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Cylinder to Cylinder Variation Related to Gas Injection Timing on a Dual-Fuel Engine

HAN University Of Applied Sciences-Peter Mesman
HAN University of Applied Sciences-Quintin Pet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1162
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine is an interesting technique to reduce greenhouse gas emission. A limitation of this concept is the emission of un-combusted methane. In this study we analyzed methane emission in relation to injection parameters. This was done on a 6 cylinder HD engine test bench and in a GT-power simulation of the same engine. The main variable in all tests was the phasing of the intake port gas injection, placed either before, after, or during the intake stroke. It showed that injecting outside of the intake window resulted in significant variation of the amount of trapped gas over the 6 cylinders, having a strong impact on methane emissions. Injecting outside the intake stroke results in gas awaiting in the intake port. Both testing and simulation made clear that as a result of this, cylinder 1 leans out and cylinder 6 gets richer. The simulation showed how this is caused by the airflow into the manifold, which enters the manifold close to cylinder 1. This flow picks up gas awaiting before the…

Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

ExxonMobil Fuels and Lubricants Co.-Abdelhadi Sahnoune
ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.-Bryan Chapman, Dedric Joseph, Nagore Sabio, Jeffrey Farenback-Brateman, Christopher Goheen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0629
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increasing fuel octane is a well-known enabler for increasing spark-ignited engine efficiency. This research explores the impact of such a strategy on ‘well-to-wheel’ greenhouse gas emissions by considering 1) increases in emissions from producing higher octane fuels in the refinery, and 2) reductions in vehicle emissions through use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such higher octane fuels. It also examines the impact of increases in fuel cost when refineries shift fuel production to higher octane. Three refinery configurations with different capacities to produce higher octane fuels were studied by simulating operations at three levels of high-octane gasoline production, as a function of the octane value for the high-octane grade. Two spark-ignited engine designs were considered, with different potential to take advantage of higher octane fuel to increase efficiency. ‘Well-to-tank’ GHG emissions increased modestly with higher octane production, while fuel costs increased strongly at high octane production levels. The net impact on WTW GHG emissions (gCO2/mile) and fuel cost ($/mile) both depended on how effectively the engine could take advantage of higher octane fuel. The more…

Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines For Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long Haul Trucks

MIT-Daniel Cohn
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Leslie Bromberg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0565
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, can play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high NOx emissions. In this paper we describe features of flex fuel alcohol enhanced gasoline engines in series hybrid powertrains where the engines have the same or greater efficiency of diesel engines while also having 90% lower NOx emissions. Ethanol or methanol is employed to increase knock resistance and provide improved combustion. The engines use special features, including high efficiency high rpm operation, to enable fueling with mainly gasoline when desired. If needed, high rpm operation can be facilitated by a prechamber enhanced by alcohol use. These engines can also employ alcohol-enhanced exhaust heat recovery…

Validation of Control-oriented Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Models for Non-Standard Ambient Conditions

TNO Automotive-Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0196
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Complying to the both the increasingly stringent pollutant emission as well as (future) GHG emission legislation – with increased focus on in-use real world emissions - puts a great challenge to the engine/aftertreatment control development process. Control system complexity and calibration and validation effort has increased dramatically over the past decade – a trend that is likely to continue considering the next steps in emission and GHG emission legislation. Control-oriented engine models are valuable tools for efficient development of engine monitoring and control systems. Furthermore, these (predictive) engine models are more and more used as part of control algorithms to ensure legislation compliant and optimized performance over the system lifetime. For such engine models it is essential that simulation and prediction of system variables during non-nominal engine operation, such as non-standard ambient conditions, is well captured. This paper presents the validation of both a semi-empirical and a physics-based control-oriented virtual diesel engine for non-standard ambient conditions. Engine measurements on a Heavy Duty Diesel engine for long haulage application are performed using TNO’s Climate Altitude Chamber…

Investigation of drag reduction technologies for light-duty vehicles using surface, wake and underbody pressure measurements to complement aerodynamic load measurements

National Research Council Canada-Fenella de Souza, Arash Raeesi
Röchling Automotive SE & Co. KG-Andreas Schmitt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0644
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In a multi-year, multi-vehicle study to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies for light-duty vehicles, technologies were evaluated through full-scale testing in a large low-blockage closed-circuit wind tunnel equipped with a Ground Effect Simulation System (GESS) and a Road Turbulence System (RTS). This study was commissioned by Transport Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada to support potential updates to light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission regulations. The technologies investigated include active grille shutters, production and custom underbody treatments, air dams, ride height control, side mirror removal and combinations of these. This paper focuses on mean surface, wake, and underbody pressure measurements recently introduced to complement aerodynamic force measurements. Surface pressures were measured by installing up to 40 surface pressure disks at strategic locations on four sedans and two small SUVs. Using a 2 m-high rake of 41 equally-spaced Pitot probes, wake total pressures were mapped in two cross-flow planes located from 0.1 to 0.4 vehicle lengths downstream of four sedans, two small SUVs, one minivan and one pick-up truck. A smaller…

Determining the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefit of an Adaptive Cruise Control System using Real-World Driving Data

