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Durability Study of a Light-Duty High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using E10 Gasoline

Aramco Research Center-Tom Tzanetakis, Mark Sellnau, Vincent Costanzo, Michael Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Aniket Tekawade, Brandon Sforzo, Christopher F. Powell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0616
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a 500-hour test cycle was used to evaluate the durability of a prototype high pressure common rail injection system operating up to 1800 bar with E10 gasoline. Some aspects of the hardware were modified from their baseline design in order to accommodate an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine application and mitigate the impacts of exposure to gasoline. Overall system performance was maintained throughout testing as fueling rate and rail pressure targets were continuously achieved. Although evidence of vapor formation in the low-pressure part of the system was observed, there was no significant physical damage to the associated components. Injectors showed no deviation in their flow characteristics after exposure to gasoline and high resolution imaging of the nozzle tips and pilot valve assemblies did not indicate the presence of cavitation damage. The high pressure pump did not exhibit any performance degradation during gasoline testing and teardown analysis after 500 hours showed no evidence of cavitation erosion. Despite the lack of lubricity-improving additives in the gasoline, all other fuel-wetted components survived the test cycle without any…
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Experimental evaluation of a custom gasoline-like blend designed to simultaneously improve φ-sensitivity, RON and octane sensitivity.

Sandia National Laboratories-Dario Lopez Pintor, John Dec, Gerald Gentz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1136
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
φ-sensitivity is a fuel characteristic that has important benefits for the operation and control of low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines. However, regular gasoline is only weakly φ–sensitive at naturally aspirated conditions, so intake boosting is required to take advantage of this property. Thus, there is strong motivation for designing gasoline-like blends that improve φ–sensitivity and simultaneously increase RON and octane sensitivity, to improve performance for LTGC and modern SI engines. In a previous study [SAE 2019-01-0961], a 5-component regulation-compliant fuel blend (CB#1) was computationally designed; and simulations showed promising results compared to regular E10 gasoline (RD5-87). The current study experimentally evaluates CB#1 in a LTGC research engine, and the results are compared to RD5-87. For premixed naturally aspirated conditions, the intake heating required to autoignite CB#1 was similar to RD5-87, ensuring that CB#1 can operate under these conditions as easily as regular gasoline. Furthermore, similar maximum engine loads were reached with both CB#1 and RD5-87 under premixed, high-boost conditions. An independent analysis showed that the RON and octane sensitivity were increased 1.3 and 3.6 units,…
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The Effect of Ethanol Fuels on the Power and Emissions of a Small Mass-Produced Utility Engine

University of Wisconsin-Madison-Saager Paliwal, Glenn R. Bower
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0607
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The effect of low level ethanol fuel on the power and emissions characteristics was studied in a small, mass produced, carbureted, spark-ignited, Briggs and Stratton Vanguard 19L2 engine. Ethanol has been shown to be an attractive renewable fuel by the automotive industry; having anti-knock properties, potential power benefits, and emissions reduction benefits. With increasing availability and the possible mandates of higher ethanol content in pump gasoline, there is interest in exploring the effect of using higher content ethanol fuels in the small utility engine market. The fuels in this study were prepared by gravimetrically mixing 98.7% ethanol with a balance of 87 octane no-ethanol gasoline in approximately 5% increments from pure gasoline to 25% ethanol. Alcor Petrolab performed fuel analysis on the blended fuels and determined the actual volumetric ethanol content was within 2%.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance and emissions of a small utility engine across several load points. Compared to previous works, this study concentrated on engine operation at wide open throttle as any decrease in engine power output…
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Characterizing flash boiling sprays of E10 gasoline from a high-pressure gasoline multi-hole injector

Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University o-Jianguo Du, Balaji Mohan, William L Roberts
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Ca-Tiegang Fang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2249
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Flash boiling, as a potential way to achieve good atomization at low cost, is of great interest to researchers. A customized wide-angle multi-hole gasoline injector was utilized in this work to see how commercial E10 gasoline spray behaves at high injection pressure of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) application from 5 MPa to 45 MPa, and ambient gas pressure from 3 kPa to 300 kPa . A diffused back illumination technique was implemented to visualize the spray at flash boiling and non-flashing conditions. Three different types of spray pattern were observed and correlated to the characteristics like penetration length and spray width. A new parameter, namely optical thickness, was applied in the field of characterizing flash boiling effect for the first time, and compared with widely used penetration length and spray width. Optical thickness was found to be a good indicator for collapse, transition, and non-flashing spray.
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Elastomer Swell Behavior in 1-Propanol, Diisobutylene, Cyclopentanone, and a Furan Mixture Blended in E10 and a Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (BOB)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA-Michael D. Kass, Christopher J. Janke, Raynella M. Connatser, Brian West
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0011
Published 2019-08-21 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of four potential bio-derived blendstock molecules with infrastructure elastomers was determined by measuring the volume change following exposure. The blendstock molecules included 1-propanol, diisobutylene, cyclopentanone, and a furan mixture. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six nitrile rubbers (NBRs), and one each of fluorosilicone, neoprene, polyurethane, and silicone. The elastomers were exposed to the fuel molecules as blends ranging from 0 to 30 vol.% in both a blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) formulation and an E10 fuel. Silicone exhibited excessive swelling in each test fuel, while the other elastomers showed good compatibility (low swell) with diisobutylene, 1-propanol, and the furan mixture when BOB was used as the base fuel. The E10 base fuel produced high (>30%) swell in neoprene, polyurethane, and some nitrile rubbers. In most cases diisobutylene produced the least amount of volume expansion. In contrast, the addition of cyclopentanone produced unacceptably high swelling in each elastomer and is not considered suitable for use with these fuels. Analysis of the results showed that the swelling behavior is predominantly due to the polarity of…
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Performance, Fuel Economy, and Economic Assessment of a Combustion Concept Employing In-Cylinder Gasoline/Natural Gas Blending for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications

