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A Method for Improvement in Data Quality of Heat Release Metrics Utilising Dynamic Calculation of Cylinder Compression Ratio

SAE International Journal of Engines

Kistler AG, Switzerland-Mario Nahkle, David R. Rogers, Janko Meier
University of Stuttgart, Germany-Hubert Fusshoeller, Michael Bargende
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0010
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
One of the key factors for accurate mass burn fraction and energy conversion point calculations is the accuracy of the compression ratio. The method presented in this article suggests a workflow that can be applied to determine or correct the compression ratio estimated geometrically or measured using liquid displacement. It is derived using the observation that, in a motored engine, the heat losses are symmetrical about a certain crank angle, which allows for the derivation of an expression for the clearance volume [1]. In this article, a workflow is implemented in real time, in a current production engine indicating system. The goal is to improve measurement data quality and stability for the energy conversion points calculated during measurement procedures. Experimental and simulation data is presented to highlight the benefits and improvement that can be achieved, especially at the start of combustion. The method calculated a compression ratio correction of 0.3 and 0.25 on two different gasoline engines, respectively. At 2000 rpm a deviation in the 5% and 10% energy conversion angles (CA05 and CA10) of…
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New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

Afton Chemical, Ltd.-Jonathan James Pilbeam, Alex Robert Thomson
Birmingham University-Hongming Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2392
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions. For this paper, injectors from the new VW injector coking test in a clean and coked state were compared to injectors from vehicles in the market in respect of deposit geometry, elemental composition and injector spray…
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Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after addition of CNG Tank

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Lakshmi Narasimha Varma Jelli, Raghav Budhiraja, Akash Goel, Deepak Bakshi, Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2405
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective The objective of this paper is to achieve a comparable handling performance from a vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its gasoline counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through standard handling evaluation tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the Base vehicle. Further these results are used to tune the suspension parameters to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle. The final parameters are then evaluated in the actual vehicle to verify the study. Methodology A mix of Actual Mule vehicle testing backed by quik Car Sim Model. Full car model is first developed using CarSim by using the parameters of the actual base gasoline vehicle. The modeled vehicle is then tested for standard handling maneuvers such Double Lane Change, Constant Radius Constant Speed and Pulse Input. Further the actual vehicle is run through the exact same tests with the same inputs. The results are used to fine tune the CarSim…
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Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi, Karthikeyan N Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was run to simulate the high-speed exhaust temperature & low speed knock intensity, this is…
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A mathematical expression to predict the influence of ethanol concentration on distillation behavior of gasoline-ethanol fuel blend and impact of non -ionic surfactant on E20 fuel

Bharat Petroleum Corp., Ltd.-Siddhartha Mitra, Rajendiran Adimoolam, Kashinath Sutar, Debashis Ganguli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2386
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend. A linear equation is established from the distillation data to predict the impact of % ethanol on % volume recovery and maximum temperature drop in distillation test of gasoline-ethanol fuel blends. Addition of non-ionic surfactant in ethanol blended gasoline (E20) reduces the azeotrope behaviour significantly and flattens the distillation curve. E70, vapour lock index (VLI),…
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1D Numerical and Experimental Investigations of an Ultralean Pre-chamber Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Business Unit Gasoline Powertrains FEV Europe GmbH in Aachen, Germany-Christoph Müller, Knut Habermann
Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Italy-Vincenzo De Bellis
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0012
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, lean-burn gasoline Spark-Ignition (SI) engines have been a major subject of investigations. With this solution, in fact, it is possible to simultaneously reduce NOx raw emissions and fuel consumption due to decreased heat losses, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and enhanced knock resistance. However, the real applicability of this technique is strongly limited by the increase in cyclic variation and the occurrence of misfire, which are typical for the combustion of homogeneous lean air/fuel mixtures. The employment of a Pre-Chamber (PC), in which the combustion begins before proceeding in the main combustion chamber, has already shown the capability of significantly extending the lean-burn limit. In this work, the potential of an ultralean PC SI engine for a decisive improvement of the thermal efficiency is presented by means of numerical and experimental analyses. The SI engine is experimentally investigated with and without the employment of the PC with the aim to analyze the real gain of this innovative combustion system. For both configurations, the engine is tested at various speeds, loads, and air-fuel ratios. A…
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Mahle reveals modular, scalable integrated hybrid powertrain

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_10
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Mahle is developing a complete “fits all, off-the-shelf” modular hybrid-drive propulsion system for a wide range of automakers' models, designed to cut costs, improve packaging and provide a level of electrified-vehicle commonality not seen before in the auto industry.

