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Right Shifting for Fuel Economy

VW do Brasil / Centro Universitário FEI-Fernando Fusco Rovai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0095
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is one of the main drivers of the automotive industry. This subject is becoming more and more important showing a clear upraising relevance tendency. The automotive community is researching and developing many solutions and trending technologies to improve the internal combustion engine, realizing its existence is under risk due to strong greenhouse gas impact. Some innovative technologies focus on the internal combustion engines replacement by other energy conversion systems. Other new technologies improve internal combustion engines efficiency but, in most of the cases, impacts on its costs and consequently on its viability, especially considering the entry level passenger cars. In these applications, the cost impact is hardly acceptable by the customers and this market represents a considerable part of the global automotive industry. Any opportunity to improve the vehicle efficiency with minimum cost is welcome. This paper intends to assess the development and application of a gear shift indicator in an entry level passenger car. This technology represents a very low cost impact because the engine control unit should add just an improved…
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Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Standards Regulation Evolution Review - Current Outcomes and Future Perspectives

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0174
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) segment, as an important source of emissions that strongly impact air quality and human health - especially in urban centers - has been continuously challenged by the increasingly stringent emission limits. The adoption of emission standards for the heavy duty industry was initially launched by the United States, followed by the European Union and Japan, and, subsequently, by other countries, like Australia, Brazil, China and India, among others, generally with a time lag. This continuous “cleaning” effort has led to the current rigorous emission limits - materialized by the so called U.S. EPA 2010 and Euro VI and their foreign variants - which have provided huge emissions reductions (HC, CO, NOx, PM and smoke and, more recently, CO2). Nevertheless, due to air quality and global climate change concerns (basically derived from the air quality non compliance, associated with cities' pollution hotspots, as well as greenhouse gas emissions) there is still a regulatory demand for further emissions control improvement. In this scenario, the heavy duty vehicle industry has pursued not only increasingly…
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The effective use of ethanol for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in a diesel engine

Brunel University London-Wei Guan, Hua Zhao
General Motors-Ian May
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0157
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Regulations have been established for the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption from the transport sector. Low carbon fuels combined with new powertrain technologies have the potential to provide significant reductions in GHG emissions while decreasing the dependence on fossil fuel. In this study, a lean-burn ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion strategy has been used as means to improve upon the efficiency and emissions of a conventional diesel engine. Experiments have been performed on a 2.0 dm3 single cylinder heavy-duty engine equipped with port fuel injection of ethanol and a high-pressure common rail diesel injection system. Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption have been measured at a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and various steady-state loads between 0.3 and 2.4 MPa net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Compared to a baseline diesel-only operation, the ethanol-diesel dual-fuel engine yielded up to 57% lower well-to-wheels GHG emissions. Moreover, the dual-fuel combustion strategy attained higher net indicated efficiency than the conventional diesel mode from 0.6 to 2.4 MPa IMEP, with a maximum value of 47.2%…
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B-GAS: Conversion system to Internal Combustion Engine (Diesel) for using alternative energetic source for application in Agricultural Machinery

Giovana Queiroz da Silva, Cléber Willian Gomes, Guilherme Bugatti dos Santos, Paulo Eduardo Wey Nunes da Costa, Pedro Augusto Talib Soares, Renato Zerbinatti Raduan, Vinícius Trento Gomes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0235
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel has a huge port in the operating costs of agribusiness, the increase on the price and the shortage of this energy resource has a direct impact on agricultural production costs. In this context, regions that are farther from refineries and lack the presence of fuel distribution centers tend to suffer more from the availability and cost of this resource. Economically speaking, agribusiness has a prominent position in the national scenery. The world fuel source had an evolution from the predominance of solid fuels to the current age of liquid fuels derived from petroleum and seeing the future and growing age of gas fuels as the predecessor stage of electric vehicles in some markets. Thereby, agricultural organic waste has the potential to generate an alternative energy, clean and ecological matrix, also reducing the emission of polluting gases, soil, groundwater, rivers and weir are still prevented, and the release of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as methane and carbon dioxide. In Brazil, animal waste is normally used for the generation of biofuel, and only 14%…
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H2-Engine Operation with EGR Achieving High Power and High Efficiency Emission-Free Combustion

KEYOU GmbH-Daniel Thomas Koch, Alvaro Sousa, Dominik Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2178
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Using hydrogen as a fuel to power internal combustion engines is a practical and effective solution to achieve zero impact mobility. The product of hydrogen combustion is water vapour. It does not emit climate-damaging greenhouse gas CO2 and health-damaging pollutants such as CO, HC or NOx. The impact into the environment is negligible. This allows therefore zero impact mobility, as long as hydrogen fuel being produced from renewable energies and water. Hydrogen combustion strategies take the avoidance of NOx formation is a priority parameter to control.The idea of using hydrogen in combustion engines to power vehicles is not new and has been successfully demonstrated in the recent past by companies such as BMW, MAN and Ford.The Start-up company KEYOU is bringing hydrogen engines technology to a new level now by presenting a new combustion concept that is applied ‘add-on’ to existing Diesel engines. The result is an attractive clean engine solution to power clean vehicles, especially in the heavy-duty vehicle sector, where current clean solutions (such as battery electric or fuel cell electric) penalize customers…
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Modeling the Impact of Alternative Fuel Properties on Light Vehicle Engine Performance and Greenhouse Gases Emissions

