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Feasibility Study of the Fuel Magnetizer in Flex-Fuel Cars

Centro Universitário FAESA and SENAI-ES-Pablo A. Amorim, Luiz F. De N. Mattos, Everton L. P. Almeida, Gustavo C. Pellacani, Luiz A. M. M. Marques
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0238
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The topic of energy efficiency is currently a subject widely debated in industrial sectors because of its high relevance due to the finite life time of fossil fuels and the need for reduction in consumption and consequently the emissions of gases and the environmental impact. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of fuel magnetizers, a product marketed that, according to suppliers, guarantees an improvement in combustion efficiency, representing a saving of 10% to 22% of fuel. For the analysis of the efficiency of the magnetizer, consumption tests were carried out on engine test bench with and without the use of the product in idling speed, 2000 rpm and 2700 rpm. The conclusions obtained showed that the use of magnetizers did not achieve a satisfactory result in the efficiency of internal combustion engines, a possible factor responsible is the high content of ethanol in Brazilian gasoline.
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Design and optimization of the intake system of a Formula SAE race engine

Federal University of Santa Maria-Pedro Carvalho, Alexandre Piccini, Aleff Goulart, Felipe Balbom, Alice Müller, Thompson Lanzanova, Mario Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0253
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Several motorsport competitions impose restrictions on intake systems to limit maximum engine power. Since the restriction interferes with the efficiency of the intake system as a whole, it is necessary to study ways to minimize the negative effect of changes in engine performance. In practice, the regulation imposes restrictions to the inlet air which motivates the search for the minimum pressure loss in the restrictor while maintaining an equal volumetric efficiency between the cylinders. This way, it is necessary to tune the duct lengths and diameters, and plenum volume to obtain the maximum volumetric efficiency in the most required speeds. Formula SAE competition imposes an intake system restriction of 20 mm or 19 mm diameter (for gasoline or ethanol fueled engines, respectively). Thus, to reduce pressure loss in the imposed restriction orifice, a system with a convergent divergent duct forming a venturi tube was used. This venturi was designed to maximize its discharge coefficient to increase engine volumetric efficiency. Considering that the focus of motorsport competitions is performance, this paper presents a method to minimize…
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Factorial Analysis of Otto Cycle Engine Operating Parameters on the Exhaust Gases Temperature

Federal Institute of the Espírito Santo-Guilherme A. Emerick, Daniel Z. Carmago, Jordan D. Cussuol, Matheus A. Limas, Alan P. S. Siqueira, Lucas H. P. Deoclecio, Filipe A. F. Monhol
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0205
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines are thermal machines that produce work by burning fuel and have a high power-to-weight ratio. A large part of the energy released in the combustion is lost with the exhaust gases and therefore is not converted to useful work. Thus, the understanding of the effects of engine operating factors such as rotation, type of fuel and type of coolant fluid on exhaust gases temperature, which is related to their specific enthalpy, allows optimizing engine performance. In this work, the operating parameters effect on the exhaust temperature were evaluated by means of a 2k factorial design of test runs performed on a Renault CLIO 1.6 Total Flex engine installed in a test bench. The factorial effects were evaluated using the ANOVA method with a significance level of 5%. The investigated factors levels were: rotation (1500 rpm and 3000 rpm), fuel (alcohol and gasoline), coolant (water without additive and water with additive). The results showed that an increase in rotation and the substitution of alcohol by gasoline increase the exhaust gases temperature, which increases…
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Modelling Pressure Losses in Gasoline Particulate Filters in High Flow Regimes and Temperatures

Coventry University-M. Prantoni, S. Aleksandrova, H. Medina, J. Saul, S. Benjamin
Jaguar Land Rover-O. Garcia Afonso
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2330
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study presents a one-dimensional model for the prediction of the pressure loss across a wall-flow gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The model is an extension of the earlier models of Bissett [1] and Konstandopoulos and Johnson [2] to the turbulent flow regime, which may occur at high flow rates and temperatures characteristic of gasoline engine exhaust. A strength of the proposed model is that only one parameter (wall permeability) needs to be calibrated. An experimental study of flow losses for cold and hot flow is presented, and a good agreement is demonstrated. Unlike zero-dimensional models, this model provides information about the flow along the channels and thus can be extended for studies of soot and ash accumulation, heat transfer and reaction kinetics.
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Effects of Coolant Temperature and Fuel Properties on Soot Emission from a Spark-ignited Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Chiba University-Ankur Gupta, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Hisakazu Suzuki
Harbin Engineering University, Chiba University-Qian Xiong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2352
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Effects of measurement method, coolant temperature and fuel composition on soot emissions were examined by engine experiments. By reducing the pressure fluctuation in the sampling line, the measured soot emissions with better stability and reproducibility could be obtained. With lower coolant temperatures, larger soot emissions were yielded at much advanced fuel injection timings. Compared to gasoline, soot emissions with a blend fuel of normal heptane, isooctane and toluene were significantly decreased, suggesting the amounts of aromatic components (toluene or others) should be increased to obtain a representative fuel for the predictive model of particulate matter in SIDI engines.
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Effect of a split-injections strategy on the atomisation rate for charge stratification using a high pressure gasoline multi-hole injector

