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Design of a novel Electro-Pneumatic gear shift system for a Sequential gearbox

Vellore Institute of Technology-Jeevesh Jain, Vaibhav Mittal, Dore Ranganath Srinivasa Raghuraman, Shivam Singh Rathore, Sumit Nilesh Vadodaria
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0011
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design of a novel pneumatic gear shifting system to replace the existing gear stick manual shifting system for ease of the driver while shifting gears. The aim of this work is to have a semi-automatic shifting(pneumatic shifting) removing the need for the driver clutch operation. The system consists of a solenoid valve, CO2 gas pressurized cylinder, double acting cylinder, and single acting cylinder. On basis of the signal received the gear needs to be changed, the shifter opens or closes a magnetic valve assembly. The solenoid valve allows the compressed air into the piston that comes from a pressurized cylinder, in order to create the effect of shifting gears. Pedal shifter and buttons are used to shift the gears. The pedal shifter was designed by using a 3-D printing technique using PLA material. The microcontroller used is ATMEGA-328 in this system. There are three switches, one for upshift, downshift, and clutch respectively. An algorithm has been created in a microcontroller for a sequential gearbox of CBR 600RR. The system has been…
 

Damage matching criterion for development of accelerated duty cycle from road load data, and achieving right duty cycle to determine gear and bearing durability.

Romax Solutions-Amol Korde
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0121
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
While designing the transmission, designer needs to have a duty cycle which is a set of load cases against which he wants to confirm the durability of the same. This is done through data acquisition by running a vehicle on various terrains and converting those data points to a concise set of load cases which we term as duty cycle. This is required because data acquired has millions of data points giving value of torque and RPM at every millisecond which cannot be directly used to assess the fatigue durability of gears and bearings. Converting these millions of road load data points into fewer number of load cases is always a challenge. For a transmission designer, it is being a major hurdle to determine as what is the scientific way of converting these millions of data points into a concise duty cycle. The road load data is taken for few hundred or few thousand kilometres covering enough types of terrains on which vehicle is expected to run. But the methods available with todays engineers does…
 

Influence of Retained austenite on fatigue performance of carburized gears

Comstar Automotive Tech P Ltd.-Rajeshkumar Ramasamy, Seenuvas Sivathanu, Varatharaj Neelakandan, Thulasirajan Ganesan, Praveen Chakrapani Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0102
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
SAE 8620 and 20MnCr5 are widely used materials for gears in automotive application. The materials were subjected to carburizing process to obtain the identical hardened layer of HRC 61-64. The carburized surface and core properties of the materials were examined and characterized through optical microstructure to measure the presence of cementite carbides and Retained Austenite (RA). From the results, it was found that the SAE 8620 and 20MnCr5 materials have 10 % and 14% of RA respectively. Whereas, the core and case structure were free from network carbides. The fatigue test were conducted to correlate the RA and fatigue strength of the materials. It was revealed that material with lower RA has higher fatigue strength than material with higher RA. Higher the amount of retained austenite leads to reduction in amount of martensitic and compressive residual stress attributed to lower the contact fatigue strength. Untransformed austenite is metastable and it is transformed to untempered martensite, which causes brittleness to the component and leads to premature failure.
 

Performance Analysis of an Automated Manual Transmission Controller for Two-wheeler

ARAI Academy-Kiran Pralhad Wani
CoEP-ARAI Academy-Saurabh Sunil Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0125
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This research paper presents controller development and performance analysis for the two-wheeler. The comparison for different performance parameters is carried out with and without automated manual transmission (AMT) controller. The AMT considered, in this case, includes a conventional manual transmission gear-box with a conventional clutch pedal. It is equipped with clutch actuation with the help of linear actuator and the gear shifting using a servo motor. The upshift and downshifting of the gears and the clutch actuation is done through the decisions of the controller. The results generated during the engine dynamometer test are used as input creating a two-wheeler vehicle model using AVL cruise software. This vehicle model is used to predict vehicle performance. These vehicle performance results are validated with chassis dynamometer test data. The vehicle model is modified for the generation of gear shifting plot. AlsoGear shift program (GSP) is generated using the GSP generation module of AVL cruise software. The two criteria used for GSP generation are fuel economy and vehicle acceleration performance. The simulation results include generation of gear shifting…
 

Parametric Calculation and Significance of Engine Dynamic Torque in Performance Benchmarking of a Vehicle

Mahindra Research Valley-Praveen Kumar Ramani, Bharathraj Jayaraman, Sangeetha Ramasamy Thiruppathi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0028
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industries around the globe is undergoing massive transformation towards technological capability to meet stringent legislative norms on fuel economy and emission. It is a challenging process to meet the regulatory standards without compromising on performance. The torque delivered by the engine at wide open throttle position in a transient condition from low idle to higher engine rpm is known as dynamic torque, which always need not to follow the defined FTP curve. The engine dynamic torque plays a crucial part in performance benchmarking of a vehicle as a visualization parameter to set the project targets. There exist a few methodologies to measure the engine brake torque like direct measurement using torque transducer which adds complexity and cost to the vehicle, ECU measured torque based on amount of fuel injection and empirical calculation using known engine speed. Since every method is having their own capabilities, limitations and none of them are efficient to capture real transient torque behavior of an engine. This work elaborates about the role of dynamic torque on performance improvement and…
 