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Experimental Analysis of Gasoline Direct Injector Tip Wetting

SAE International Journal of Engines

Technical University of Munich, Germany-Fabian Backes, Sebastian Blochum, Martin Härtl, Georg Wachtmeister
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0006
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
At gasoline direct injection, light-duty engines operated with homogeneous, stoichiometric combustion mode, particulate emissions are mainly formed in diffusion flames that result from prior fuel wall wetting. Besides the piston, liner, and intake valves, the injector tip acts as a main particulate source when fuel is adhered to it during an injection. Hence, this injector tip fuel wetting process and influences on this process need to be analyzed and understood to reduce engine-out particulate emissions. The present work analyzes the injector tip wetting process in an experimental way with a high-speed and high-resolution measurement system at an optically accessible pressure chamber. The performed measurements reveal that injector tip wetting can occur during the complete injection event by different mechanisms. Large spray cone angles at start and at end of injection or distortions of the spray result in direct contact of the fuel spray with the step-hole wall. Additionally, fuel accumulates during an injection in the step-hole volume and discharges onto the injector tip surface subsequently. Furthermore, a poor primary breakup at end of injection can…
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Gasoline Particulate Filter Substrate Heterogeneity Effects on Its Performance

SAE International Journal of Engines

Combustion & Reaction Characterization Laboratory, USA Texas A&M Department of Mechanical Engineering, USA-Pengze Yang
Combustion & Reaction Characterization Laboratory, USA University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA-Andrea Strzelec
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0004
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Continuously tightening Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations make Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop highly desirable as Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines increase in market share. Due to packaging constraints, GPFs are often coated with three-way catalyst (TWC) materials to achieve four-way functionality. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effects of various washcoating strategies on GPF performance. A three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, along with an analytical filtration model was created. A User Defined Function (UDF) was implemented to define the heterogeneous properties of the GPF wall due to washcoating or ash membrane application. The model demonstrated the ability to predict transient filtration efficiency and pressure drop of uncoated and washcoated GPFs. Simulation results showed the evenly coated GPF yielded the best performance compared to other washcoating profiles. The model-predicted results indicated that the sample GPF with a 2.6 g/L ash loading was able to achieve a balance between high initial filtration efficiency and low pressure drop.
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Enhancement of Performance and Emission Characteristics of SI Engine Using Multi Ground Spark Plug with Alcohol Fuel Blends

VNR VJIET-Raju Tappa, Amjad Shaik, Raghav Gopal Rao, Srinivasa Rao Talluri
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Limited fossil fuel reserves, steadily rising prices, incremental vehicle population and increased environmental concerns have sparked a need to evaluate alternate fuels for internal combustion engine vehicles. Alcohol fuels with high oxygen content and higher octane number become an attractive option for spark ignition (SI) engines. In practice, there are so many techniques to improve the engine performance and emission characteristics with alcohol and gasoline fuel blends. However, continuous operation of single ground electrode causes erosion of electrodes that loosens its ignitability which intern leads to higher emissions and reduced performance. Hence, there is a need to explore the influence of spark plug design for further improvement in engine performance and emission reduction. This paper provides an insight on the effect of potential alternative fuels like methanol blends and their influence on the performance and emission characteristics of a SI engine using a multi ground electrode spark plug. An experimental investigation on SI engine using various methanol blends like M10 (, M 10 fuel blend consisted of 10% methanol, 87% gasoline and 3% 2T oil),…
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