Brunel University London-Meghnaa Dhanji, Hua Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2248
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Some of the challenges of optimising the gasoline direct-injection engines are achieving high rates of atomisation and evaporation of fuel sprays for effective fuel-air mixture formation. This is especially important for the stratified charge when operating under cold-start and part-load conditions. Poorly mixed charge results in the increased production of total Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Oxides.Many studies have previously focused on improving the spray characteristics of a single fuel injection strategy from direct-injection gasoline injectors, with fuel rail pressures of up to 20MPa. The current study focuses on a split injections strategy and its influence on the spray's structure, fuel-air mixing and atomisation rates. Short pulse widths in the range of 0.3ms to 0.8ms are employed. In particular, the effects of dwell times between the two injections on the second injection's spray characteristics are evaluated.The experiments are carried out inside a constant volume spray chamber with a latest high pressure multi-hole piezo injector. The fuel rail pressures range between 5MPa and 35MPa. The effect of increasing fuel rail pressures on the evaporation and mixing rates of…
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Using RON Synergistic Effects to Formulate Fuels for Better Fuel Economy and Lower CO2 Emissions

ICARE-CNRS, INSIS-Andrea Comandini, Nabiha Chaumeix
IFP Energies nouvelles-David Serrano, Laurie Starck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2155
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The knock resistance of gasoline is a key factor to decrease the specific fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of modern turbocharged spark ignition engines. For this purpose, high RON and octane sensitivity (S) are needed.This study shows a relevant synergistic effect on RON and S when formulating a fuel with isooctane, cyclopentane and aromatics, the mixtures reaching RON levels well beyond the ones of individual components. The same is observed when measuring their knock resistance on a boosted single cylinder engine.The mixtures were also characterized on a rapid compression machine at 700 K and 850 K, a shock tube at 1000 K, an instrumented and an adapted CFR engine. The components responsible for the synergistic effects are thus identified. Furthermore, the correlations plotted between these experiments results disclose our current understanding on the origin of these synergistic effects.This study concludes that this synergistic effect encourages formulating highly paraffinic fuels for lower specific fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions. Thus, paraffins are still relevant compounds to formulate highly efficient gasolines, despite their low octane sensitivity when individually…
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Influence of Component Proportion on Multi-Component Surrogate Fuel Spray Characteristics under Subcooled and Superheated Conditions

Nissan Motor CO., LTD. 560-2, Okatsukoku, Atsugi-shi, Kanaga-Ryo Uchida, Taisuke Shiraishi
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univers-Shangze Yang, Xuesong Li, Min Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2250
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Good comprehension of multi-component fuel spray behavior is essential for the improved performance of GDI engines. In this study, the spray characteristics of three distinct multi-component surrogate fuels with various proportions of n-pentane, iso-octane, and n-decane were investigated using multiple diagnostics including macroscopic imaging, planar laser Mie-scattering, and phase doppler interferometry (PDI). These surrogate fuels were used to mimic different distillation characteristics of regular unleaded gasoline with different vaporization behaviors. Test measurements show that under subcooled test conditions, the spray geometry is mainly influenced by dynamic viscosity. On the contrary, under superheated test conditions, spray geometry is controlled by the specific component of fuel which has the highest vapor pressure. A triangular methodology is created to evaluate the influence of component proportion on spray characteristics. A hierarchical model is then developed to illustrate the macroscopic behavior of multi-component fuel spray which explains well the effect of each component's proportion on the overall spray characteristics.
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Gasoline Fuel Sprays Characterization at Very-High Injection Pressures

Istituto Motori – CNR, Napoli (Italy)-A. Montanaro, L. Allocca, G. Meccariello
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2344
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the modern GDI systems, the optimization of the fuel injection process is essential to prepare an air-fuel mixture capable to promote efficient combustion and reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. A key feature for a better atomization is the fuel injection pressure. The increasing of the injection pressure is considered a good way for particle number (PN) reduction due to improved spray atomization, faster evaporation and better mixture formation.In this paper, a multi-hole GDI injector was tested to investigate the effects of very high injection pressures (IVHP), in addition to different ambient densities and temperatures, on the fuel spray morphology, in a cycle-resolved images analysis. Commercial gasoline was injected at the pressures ranging between 40.0 to 70.0 MPa, at gas densities varying between 1.12 to 11.5 kg/m3, and gas temperature up to 200°C. Sequences of liquid and vapor images of the injected fuel were captured by Mie-scattering and shadowgraph optical techniques on a high-speed C-Mos camera and the characteristic parameters of the jets, tip penetrations, cone-angles, and fuel spread were extracted for both the…
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Study for ignition characteristics and potential of gasoline autoignition combustion with spark assist

Hokkaido University-Yoshimitsu Kobashi
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Kaname Naganuma, Koki Tanaka, Tsubasa Ito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2317
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
A spark assist system was installed in a gasoline direct-injection single-cylinder test engine with the aim of controlling the ignition timing and accomplishing combustion of gasoline fuel by auto/compression ignition. A primary reference fuel having an octane number of 90 (PRF 90) was used to evaluate experimentally the spark assist function for gasoline auto/compression ignition and to examine the feasibility of combustion with a short ignition delay equivalent to conventional diesel combustion using the engine system. An optically accessible single-cylinder test engine was also used to evaluate and investigate spark-assisted auto/compression ignition. Ignition timing controllability with combinations of spark and injection timings for gasoline auto/compression ignition was also investigated under different operating load conditions. The results showed that the spark assist system was required to optimize fuel sprays and a high possibility was seen for soot-less and high thermal efficiency gasoline auto/compression ignition combustion. High thermal efficiency and low emissions performance were also obtained. Thermal efficiency and emissions performance were almost the same under the different load conditions. Maximum indicated thermal efficiency of approximately 42%…
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