General Motors-William Dvorkin, Joshua King, Marc Gray, Shyhyeu Jao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0310
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Adaptive cruise control is an advanced vehicle technology that is unique in its ability to govern vehicle behavior for extended periods of distance and time. As opposed to standard cruise control, adaptive cruise control can remain active through moderate to heavy traffic congestion, and can more effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is derived primarily from two physical phenomena: platooning and controlled acceleration. Platooning refers to reductions in aerodynamic drag resulting from opportunistic following distances from the vehicle ahead, and controlled acceleration refers to the ability of adaptive cruise control to accelerate the vehicle in an energy efficient manner. This research calculates the measured greenhouse gas emissions benefit of adaptive cruise control on a fleet of 51 vehicles over 62 days and 199,300 miles. To our knowledge, the greenhouse gas emissions benefit of an advanced vehicle technology has never been demonstrated in this manner, and no automaker has published such extensive data pertaining to adaptive cruise control. These results highlight the opportunity to further reduce consumer fuel use and…

Review of Advances in Engine Efficiency and Emissions After-treatment Technologies

Corning Inc.-Ameya Joshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0314
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle emissions regulations, engine efficiency, and emission control from 2018. An overview of key regulatory changes is provided, including the new EPA proposal on the fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, early implementation plans of China 6 regulations and progress on defining real-world driving (RDE) test conditions for Bharat Stage (BS) 6/VI. Status of the heavy-duty (HD) low NOx rule and the development of a low load transient cycle will be reviewed. Engine technologies continue to advance for light- and heavy-duty applications, and some of the key developments towards meeting criteria and GHG regulations will be described. Several new advanced gasoline technologies have been recently commercialized and progress is reported on enabling lean burn and low temperature combustion. Real world driving data shows that diesels continue to have an advantage over gasoline in terms of lower GHG emissions. Hybridization is increasingly being adapted to meet the tight CO2 regulations, although several studies show that hybrids are also prone to unique challenges with criteria pollutants. Advances…

Combined Sizing and EMS Optimization of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Powertrains for Commercial Vehicles

AVL Powertrain UK Ltd.-Tommi Jokela, Athanasios Iraklis, Bill Kim, Bo Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0387
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
During the last years, fuel-cell-based powertrains have been attracting a lot of attention from vehicle manufacturers for reducing vehicle-related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Amongst the different fuel-cell types, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel-Cells (PEMFC) have the greatest potential for utilization in automotive applications, due to their relatively high technical readiness, market availability and utilization of hydrogen (H2) fuel. In addition, Solid Oxide Fuel-Cells (SOFC) show good potential due to existing re-fueling infrastructure for light hydrocarbons (e.g. diesel). This study focuses on the application of both PEMFCs and SOFCs in Fuel-Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV) architectures for commercial vehicles. Delivery vans in the 2.5t-3.5t weight range, coach buses and tractor-type long-haul trucks are considered energy-driven types and highly suitable for fuel-cell systems, which have high energy densities but low power densities. Due to the complexity of such hybrid architectures, powertrain design loops can be time-consuming. This study proposes a combined component sizing process with Energy Management (EMS) optimization for determining powertrain performance and total system costs. In the suggested approach, the initially considered design space is reduced…

CFD Study of Heat Transfer Reduction Using Multiple Injectors and Optimized Geometry in a DCEE Concept

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Gustav Nyrenstedt, Hong Im, Bengt Johansson
Volvo Global Truck Tech Powertrain Eng-Arne Andersson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0246
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A study was performed on how multiple injectors can be used to decrease heat transfer losses in a CI engine through a changed flow pattern. Specifically, it was investigated how the geometry can be changed to better suit the multiple injector concept. The primary target for the automotive industry has for many years been the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. One simple solution for dealing with this is to improve fuel economy through enhanced efficiency. A promising concept in this area is the DCEE concept, showing efficiencies of 56 %. In this concept, the leftover exhaust energy is used for a second expansion. Thus, reducing heat transfer losses becomes increasingly important compared to normal CI engines. It has been proven in earlier studies that reduction of heat losses can be achieved by using multiple injectors placed at the rim of the bowl. This achieves longer distance to the wall as well as sprays aimed into the cylinder as opposed to the centrally mounted injector. However, problems have been found with the typical bowl using a…

Detailed Design of Future Sport 1 by Colorado State University for EcoCAR 3 Competition

Colorado State Univ.-Gabriel Christian DiDomenico
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0360
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
EcoCAR 3 is a four year (2014-2018) competition that is a part of U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series. As a participant of this competition, Colorado State University’s Vehicle Innovation Team (CSU VIT) redesigned a 2016 Chevy Camaro into a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) (and titled it as Future Sport 1 (FS1)) with a goal to decrease the environmental impact and increase the fuel economy of the Camaro, while maintaining its performance, safety and consumer appeal. CSU VIT followed an extensive Vehicle Design Process (VDP) to develop the hybrid electric powertrain (including custom mounts and motor housing), control systems, wiring and auxiliary systems. Additionally, the team installed several sensors all over the vehicle to collect data from different components, which is used to analyze the transient and steady state responses of different sub-systems. Moreover, the comprehensive test plans and test procedures developed by the team facilitated the rigorous testing of FS1 at various levels in software, hardware and on-road. They were also helpful in effectively validating the vehicle’s performance and energy…