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High Frequency Vibration Transmission Analysis on Agricultural Tractor by Using Combined Dynamical Energy Analysis and Transfer Path Analysis Approach

University of Nottingham-Gregor Tanner, Martin Richter
Yanmar R&D Europe s.r.l-Satoshi Morita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0527
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) has recently been introduced as a mesh-based high frequency method modelling structure borne sound for complex built-up structures. Using DEA, the structure-borne sound of an assembled agricultural tractor was calculated and good agreement between measurement and DEA calculations has been shown. However, it is still difficult to model a solid structure as currently DEA is based on wave-transmission calculations through plates and plate-to-plate junctions. Additionally, it is often difficult to generate accurate FE meshes of assembled complex structures because of welds, bolts, and rubber brushes between components. In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate DEA elements based on measurement data in order to model solid parts of a complex structures. The method of Advanced Transfer Path Analysis (ATPA) is employed to extract energy-transmission characteristics of a structure. Firstly, Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) are measured between interface points on a structure. Then the direct transfer functions between all interface points are calculated using ATPA. Finally, DEA elements connecting interface points are calculated. They are based on the ATPA result…
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Two-Speed Transmission Gear Shift Process Analysis and Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

China-Zhan Cao
China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., China-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 08-09-01-0001
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Electric Vehicle (EV) equipped with two-speed transmission has benefit in improving dynamic performance and saving battery consumption. However, during gear shift process, torque interruption and shift impact may lead to a bad shift quality. This work investigates gear shift process in an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) configuration-based two-speed transmission. First of all, a typical gear shift process is analyzed. Parameters like motor speed, shift force, motor torque change rate, and speed difference between synchronizer and target engage gear are all included to find the relationships with shift duration. Then vehicle jerk is introduced as a criterion to evaluate shift impact. Besides, a comprehensive shift control strategy is developed. While keeping the output torque at wheels unchanged, the shift strategy also improved motor working efficiency after gear shift. Therefore, to determine an optimum shift strategy and achieve a balance among different parameters, Genetic Algorithm (GA) multi-objective optimization method is implemented. Through GA optimization, several solutions are presented and discussed. The final results can well satisfy the requirements of different objectives. This work provides a novel and…
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Right Shifting for Fuel Economy

VW do Brasil / Centro Universitário FEI-Fernando Fusco Rovai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0095
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is one of the main drivers of the automotive industry. This subject is becoming more and more important showing a clear upraising relevance tendency. The automotive community is researching and developing many solutions and trending technologies to improve the internal combustion engine, realizing its existence is under risk due to strong greenhouse gas impact. Some innovative technologies focus on the internal combustion engines replacement by other energy conversion systems. Other new technologies improve internal combustion engines efficiency but, in most of the cases, impacts on its costs and consequently on its viability, especially considering the entry level passenger cars. In these applications, the cost impact is hardly acceptable by the customers and this market represents a considerable part of the global automotive industry. Any opportunity to improve the vehicle efficiency with minimum cost is welcome. This paper intends to assess the development and application of a gear shift indicator in an entry level passenger car. This technology represents a very low cost impact because the engine control unit should add just an improved…
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A proposal for semi-analytical model of teeth contact with application to gear dynamics

Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospac-Carlo Rosso, Fabio Bruzzone, Tommaso Maggi, Claudio Marcellini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2269
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this paper a semi-analytical (SA) algorithm developed for the solution of the contact problem between two mating spur gears is presented and its application to the study of engagement dynamics is shown. Firstly, a quasi-static two-dimensional (2-D) approach is implemented to solve the contact taking into account several flexibility contributions related to the mating gears. In detail, a modified Hertzian model for the investigation of the real contact area considering the variable curvature of the profiles is developed. A comparison between this model and the classical Hertzian model is shown: the limitations of the classical method, for instance the possibility of analyzing bodies with varying curvatures and the peaks of pressure due to corner contact are therefore overcome. Furthermore, all the different tooth and gear deformations due to the meshing interaction are shown. This allows the computation of the Static Transmission Error (STE), main source of vibration and noise. The influence of tooth profile modifications is also highlighted. A comparison of the calculation of the STE with a Finite Element Method (FEM) model and…
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Experimental Investigation of Electric Vehicle Performance and Energy Consumption on Chassis Dynamometer Using Drive Cycle Analysis