Design Optimization of Differential Bevel Gear for NVH Improvement

American Axle & Manufacturing-Zhenghong Shi, Jui Chen, Mohsen Kolivand, Zhaohui Sun, Gregory Kopp, Ying Peng
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
With fast pacing development of automobile industry and growing needs for better driving experience, NVH performance has become an important aspect of analysis in new driveline product development especially in hybrid and electric powered vehicles. Differential bevel gear has significant role in the final drive. Unlike parallel axis gears such as spur or helical gear, bevel gear mesh shows more complicated characteristics and its mesh parameters are mostly time-varying which calls for more extensive design and analysis. The purpose of this paper is to conduct design study on a differential bevel gear unit under light torque condition and evaluate its NVH characteristics. Unloaded tooth contact analysis (UTCA) of those designs are conducted and compared for several design cases with different micro geometry to investigate their pattern position and size variation effects on NVH response. Loaded tooth contact analysis (LTCA) that is based on semi-analytical and semi-FE method is used to compare other mesh parameters such as mesh point, line-of-action (LOA) and mesh stiffness. For experimental study, several 11x16 gear pairs are tested at multiple gear…
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Gear System Parameters and Its Influence on Gearbox Noise

General Motors Technical Centre India-Yogesh Kumar Dewangan, Pranoy Sureshbabu Nair, Dipin Nair
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Tonal noise due to gears is one of the fundamental noise problems in a gearbox. Gear tooth deflections generate dynamic forces that lead to unwanted load fluctuations, thus noise. Different factors that are considered to control this noise, some to mention like proper gear macro design, microgeometry corrections, and housing compliance. However, identifying the appropriate variable as a measure of contribution to the overall response helps in getting more accurate remedial solutions. Some outputs to track are different harmonic components of TE, temperature effects, components of forces, rim compliance and friction.For evaluation, usually, the amplitudes of individual harmonics of transmission error are related to the respective orders of the noise levels assuming it as one of the primary excitation parameters of gear noise. In this paper, a brief overview of TE and its harmonic distribution is discussed with the example of an ideal gear mesh model and then quantifying TE with the introduction of mesh misalignment. The effect of providing additional microgeometry corrections to compensate for the misalignment is also discussed.The study in this paper…
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The Utilization of Onboard Sensor Measurements for Estimating Driveline Damping

Michigan Technological University-Jon Furlich, Jason Blough, Darrell Robinette
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The proliferation of small silicon micro-chips has led to a large assortment of low-cost transducers for data acquisition. Production vehicles on average exploit more than 60 on board sensors, and that number is projected to increase beyond 200 per vehicle by 2020. Such a large increase in sensors is leading the fourth industrial revolution of connectivity and autonomy. One major downfall to installing many sensors is compromises in their accuracy and processing power due to cost limitations for high volume production. The same common errors in data acquisition such as sampling, quantization, and multiplexing on the CAN bus must be accounted for when utilizing an entire array of vehicle sensors. A huge advantage of onboard sensors is the ability to calculate vehicle parameters during a daily drive cycle to update ECU calibration factors in real time. One such parameter is driveline damping, which changes with gear state and drive mode. A damping value is desired for every gear state. Recent years have seen an increasing number of forward gear ratios, from 8-10 in production vehicles.…
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Optimization of Hypoid Gear Tooth Profile Modifications on Vehicle Axle System Dynamics

Chongqing University of Technology-Weiqing Zhang, Shouli Sun
University of Texas- Arlington-Chia-Ching Lin, Yawen Wang, Kan Wang, Teik C. Lim
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The vehicle axle gear whine noise and vibration are key issues for the automotive industry to design a quiet, reliable driveline system. The main source of excitation for this vibration energy comes from hypoid gear transmission error (TE). The vibration transmits through the flexible axle components, then radiates off from the surface of the housing structure. Thus, the design of hypoid gear pair with minimization of TE is one way to control the dynamic behavior of the vehicle axle system. In this paper, an approach to obtain minimum TE and improved dynamic response with optimal tooth profile modification parameters is discussed. A neural network algorithm, named Back Propagation (BP) algorithm, with improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to predict the TE if some tooth profile modification parameters are given to train the model. With the optimal hypoid gear tooth profile modification, a system level analysis of vehicle axle system is performed to verify the improvement on dynamic response aiming at minimizing the TE. A case study of a hypoid gear pair with specified design…
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Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

FCA US LLC-Vinod Singh, Anil Charan
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Aniket Parbat
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications. The demand for power has shifted from mechanical domain into electrical domain, and as such, the solution to electric drive NVH issues also lay partly, in the way these drive systems are calibrated. A time-domain Transfer Path Analysis…
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