Aalto University-Yuri Kroyan, Michal Wojcieszyk, Martti Larmi, Ossi Kaario, Kai Zenger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2308
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The present-day transport sector needs sustainable energy solutions. Substitution of fossil-fuels with fuels produced from biomass is one of the most relevant solutions for the sector. Nevertheless, bringing biofuels into the market is associated with many challenges that policymakers, feedstock suppliers, fuel producers, and engine manufacturers need to overcome.The main objective of this research is an investigation of the impact of alternative fuel properties on light vehicle engine performance and greenhouse gases (GHG). The purpose of the present study is to provide decision-makers with tools that will accelerate the implementation of biofuels into the market. As a result, two models were developed, that represent the impact of fuel properties on engine performance in a uniform and reliable way but also with very high accuracy (coefficients of determination over 0.95) and from the end-user point of view. The inputs of the model are represented by fuel properties, whereas output by fuel consumption (FC). The parameters are represented as percentage changes relative to standard fossil fuel, which is gasoline for spark ignition (SI) engines and diesel for…
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Fuel Cell Vehicles: An Opportunity for China's Greenhouse Gas Reduction

Tsinghua University-Zhexuan Mu, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu, Fuquan Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2263
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell vehicle and battery electric vehicle are two environmentally benign vehicle technology types possibly meeting the zero-emission regulations in the future. The premise is they can achieve parity with conventional vehicle both environmentally and economically. Besides, it is necessary to distinguish which technology is more suitable in China's current and future context. This paper compares their cost-effectiveness for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, examining the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of conventional gasoline vehicle, battery electric vehicle and fuel cell vehicle in China's energy context under three different scenarios. The results indicate that under the 500km drive range, fuel cell vehicles are less competitive than battery electric vehicles currently. Fuel cell vehicles generate much more greenhouse gas emissions than battery vehicles and conventional gasoline vehicles. While with the optimization of energy context, fuel cell vehicles can gain competitiveness with battery electric vehicles in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, and with mass production as well as fuel cell system cost reduction, fuel cell vehicles can realize a better cost-effectiveness. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that…
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Combustion characteristics of oxygenated fuels Ethanol-and Butanol-gasoline fuel blends, and their impact on performance, emissions and Soot Index

IFP Energies nouvelles-P. Anselmi, M. Matrat, L. Starck, F. Duffour
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2307
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Oxygenated fuels are studied in spark combustion engines because of their potentially positive impact on greenhouse emissions, and as part of alternative renewable fuels. Furthermore, engine test results position them as a promising lever to reduce engine-out emissions, and most notably, particles. This study focuses on oxygenated fuel Butanol, which is a potential output of recent developments on Algae and Cyanobacteria harvest process. Its blending into gasoline and application into spark ignition engines is investigated. Blending levels of n-Butanol and iso-Butanol have been proposed based on standard gasoline’s octane number, RON, at two ethanol concentration levels, 10 and 25%. Fuel blend impact on combustion, and on regulated and non-regulated emissions is analysed. Fuel knock resistance properties, RON and MON, determine the knocking tendencies for ethanol and butanol at 2000 rpm. However, test results highlight different knocking sensibility behaviour at higher engine speed. Emission results also illustrate a strong advantage of Butanol on particle mass emissions. Soot indices, that are conventionally used to quantify the impact of a fuel over particle emissions, are studied and confronted…
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Simultaneous NOX and CO2 Reduction for Meeting Future CARB Standards Using a Heavy-Duty Diesel CDA-NVH Strategy

SAE International Journal of Engines

Eaton, USA-Matthew Pieczko, James E. McCarthy
Southwest Research Institute, USA-Gary Neely, Chris Sharp
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0014
Published 2019-12-10 by SAE International in United States
Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel consumption standards, improve diesel aftertreatment (AT) system performance, and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Simultaneous reductions in both CO2 and NOX emissions will be required to meet the upcoming regulatory targets for both EPA Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas Standards and new Low NOX Standards being proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). In addition, CARB recently proposed a new certification cycle that will require high NOX conversion while vehicles are operating at lower loads than current regulatory cycles require. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) offers a powerful technology lever for meeting these two regulatory targets on commercial diesel engines. There have been numerous works in the past year showing the benefits of diesel CDA for elevating exhaust temperatures during low-load operation where it is normally too cold for AT to function at peak efficiency. At the same time, CO2 and fuel consumption are reduced through a combination of lower pumping and friction losses and improved thermal efficiency in the cylinders that are still firing. However, CDA has…
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Experimental Investigations on CO2 Recovery from Engine Exhaust Using Adsorption Technology

ARC,SMEC,Vellore Institute of Technology-Saravanan S, Chidambaram Ramesh Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2577
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is an energy-consuming process compared to the catalytic converters. The best way to reduce CO2 is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industrial applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. In comparison to other CO2 separation methods, adsorption technique consumes less work and energy. Moreover, the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust manifold. The selected engine was a single-cylinder Briggs and Stratton petrol engine. The experiments were conducted in two…
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