SAE International Journal of Engines

Argonne National Laboratory, United States-Thomas Wallner, Michael Pamminger, Riccardo Scarcelli, Christopher Powell, Severin Kamguia Simeu
FCA US LLC, United States-Asim Iqbal, Ron Reese
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-03-0019
Published 2019-04-25 by SAE International in United States
In current production natural gas/gasoline bi-fuel vehicles, fuels are supplied via port fuel injection (PFI). Injecting a gaseous fuel in the intake port significantly reduces the volumetric efficiency and consequently torque as compared to gasoline. In addition to eliminating the volumetric efficiency challenge, direct injection (DI) of natural gas (NG) can enhance the in-cylinder flow, mixing, and combustion process resulting in improved efficiency and performance. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to model high-pressure gaseous injection was developed and validated against X-ray data from Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source. NG side and central DI of various designs and injection strategies were assessed experimentally along with CFD correlation. Significant effects on combustion metrics were quantified and explained via improved understanding of the in-cylinder flow effects due to NG injection. On-demand in-cylinder blending using E10 PFI and NG DI provides an additional lever to adjust in-cylinder turbulence as well as knock resistance across the engine speed and load range. NG DI improves part-load dilution tolerance due to higher in-cylinder turbulence and the high knock resistance of NG compared…
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Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

General Motors LLC-Jeremie Dernotte
Sandia National Laboratories-Gerald Gentz, Chunsheng Ji, Dario Lopez Pintor, John Dec
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge. Then, a second injection supplied the remainder of the fuel (20 - 30%) at a variable timing during the compression stroke, from 200° to 330°CA (0°CA = TDC-intake, 360°CA = TDC-compression) to provide controlled…
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Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engine for Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long-Haul Trucks

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Daniel Cohn, Leslie Bromberg
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, could play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines could fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high emissions. In this paper we analyze the potential for a flex fuel gasoline-alcohol engine approach for a series hybrid powertrain. In this approach the engine would provide comparable (or possibly greater) efficiency than a diesel engine while also providing 90 around lower NOx emissions than present cleanest diesel engine vehicles. Ethanol or methanol would be employed to increase knock resistance. Engines that could be deployed in the relatively near term could also use high rpm operation and /or water injection, to allow operation with a very small amount of alcohol in addition to…
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Emissions from Low- and Mid-Level Blends of Anhydrous Ethanol in Gasoline

Future Fuel Strategies-Nigel Clark, Tammy Klein, David L. McKain
Thiggins Energy Consulting-Terry Higgins
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Typically ethanol is present in gasoline as a 10% blend by volume (E10), although E15, E85 (51 to 83%), and E0 are also available at selected stations. Numerous studies of tailpipe regulated emissions have been conducted to compare emissions from E10 and E0, and there is a growing body of literature addressing blends of E15 and higher. Isolating the effect of ethanol in a study is philosophically difficult, because the ethanol naturally displaces some hydrocarbons, because the ethanol interacts with the remaining gasoline, and because properties of mixing are often nonlinear. Some studies have used splash blending, simply mixing the ethanol with a reference gasoline to produce a blend for comparison to the reference. Others have used match blending, where the objective is to match selected properties of the blend to properties of a reference gasoline. Recent studies have examined both port injected and direct injected engines, the latter being both naturally aspirated and turbocharged, and differing test cycles have been used. In consequence, the conclusions of the studies are not uniform. This paper examines…
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Φ-Sensitivity for LTGC Engines: Understanding the Fundamentals and Tailoring Fuel Blends to Maximize This Property

Sandia National Laboratories-Dario Lopez Pintor, John Dec, Gerald Gentz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Φ-sensitivity is a fuel characteristic that has important benefits for the operation and control of low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines. A fuel is φ-sensitive if its autoignition reactivity varies with the fuel/air equivalence ratio (φ). Thus, multiple-injection strategies can be used to create a φ-distribution that leads to several benefits. First, the φ-distribution causes a sequential autoignition that reduces the maximum heat release rate. This allows higher loads without knock and/or advanced combustion timing for higher efficiencies. Second, combustion phasing can be controlled by adjusting the fuel-injection strategy. Finally, experiments show that intermediate-temperature heat release (ITHR) increases with φ-sensitivity, increasing the allowable combustion retard and improving stability.A detailed mechanism was applied using CHEMKIN to understand the chemistry responsible for φ-sensitivity. For fuels with NTC behavior, φ-sensitivity is greatest in the NTC region due to enhanced ITHR reactions, which explains the experimental correlation between φ-sensitivity and ITHR. Under engine conditions, higher intake pressure means lower intake temperature to balance the reactivity, and both effects increase the φ-sensitivity. However, φ-sensitivity remains almost constant if decreased oxygen concentration…
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