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Study of the Noise Contributors on the Interior Acoustic of a Car and Their Countermeasures

Autoneum Holding AG-Thibault Lafont, Claudio Bertolini
Saint-Gobain-Fabien Dalzin, Fabien Bouillet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1585
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper shows that the collaboration between a glass manufacturer and a passive acoustic treatment manufacturer can bring different benefits and considerably improve the interior acoustics of a vehicle. In terms of passenger safety and well-being, glazing have always played a key role by offering solutions to interior comfort, particularly when it comes to heat and acoustics. Today, cars are becoming a living space which from an acoustic point of view brings a challenge for the interior comfort. Indeed, glazing has no absorption and classically it has an acoustic insulation weakness around its coincident frequency. In most of the cases, these different aspects make glazing one of the main contributors to the sound pressure level in the passenger compartment, and the trend is not one of change. However, there are possible countermeasures. One of which is the use of laminated glazing with acoustic PVB. This solution allows to reduce the loss of insulation performance at the coincidence frequency. The other is the usage of passive interior acoustic trims. When properly positioned and optimized, the latter…
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An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns and the amount and location of fire damage to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar 20XX Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured in the passenger compartment and video and still photography were recorded. Post-burn, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn on: ability to determine a window was open during the fire, which window was open, the effect the open window had on burn patterns and burn damage, and the…
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Impact of different types of glazing on Air- Conditioning system performance of vehicle

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Akshay Bhateja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1249
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to intense peak summer temperatures and sunny summers in tropical countries like India, achieving the required cabin temperature in vehicle without compromising on fuel efficiency is becoming increasingly challenging. The major source of heat load on vehicle is solar load. Therefore, a study has been conducted to evaluate the heat load on vehicle cabin due to solar radiations and its impact on vehicle Air-Conditioning system performance with various combinations of door glasses and windscreen. The glasses used for this study are classified as Green, Dark Green, Dark Gray, Standard PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) Windscreen and PVB Windscreen having Infrared Cut particles. For each glass, part level evaluation was done to find out the percentage transmittance of light of different wavelengths and percentage transmittance of heat flux through each glass. To verify the effectiveness of each glass, vehicle level Air-Conditioning system performance test was done in All Weather Chassis Dyno Facility for each retrofitted vehicle. Retrofitted vehicle configurations were decided as per regional visible light transmittance regulations. To eliminate the effect of manufacturing variance while evaluating…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Window Glazing Coding and Rollover Ejection Mitigation Performance using NASS-CDS

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Janine Smedley, Ian C. Campbell, Michael Carhart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1216
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study analyses the effect of laminated glass using 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data. The validity of CDS coding in identifying laminated glass was first assessed with 1997-2015 model year vehicles involved in side impacts. Sixteen individual cases were downloaded where the front outboard glass window was identified as laminated glass by NASS investigators and where the window was coded as either “out-of placed”, “disintegrated” or “holed”. The case summary and photos were reviewed. The results showed that the laminated glass availability was incorrectly coded in 11 out of the 16 cases. New coding definitions were used to identify vehicles equipped with standard or optional laminated glass in the front side windows using various sources such as NAGS data and sale brochures. The results were compared to the individual cases and found appropriate. The NASS-CDS data was then queried with 1997+ model year vehicles to determine the risk and frequency of front seat occupant ejection status by glass type in rollover crashes using the new definitions. For vehicles equipped with standard laminated glass, the risk was 1.45…
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In-situ studies on the effect of solar control glazings on in-cabin thermal environment for hot and humid climatic zones

Saint Gobain India Pvt., Ltd.-Jyothi Latha Tamalapakula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal comfort in a passenger cabin is the basic necessity of an occupant especially in hot and humid climatic conditions. It is known that the reflective glazing solutions provide better thermal comfort inside the cabin due to significant reflection of IR part of solar radiation. However, in hot and humid climatic zones like India, significant reduction in heat load can also be achieved through cost effective solar control absorbing glazings. Thus, the present work aims to study the effect of solar control absorbing glazings on cabin inside temperatures and its impact on thermal comfort of the occupants in tropical climates. A combination of glazing sets with a range of solar energy transmission and absorption values are considered for the study. Indoor soak and cool tests are performed on a sedan model with multiple sets of solar control absorbing glass combinations. A constant ambient temperature of 38˚C and solar radiation of 1000W/m2 are maintained throughout the tests. Wind speed was simulated for a vehicle running speed of 45kmph. Net heat gain inside the cabin as a…
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Virtual Verification of Light Reflection for Cluster and Side Mirror in Real Time Scenario

