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Experimental Investigation of Electric Vehicle Performance and Energy Consumption on Chassis Dynamometer Using Drive Cycle Analysis

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, India-Gananath Doulat Thakre
Indian Institute of Petroleum CSIR, India-Robindro Lairenlakpam
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0002
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This article reports an experimental study carried out to investigate the vehicle performance and energy consumption (EC) of an electric vehicle (EV) on three different driving cycles using drive cycle analysis. The driving cycles are the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). A new prototype electric powertrain was developed using an indigenous three-phase induction motor (3PIM), Li-ion battery (LiB) pack, vector motor controller, and newly developed mechanical parts. In this research work, a pollution-causing gasoline car (Maruti Zen) was converted into an EV by using the new powertrain. The EV conversion vehicle was used as the test vehicle. After the removal of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) the new powertrain was integrated with the vehicle’s gearbox (GB) system which was configured on a single motor, fixed gear configuration having a gear ratio of 1.28:1. The EV performance tests were carried out on the chassis dynamometer that followed the driving cycles. The maximum speed test showed a top speed of 64 km/h for the EV.…
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Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

Florida Polytechnic University-Rahul Razdan
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019005
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components - which together represent almost $2 trillion of the U.S. economy - are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs.In this SAE EDGE™ report, six senior industry leaders in the impacted ecosystems essay articles which describe sectors of the current automotive ecosystem and the manner in which AV technology can potentially reshape them - providing a mosaic of the massive infrastructure shifts which will be required to absorb AV technologies.NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports…
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Design of a Novel Electro-Pneumatic Gear Shift System for a Sequential Gearbox

Vellore Institute of Technology-Jeevesh Jain, Vaibhav Mittal, Dore Ranganath Srinivasa Raghuraman, Shivam Singh Rathore, Sumit Nilesh Vadodaria
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design of a novel pneumatic gear shifting system to replace the existing gear stick manual shifting system for ease of the driver while shifting gears. The aim of this work is to have a semi-automatic shifting (pneumatic shifting) removing the need for the driver clutch operation. The system consists of a solenoid valve, CO2 gas-pressurized cylinder, double-acting cylinder, and single-acting cylinder. On basis of the signal received the gear needs to be changed, the shifter opens or closes a magnetic valve assembly. The solenoid valve allows the compressed air into the piston that comes from a pressurized cylinder, in order to create the effect of shifting gears. The pedal shifter and buttons are used to shift the gears. The pedal shifter was designed by using a 3-D printing technique using PLA material. The microcontroller used is ATMEGA-328 in this system. There are three switches, one for upshift, downshift, and clutch respectively. An algorithm has been created in a microcontroller for a sequential gearbox of CBR 600RR. The system has been so…
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Damage Matching Criterion for Development of Accelerated Duty Cycle from Road Load Data, and Achieving Right Duty Cycle to Determine Gear and Bearing Durability

Romax Solutions-Amol Korde
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
While designing the transmission, designer needs to have a duty cycle which is a set of load cases against which he wants to confirm the durability of the same. This is done through data acquisition by running a vehicle on various terrains and converting those data points to a concise set of load cases which we term as duty cycle. This concise set of load cases required because data acquired has millions of data points giving value of torque and RPM at every millisecond which cannot be directly used to assess the fatigue durability of gears and bearings. Converting these millions of road load data points into fewer number of load cases is always a challenge. For a transmission designer, it is being a major hurdle to determine as what is the scientific way of converting these millions of data points into a concise duty cycle. The road load data is taken for few hundred or few thousand kilometres covering enough types of terrains on which vehicle is expected to run. The methods available with…
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Influence of Retained Austenite on Fatigue Performance of Carburized Gears

Comstar Automotive Tech P Ltd.-Rajeshkumar Ramasamy, Seenuvas Sivathanu, Varatharaj Neelakandan, Thulasirajan Ganesan, Praveen Chakrapani Rao
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
SAE 8620 and 20CrMo materials were subjected to carburizing process to obtain the identical hardened layer of HRC 61-64. The carburized surface and core properties of the materials were examined and characterized through optical microstructure to measure the presence of cementite carbides and Retained Austenite (RA). From the results, it was found that the SAE 8620 and 20CrMo materials have 10 % and 14% of RA respectively. Whereas, the core and case structure were free from network carbides. The fatigue test was conducted to correlate the RA and fatigue strength of the materials. It was revealed that material with lower RA has higher fatigue strength than material with higher RA. Higher amount of retained austenite leads to reduction in amount of martensitic and compressive residual stress attributed to lower the contact fatigue strength. Untransformed austenite is metastable and is transformed to untempered martensite, which causes brittleness to the component and leads to premature failure.
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Performance Analysis of an Automated Manual Transmission Controller for Two-Wheeler

ARAI Academy-Kiran Pralhad Wani
CoEP-ARAI Academy-Saurabh Sunil Patil
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This research paper presents controller development and its performance analysis for two wheeler. The comparison for different performance parameters is carried out with and without automated manual transmission (AMT) controller. The AMT considered in this case, includes a conventional manual transmission gear-box with conventional clutch pedal. It is equipped with clutch actuation with the help of linear actuator and the gear shifting using servo motor. The upshift and downshifting of the gears and the clutch actuation is done through the decisions of controller. The results generated during the engine dynamometer test are used as input creating two wheeler vehicle model using AVL cruise software. This vehicle model is used to predict vehicle performance. The vehicle performance results are validated with chassis dynamometer test data. The vehicle model is modified for generation of gear shifting plot. Also Gear shift program (GSP) is generated using the GSP generation module of AVL cruise software. The two criteria used for GSP generation are fuel economy and vehicle acceleration performance. The simulation results include generation of gear shifting graph which…
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Parametric Calculation and Significance of Engine Dynamic Torque in Performance Benchmarking of a Vehicle

Mahindra Research Valley-Praveen Kumar Ramani, Bharathraj Jayaraman, Sangeetha Ramasamy Thiruppathi
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industries around the world is undergoing massive transformation towards identifying technological capabilities to improve vehicle performance. In this regard, the engine dynamic torque plays a crucial role in defining the transient performance and drivability of a vehicle. Moreover, the dynamic torque is used as a visualization parameter in performance prediction of a vehicle to set the right engineering targets and to assess the engine potential. Hence, an accurate measurement and prediction of the engine dynamic torque is required. However, there are very few methodologies available to measure the engine dynamic torque with reasonable accuracy and minimum efforts. The measurement of engine brake torque using a torque transducer is one of the potential methods. However, it requires a lot of effort and time to instrument the vehicle. It is also possible to back-calculate the engine torque based on fuel injection quantity and other known engine parameters. Though this calculation method is relatively easy, it is not an accurate method. Moreover, it would not be possible to extract engine information of benchmark vehicles. Since every…
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ERRATUM

SAE International Journal of Engines

Université de Lyon-Charlotte Fossier, Christophe Changenet, Fabrice Ville
Volvo Group-Denis Barday, Vincent Berier
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-01-0004.1
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Tiny “Walking” Motor Moves in Discrete Mechanical Steps

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35261
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A set of five tiny fundamental parts can be assembled into a wide variety of functional devices including a tiny “walking” motor that can move back and forth across a surface or turn the gears of a machine. The work offers an alternative to current approaches to constructing robots, which largely fall into one of two types: custom machines that work well but are relatively expensive and inflexible, and reconfigurable ones that sacrifice performance for versatility.

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Operator Controls and Displays on Motorcycles

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J107_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to two- and three-wheel motorcycles intended for highway use. Vehicles commonly known as mopeds and mini-bikes are included in this vehicle category if they are intended for highway use.
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