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New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

Afton Chemical, Ltd.-Jonathan James Pilbeam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2392
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions. For this paper, injectors from the new VW injector coking test in a clean and coked state were compared to injectors from vehicles in the market in respect of deposit geometry, elemental composition and injector spray…

Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after addition of CNG Tank

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd-Lakshmi Narasimha Varma Jelli, Raghav Budhiraja, Akash goel, Deepak BAKSHI
Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2405
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective The objective of this paper is to achieve a comparable handling performance from a vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its gasoline counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through standard handling evaluation tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the Base vehicle. Further these results are used to tune the suspension parameters to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle. The final parameters are then evaluated in the actual vehicle to verify the study. Methodology A mix of Actual Mule vehicle testing backed by quik Car Sim Model. Full car model is first developed using CarSim by using the parameters of the actual base gasoline vehicle. The modeled vehicle is then tested for standard handling maneuvers such Double Lane Change, Constant Radius Constant Speed and Pulse Input. Further the actual vehicle is run through the exact same tests with the same inputs. The results are used to fine tune the CarSim…

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra-Karthikeyan N Krishnan
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was run to simulate the high-speed exhaust temperature & low speed knock intensity, this is…

A mathematical expression to predict the influence of ethanol concentration on distillation behavior of gasoline-ethanol fuel blend and impact of non -ionic surfactant on E20 fuel

Bharat Petroleum Corp., Ltd.-Rajendiran Adimoolam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2386
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend. A linear equation is established from the distillation data to predict the impact of % ethanol on % volume recovery and maximum temperature drop in distillation test of gasoline-ethanol fuel blends. Addition of non-ionic surfactant in ethanol blended gasoline (E20) reduces the azeotrope behaviour significantly and flattens the distillation curve. E70, vapour lock index (VLI),…

Enhancement of Performance and Emission Characteristics of SI Engine Using Multi Ground Spark Plug With Alcohol Fuel Blends

VNR VJIET-Raju Tappa, Amjad Shaik, Raghav Gopal Rao, Srinivasa Rao Talluri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0154
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Limited fossil fuel reserves, steadily rising prices, incremental vehicle population and increased environmental concerns have sparked a need to evaluate alternate fuels for internal combustion engine vehicles. Alcohol fuels with high oxygen content and higher octane number become an attractive option for spark ignition (SI) engines. In practice, there are so many techniques to improve the engine performance and emission characteristics with alcohol and gasoline fuel blends. However, continuous operation of single ground electrode causes erosion of electrodes that loosens its ignitability which intern leads to higher emissions and reduced performance. Hence, there is a need to explore the influence of spark plug design for further improvement in engine performance and emission reduction. This paper provides an insight on the effect of potential alternative fuels like methanol blends and their influence on the performance and emission characteristics of a SI engine using a multi ground electrode spark plug. An experimental investigation on SI engine using various methanol blends like M30, M20, M10 and neat gasoline has been carried out and compared with stock engine at…

Effects of Prechamber on Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction of a SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and CNG

Istituto Motori CNR-Paolo Sementa, Francesco Catapano, SILVANA Di Iorio, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0236
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction. The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in an real small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with Gasoline and CNG and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber. In particular, Gasoline and CNG were used to analyze the effects of the prechamber on engine performance and associated pollutant emissions. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Mass Burned Fraction were used to evaluate the effects on engine performance. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed. Emissions samples were taken from the exhaust flow, just downstream of the valves. Opacity was measured downstream the Three-Way Catalyst. Three different engine speeds were investigated, namely 2000, 3000 and 4000 rpm. Stoichiometric and lean condition…

Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

European Commission Joint Research-Biagio Ciuffo, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Giuseppe DiPierro, Federico Millo, Claudio Cubito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0240
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Until 2017, the pollutant emissions and fuel consumption Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles in Europe was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the actual test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyse the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars. The study also considers the effect of the engine warm-up and the impact of the start-stop technology in this new TA scenario. It was found that, although the higher test mass and Road Loads (RLs), as well as the higher driving cycle dynamics…

Study of Fuel Octane Sensitivity Effects on Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Using Optical Diagnostics

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Hao Shi, Yanzhao An, Bengt Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0025
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a low-temperature combustion (LTC) concept that could deliver higher engine efficiency, as well as lower NOx and soot emissions. Gasoline-like fuels are beneficial for air/fuel mixing process under PPC mode because they have superior auto-ignition resistance to prolong ignition delay time. In current experiments, the high octane number gasoline fuel E10 (US market used gasoline, RON=91) and low octane number GCI blend fuel (RON=77) were tested respectively in a full-transparent AVL single cylinder optical compression ignition (CI) engine. Aiming at investigating the fuel sensitivity on engine performances under different combustion modes as well as soot particle emissions, the engine operating parameters and emission data were analyzed from CI to HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) via PPC (partially premixed combustion) by changing fuel injection timing. In addition, in order to get a deep insight of in-cylinder auto-ignition and combustion evolution process, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and high-speed natural flame luminosity (NFL) imaging techniques are used for visualizing fuel distribution, auto-ignition kernel development and combustion processes.

Knock and Pre-Ignition Limits on Utilization of Ethanol in Octane–on–Demand Concept

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Eshan Singh, Robert Dibble
Saudi Aramco-Kai Morganti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0108
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Octane-on-Demand (OoD) is a viable technology for reducing global greenhouse emissions from automobiles. The concept utilizes a low-octane fuel for most operating conditions. Previous research has focused on the minimum ethanol content required for achieving a specific load at a given speed as the low-octane fuel becomes knock limited as the load increases. However, it is also widely known that ethanol has a high tendency to pre-ignite, attributed by few to its high laminar flame speed and surface ignition tendency. Moreover, ethanol has a lower calorific value, requiring a larger fuel mass to be injected to achieve similar power. A larger fuel mass increases the oil dilution by the liquid fuel, creating precursors for pre-ignition. Hence the limits on ethanol addition owing to pre-ignition also needs consideration before the technology can be implemented. In this regard, experiments were performed using light naphtha RON 68 gasoline and ethanol, in direct and port injection configuration respectively. Load was parametrically swept by increasing the intake air and fuel quantity, until pre-ignition limited IMEP was reached. Three different engine…

Exploration of Cavitation-suppressing Orifice Designs for a Heavy-duty Diesel Injector Operating with Straight-Run Gasoline

Aramco Research Center - Detroit-Yuanjiang Pei, Michael L. Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Roberto Torelli, Gina M. Magnotti, Sibendu Som
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0126
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The occurrence of cavitation inside injectors is generally undesirable since it can cause material erosion and result in deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Previous numerical work employing an injector geometry measured with x-ray diagnostics and operating with a high-volatility straight-run gasoline has shown that: (1) most of the cavitation is generally observed at low needle lifts, (2) needle motion is responsible for asymmetric structures in the internal flow as well as large pressure and velocity gradients that trigger phase transition at the orifice inlets, and (3) cavitation affects the injector discharge coefficient and distribution of injected fuel. To explore the potential for material damage within the injector orifices due to cavitation cloud collapse, the cavitation-induced erosion risk assessment (CIERA) tool has been applied for the first time to the realistic geometry of a heavy-duty injector using the CONVERGE software. Critical locations with high erosive potential matched qualitatively well with x-ray scans of an eroded injector sample that underwent a durability test with straight-run gasoline. This motivated a CFD exploration of a series…