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GMAW Process Parameter Optimization to Reduce Porosity Defect in a Longitudinal Seam Welding of Pressure Vessels

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India-A. Kuppusamy, K. Rameshkumar, A. Sumesh
ELGI Equipment Limited, India-S. Premkumar
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0005
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Pressure vessels are critical equipment used in industries for storing liquids or gases at a pressure significantly different from ambient conditions. Porosity is one of the major weld defects in pressure vessels that leads to failure during inspection and as well as during its service. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process is widely used in industries to fabricate pressure vessels using carbon steel “IS 2062 E250BR” material for storing compressed air. The main objective of this article is to reduce the porosity defect in the longitudinal seam (LS) welding of the pressure vessels. Detailed analysis is carried out to identify the parameters which are influencing the porosity defect. Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) approaches are used to find the optimum value of the weld parameters which produce weld without porosity or any major defects in the pressure vessel. An experimental setup has been established and welding experiments have been conducted under a controlled environment. Experiments were conducted without any external disturbances ensuring clean weld surface and filler wire without any moisture,…
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Development of Low Cost Closed Crankcase Ventilation With Oil Mist Separation System on Light Duty Diesel Engine

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Vishal Kailas Walhekar, Sujit Gavade, Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2578
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Currently automotive industry is facing bi-fold challenge of reduction in greenhouse gases emissions as well as low operating cost. On one hand Emission regulations are getting more and more stringent on other hand there is major focus on customer value proposition.In engine emission the blow by gases are one of the source of greenhouse gases from engine. Blow-by gases not only consist of unburnt hydrocarbons but also carry large amount of oil. If oil is not separated from these gases, it will led to major oil consumption and hence increase total operating cost of Vehicle.Considering the above challenges, effort taken to develop a low-cost closed crankcase ventilation with oil mist separation system on diesel engine. For cost-effective solution, two different design and configuration of oil mist separation system developed.Further, engine with two different above said configuration has been tested for blow-by gasses and oil consumption measurement on Engine test bed and vehicle to understand the behavior in real environment. Further results compared for both configuration and further actions proposed.
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Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

Florida Polytechnic University-Rahul Razdan
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019005
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components - which together represent almost $2 trillion of the U.S. economy - are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs.In this SAE EDGE™ report, six senior industry leaders in the impacted ecosystems essay articles which describe sectors of the current automotive ecosystem and the manner in which AV technology can potentially reshape them - providing a mosaic of the massive infrastructure shifts which will be required to absorb AV technologies.NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports…
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Optimization of RF Magnetron Sputtering Parameters for Deposition of Zinc Oxide Semiconductor Film at Moderate Temperature of 100°C

Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology-Seong-Ju Park
PRIST-Amutha Surabi Muthukarappan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Zinc oxide semiconductor thin films are deposited on glass substrate at different RF magnetron sputtering parameters. The deposited films were characterized as a function of substrate - target distance, gas flow ratio, working pressure and RF power. X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, and hall measurement were utilized to analyze the effect of the deposition condition on the structure, surface morphology and electrical properties of ZnO thin films. The deposition conditions were optimized to give good quality films suitable for the application of flexible or invisible flat panel display. All the films were deposited at 100°C.
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Mechanical and Metallurgical Analysis of HSLA Steel for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Different Shielding Gases

CSI College of Engineering-Dhanraj Gurusamy, Prashanth Murthy, Senthilkumar Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar Nanjappan
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Soundararajan Ranganathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The special designed HSLA (High Speed Low Alloy) Steel is most commonly used in Naval Steel Structures and aircraft structures due to its indigenous properties. The aim of this paper is used to investigate the effect of shielding gases in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process. DMR 249A [HSLA] plates were welded by GTAW by using helium and argon as shielding gas with a flow rate of 16 L/min, the interpass temperature is 140 degree Celsius and the heat input is less than 1.2KJ/min where the impact toughness, Tensile and micro hardness was studied with different shielding gas and the metallurgical properties were analysed in the base metal, heat affected zones and weld zones. A detailed study has been carried out to analyze the elements using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The properties of the high speed low alloy steel carried out reveals a better mechanical properties suitable in naval applications.
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Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321 by Using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

Geethanjali College of Engg. and Tech.-Sudarshan Rikka, Devaiah Malkapuram
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. The joining of the similar and dissimilar metals is carried out by GTAW process and by employing two different types of filler rods SS321 and ERNiCrMo-3, Mechanical properties such as Ultimate Tensile Strength, Young’s Modulus ae found as per ASTM testing standards, Percentage of Elongation also found to know the joint efficiency and Microhardness survey across the weld joint to estimate the hardness variations at different locations such as Weld zone of the metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), and Base metal.
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Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion Resistance Alloy C-2000 Fabricated by Conventional Arc Welding Technique

Hawassa University-Sivan Rajkumar
KPR Institute of Engg and Technology-Balasubramanian Arulmurugan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the current work the metallurgical and tensile properties of the weld joints of alloy C-2000 were investigated. Welding technique employed in this study is Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) and Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas (PC-TIG) welding with autogenous mode and Ni-Cr-Mo rich ERNiCrMo-10 filler wire. The results show that PC-TIG weldment obtained the refined microstructure compared to the TIG weldment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the extent of Cr segregation was observed in all the weldments. PC-TIG welding shows reduced segregation compared to the corresponding TIG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) corroborated the existence of Ni3Cr2 phases in the weld fusion zone. Tensile test results show the PC-TIG weldment obtained marginally higher tensile properties comparing over the corresponding TIG weldment. The strength of the weldments is inferior in all cases in comparison to base metal.
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Heat Treatment of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Parts Minimum Tensile Strength Below 220 ksi (1517 MPa)

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2759/1H
  • Current
Published 2019-09-19 by SAE International in United States
This specification, in conjunction with the general requirements for steel heat treatment covered in AMS2759, establishes the requirements for heat treatment of carbon and low-alloy steel parts to minimum ultimate tensile strengths below 220 ksi (1517 MPa). Parts are defined in AMS2759. Due to limited hardenability in these materials, there are size limits in this specification.
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Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid

Brake Fluids Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1703_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycolethers, and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. These fluids are not intended for use under arctic conditions. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM).
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Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid Based Upon Glycols, Glycol Ethers, and the Corresponding Borates

Brake Fluids Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1704_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycol ethers, and borates of glycolethers, and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. These fluids are not intended for use under arctic conditions. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM).
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