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, India-Gananath Doulat Thakre
Indian Institute of Petroleum CSIR, India-Robindro Lairenlakpam
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0002
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This article reports an experimental study carried out to investigate the vehicle performance and energy consumption (EC) of an electric vehicle (EV) on three different driving cycles using drive cycle analysis. The driving cycles are the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). A new prototype electric powertrain was developed using an indigenous three-phase induction motor (3PIM), Li-ion battery (LiB) pack, vector motor controller, and newly developed mechanical parts. In this research work, a pollution-causing gasoline car (Maruti Zen) was converted into an EV by using the new powertrain. The EV conversion vehicle was used as the test vehicle. After the removal of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) the new powertrain was integrated with the vehicle’s gearbox (GB) system which was configured on a single motor, fixed gear configuration having a gear ratio of 1.28:1. The EV performance tests were carried out on the chassis dynamometer that followed the driving cycles. The maximum speed test showed a top speed of 64 km/h for the EV.…
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Automatic Transmissions - Schematic Diagrams

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J647_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The following schematic diagrams reflect various methods of illustrating automotive transmission arrangements. These have been developed to facilitate a clear understanding of the functional interrelations of the gearing, clutches, hydrodynamic drive unit, and other transmission components. Two variations of transmission diagrams are used: in neutral (clutches not applied), and in gear. For illustrative purposes, some typical transmissions are shown.
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Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

Florida Polytechnic University-Rahul Razdan
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019005
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components - which together represent almost $2 trillion of the U.S. economy - are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs.In this SAE EDGE™ report, six senior industry leaders in the impacted ecosystems essay articles which describe sectors of the current automotive ecosystem and the manner in which AV technology can potentially reshape them - providing a mosaic of the massive infrastructure shifts which will be required to absorb AV technologies.NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports…
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Design of a Novel Electro-Pneumatic Gear Shift System for a Sequential Gearbox

Vellore Institute of Technology-Jeevesh Jain, Vaibhav Mittal, Dore Ranganath Srinivasa Raghuraman, Shivam Singh Rathore, Sumit Nilesh Vadodaria
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design of a novel pneumatic gear shifting system to replace the existing gear stick manual shifting system for ease of the driver while shifting gears. The aim of this work is to have a semi-automatic shifting (pneumatic shifting) removing the need for the driver clutch operation. The system consists of a solenoid valve, CO2 gas-pressurized cylinder, double-acting cylinder, and single-acting cylinder. On basis of the signal received the gear needs to be changed, the shifter opens or closes a magnetic valve assembly. The solenoid valve allows the compressed air into the piston that comes from a pressurized cylinder, in order to create the effect of shifting gears. The pedal shifter and buttons are used to shift the gears. The pedal shifter was designed by using a 3-D printing technique using PLA material. The microcontroller used is ATMEGA-328 in this system. There are three switches, one for upshift, downshift, and clutch respectively. An algorithm has been created in a microcontroller for a sequential gearbox of CBR 600RR. The system has been so…
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Damage Matching Criterion for Development of Accelerated Duty Cycle from Road Load Data, and Achieving Right Duty Cycle to Determine Gear and Bearing Durability

Romax Solutions-Amol Korde
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
While designing the transmission, designer needs to have a duty cycle which is a set of load cases against which he wants to confirm the durability of the same. This is done through data acquisition by running a vehicle on various terrains and converting those data points to a concise set of load cases which we term as duty cycle. This concise set of load cases required because data acquired has millions of data points giving value of torque and RPM at every millisecond which cannot be directly used to assess the fatigue durability of gears and bearings. Converting these millions of road load data points into fewer number of load cases is always a challenge. For a transmission designer, it is being a major hurdle to determine as what is the scientific way of converting these millions of data points into a concise duty cycle. The road load data is taken for few hundred or few thousand kilometres covering enough types of terrains on which vehicle is expected to run. The methods available with…
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Influence of Retained Austenite on Fatigue Performance of Carburized Gears

Comstar Automotive Tech P Ltd.-Rajeshkumar Ramasamy, Seenuvas Sivathanu, Varatharaj Neelakandan, Thulasirajan Ganesan, Praveen Chakrapani Rao
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
SAE 8620 and 20CrMo materials were subjected to carburizing process to obtain the identical hardened layer of HRC 61-64. The carburized surface and core properties of the materials were examined and characterized through optical microstructure to measure the presence of cementite carbides and Retained Austenite (RA). From the results, it was found that the SAE 8620 and 20CrMo materials have 10 % and 14% of RA respectively. Whereas, the core and case structure were free from network carbides. The fatigue test was conducted to correlate the RA and fatigue strength of the materials. It was revealed that material with lower RA has higher fatigue strength than material with higher RA. Higher amount of retained austenite leads to reduction in amount of martensitic and compressive residual stress attributed to lower the contact fatigue strength. Untransformed austenite is metastable and is transformed to untempered martensite, which causes brittleness to the component and leads to premature failure.
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