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Manas Bhatnagar, Jyotiranjan Biswal, Saurabh Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0568
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the very automobile world trends are changing at a very fast pace, due to continuous expectation changes by user and new regulatory requirements demand from government authorities with a very stringent timeline.In the current scenario, manufacturer has to wait for mock up for concept selection and physical proto build to conclude open points of design verification. This complete process takes more than a year to enhance the design maturity for further builds.In VECV we have created Cluster design standard to meet different level of cluster illumination & reflection at virtual level. We are defining the cluster light illumination based on our rigorous study on cluster reflection impact on side glass, windscreen and mirror. Accordingly we have packaged our mirror to minimize the impact of cluster reflection on mirror visibility.With the help of virtual verification of cluster and Side mirror inter co-relation of packaging, we significantly reduced the time loss and save huge cost required for developing proto build. Different options of mirror and cluster can be verified in quick session. With the help of…
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Enhanced Windshield NVH Modeling for Interior Cabin Noise

FCA US LLC-Ahmad Abbas, Wael Elwali, Aravindhan Thirukonda, Syed Haider, Francisco Sturla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1100
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The windshield is an important component in vehicle NVH performance. It plays an integral role in affecting the interior cabin noise. The windshield acts as a large panel typically oriented near vertical at the front of vehicle’s acoustic cavity, hence modeling it appropriately is key to have a reliable prediction of cabin interior noise. The challenge of modeling the windshield accurately rises from the structural composition of different types of windshields. For automotive applications, windshield come in several structural compositions today. In this paper, we will discuss two types of windshield glass. First is a typical laminated glass with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) layer and second is a typical acoustic glass with PVB and vinyl layers. Acoustic glass improves acoustics characteristics of the glass in frequencies of ~ 1200 Hz to ~4000 Hz range. Low frequency interior cabin noise studied with FEA is typically below 500 Hz. The acoustic glass doesn’t provide any benefits in this range and in many cases we see an adverse contribution at lower frequencies since the acoustic windshield tend to be…
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On-Glass Antenna for Connected Vehicle Communications

Vitro SAB de CV-David Dai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1370
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a glass patch antenna for 5Hz Wi-Fi, Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications is presented. The proposed antenna is embedded into a laminated vehicle window glass (outer and inner layers) and using the inner layer glass and polyvinylbutyral (PVB) layer as antenna substrate. The ground plan of the patch antenna is a layer of silver screen printed onto inner surface of the inner glass. The patch antenna is feed by a coupled aperture on the ground plan, therefore, no hole is required on the glass. The antenna is conformal to the glass and can be hidden under the black paint around the perimeter of the window glass. The measured peak gain of the antenna is around 5 dBi and the antenna can be embedded into windshield, back window and side windows for a combined omnidirectional far field radiation pattern in terrestrial direction. Since the antenna is part of the window glass, not additional antenna packaging required. In addition the patch antenna can be embedded around the perimeter…
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Prevention of Snow Accretion on Camera Lenses of Autonomous Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Michael Robertson, Haiping Hong, Tommy Tran, Sunil Patil, Venkatesh Krishnan
University of Toledo-Behrouz Mohammadian, Mehdi Sarayloo, Jamie Heil, Hossein Sojoudi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0105
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, the autonomous vehicles (AV) have attracted considerable attention in the automotive industry. However, different factors negatively impact the adoption of the AVs, delaying their successful commercialization. Accretion of atmospheric icing, especially wet snow, on AV sensors causes blockage on their lenses, making them prone to lose their sight, in turn, increasing potential chances of accidents. In this study, two different designs are proposed in order to prevent snow accretion on the lenses of AVs via air flow across the lens surface. In both designs, lenses made of plain glass and superhydrophobic coated glass surfaces are tested. While some researchers have shown promise of water repellency on superhydrophobic surfaces, more snow accretion is observed on the superhydrophobic surfaces, when compared to the plain glass lenses. In the experiments, snow is formed using a novel snow gun inside a walk-in cold room connected to a wind tunnel that can reach wind speeds of up to 40 mph. It is observed that the air flow over the lens significantly reduces the…
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Spectral Transmission Test

Glazing Materials Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1796_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-11 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this SAE performance standard is to define the test method by which the direct solar and visible transmittance of safety glazing materials for road vehicles shall be measured. Adherence to this performance standard will facilitate writing, use, and referencing of reports by government, industry, and other organizations.
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