve into a heat exchanger, transferring its heat to the engine coolant to accelerate engine warm-up. This has several advantages, including reduced fuel consumption, as the engine’s efficiency improves with temperature. Furthermore, this accelerates readiness to defrost the windshield, improving both safety as well as comfort, with greater benefits in colder climates, particularly when combined with hybridization’s need for engine on-time just for cabin heating. Such products have been in the market now for several years; however they are bulky, heavy and expensive, yielding opportunities for competitive alternatives. Customer voice expresses needs for less complex designs that reduce package space, mass, and part count (i.e. cost) while maintaining or improving performance, including the integration of an active rather than passive exhaust bypass control valve. This paper highlights the design evolution of EHRS, including relative benchmarking of competing products, comparing various aspects…
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Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry UB80E Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1286
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry front wheel drive eight-speed automatic transmission was benchmarked. The benchmarking data were used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles.ALPHA requires both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission torque loss maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has developed a streamlined, cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to characterize transmissions within ALPHA. This testing methodology targets the range of transmission operation observed during vehicle testing over EPA’s city and highway drive cycles.With this method, the transmission is tested as a complete system, as opposed to disassembling the transmission components and testing each separately. This paper describes the benchmarking process used to gather transmission data and the test results obtained. A UB80E eight-speed automatic transmission from a 2018 Toyota Camry was installed in an engine dynamometer test…
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Influence of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions for Methanol PPC operation in a Heavy-Duty CI Engine

ISAE-ENSMA-Clarisse Pinto Dos Santos
Lund University-Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0556
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) provides clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, a narrow operating window with simultaneously low NOx and HC emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load conditions when a single injection strategy is used. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to improve the NOx-HC trade-off, as well as the gross indicated efficiency (GIE) compared to single injection strategy results. The work was performed with a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine, operated at 4 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPg), and an engine speed of 1200 rpm. Double and triple injections were implemented with varying dwells, injection timings, and fuel mass proportions. The experimental results were analyzed with…
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Advanced Diesel Particulate Filter Technologies for Next Generation Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Corning, Inc.-Sandeep Viswanathan, Sam George, Mahesh Govindareddy, Achim Heibel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1434
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The regulative environment is poised for ultra-low emissions in the 2024+ time frame with ultra-low NOx proposals from CARB and PN PEMS testing requirements from EU. GHG emissions limits are starting to get tighter in the next few years along with extended warranty and full useful life requirements. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) will be an integral part of all diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems for the next several years and will need advanced technology solutions to meet the aforementioned challenges, without compromising on high performance requirements, namely, low lifetime pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, high durability (extended warranty), increased service intervals or lifetime filter solutions (high ash storage capacity). This paper discusses the primary challenges associated with meeting these future demands and possible technological solutions to address them. Data from on-road vehicle testing and impact of duty cycle (vocational / line haul) on lifetime aftertreatment performance has been discussed. Key drivers for pressure drop reduction over product lifetime are illustrated and used to develop the next generation of diesel particulate filters. The complex relationship between filter…
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CARB Low NOX Stage 3 Program - Aftertreatment Evaluation and Down Selection

Southwest Research Institute-Bryan Zavala, Christopher Sharp, Gary Neely, Sandesh Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1402
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the conclusion of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Stage 1 Ultra-Low NOX program, there continues to be a commitment for identifying potential pathways to demonstrate 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. The Stage 1 program focused on achieving the Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) levels utilizing a turbo-compound (TC) engine, which required the integration of novel catalyst technologies and a supplemental heat source. While the aftertreatment configuration provided a potential solution to meet the ULN target, a complicated approach was required to overcome challenges from low temperature exhaust. The Stage 3 program leverages a different engine architecture more representative of the broader heavy-duty industry to meet the Phase 2 GHG targets and to simplify the ULN aftertreatment solution. The following work will discuss the aftertreatment technology evaluation, down selection criteria, and the emission results of the final demonstration aftertreatment system for a heavy-duty on-highway ULN application. As part of these efforts, the demonstration system was subjected to accelerated hydrothermal and chemical aging exposure utilizing the Diesel Aftertreatment Accelerated Aging Cycles (DAAAC) protocol. The accelerated aging methodology and…