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CFD investigation of exhaust gas bypass on truck trolley heating

John Deere India Private, Ltd.-Nitin Dewangan
John Deere India Pvt Ltd-Megha anawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0006
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Most of the automobile and off-road vehicles leave the 100% exhaust gases to atmosphere. The temperature of the exhaust gas ranges from 200-350 deg C and the exit velocity of the gas is about 40-100 m/s based on the outlet pipe design. Dump trucks are used to transport mud, sticky waste garbage and sometime ice from one place to dump yard. The paper will describe the approach of partially use the exhaust gases for truck trolley by heating the trolley surfaces from the walls. CFD software is used to evaluate the exhaust system pressure drop and bypass exhaust flow rate requirements for effective heating on trolley wall. The simulation also helped to design the appropriate baffle position for optimum pressure drop and recirculation. Conjugate heat transfer CFD analysis is carried out to predict the flow behavior.
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How Well Can mPEMS Measure Gas Phase Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions?

Ford Motor Company-Diep Vu, Joseph Szente, Michael Loos, Matti Maricq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
“Real world emissions” is an emerging area of focus in motor vehicle related air quality. These emissions are commonly recorded using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) designed for regulatory application, which are large, complex and costly. Miniature PEMS (mPEMS) is a developing technology that can significantly simplify on-board emissions measurement and potentially promote widespread use. Whereas full PEMS use analyzers to record NOx, CO, and HCs similar to those in emissions laboratories, mPEMS tend to use electrochemical sensors and compact optical detectors for their small size and low cost. The present work provides a comprehensive evaluation of this approach. It compares measurements of NOx, CO, CO2 and HC emissions from five commercial mPEMS to both laboratory and full regulatory PEMS analyzers. It further examines the use of vehicle on-board diagnostics data to calculate exhaust flow, as an alternative to on-vehicle exhaust flow measurement. The evaluations include two vehicle types, gasoline direct injection and diesel, and employ the US EPA Federal Test Procedure and Worldwide Harmonized Light duty test cycles. The results show that two classes…
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Effect of Geometry Variation in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Siemens Digital Industries Software-Carlo Locci, Chris Lueth, Huong Nguyen, Karin Frojd
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1174
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water transport at high current densities is of main concern for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The water content of the membrane must be high enough to provide maximum electrical conductivity and thus optimal stack performance. Dry-out may also lead to membrane degradation. However, a too high level of humidity leads to cell flooding, blocking the air and fuel flows to the catalyst sites and thus the reactions, resulting in a drop-in efficiency. Fuel cells water transport physics requires further investigation due to its complexity [1,2] and numerical modelling can improve the fundamental understanding of the phenomena. In this work, a 3D comprehensive model for fuel cells is presented. The PEM fuel cell is modelled in Siemens Simcenter STAR-CCM+ [3]. Anode and cathode GDL are modelled as porous media, with electrochemical reactions calculated in an infinitely thin catalyst layer. The membrane is modelled as a solid block including proton and water transport with electro-osmotic drag as well as ohmic heating. A two-phase approach is used to model the gas mixture and liquid water transport…
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Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Different Methods to Improve the Exhaust Gas Temperature in Modern Stage V Off-Road Diesel Engine over Transient Emission Cycles

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Mika Lauren, Toomas Karhu, Miika Laivola, Jan Ekman
University of Vaasa-Seppo Niemi, Kirsi Spoof-Tuomi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0903
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents several methods to improve the exhaust gas temperature of a modern diesel engine. A high exhaust gas temperature is needed to improve the after-treatment system efficiency and particulate filter regeneration in low engine loads. This study is based on experimental measurements of two Stage 5 level off-road diesel engines. The effect of the different heating methods determined over steady state runs and emission and performance are presented with standard emission transient test procedure (NRTC). In the first step of the study, an intake air restriction and an exhaust gas restriction method are compared. The intake restriction produces better fuel economy over the measuring cycle. However, with the exhaust restriction, higher exhaust gas temperature can be achieved in low engine loads. In the second phase of study, the intake air restriction method was implemented in the research engine. In addition, active waste gate controlling, and injection retardation methods were taken in use for heating purposes. The engine performance was determined with normal calibration and with high exhaust temperature calibration. The differences to the…
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Further Experiments on the Effect of Bulk In-Cylinder Temperature in the Pressurized Motoring Setup Using Argon Mixtures

Jaguar & Land Rover-Gilbert Sammut
University of Malta-Carl Caruana, Mario Farrugia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1063
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical friction and heat transfer in internal combustion engines have long been studied through both experimental and numerical simulation. This publication presents a continuation study on a Pressurized Motoring setup, which was presented in SAE paper 2018-01-0121 and found to offer robust measurements at relatively low investment and running cost. Apart from the limitation that the peak in-cylinder pressure occurs around 1 DegCA BTDC, the pressurized motoring method is often criticized on the fact that the gas temperatures in motoring are much lower than that in fired engines, hence might reflect in a different FMEP measurement. In the work presented in SAE paper 2019-01-0930, Argon was used as the pressurization gas due to its high ratio of specific heats. This allowed to achieve higher peak in-cylinder temperatures which close further the gap between fired and motored mechanical friction tests. In 2019-24-0141, Argon was mixed in different proportions with Air to synthesize gases with different ratios of specific heats in the aim of observing any abrupt transitions in the FMEP with different peak in-cylinder temperatures. In…
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Development of Exmani-Heat protector to Improve Sound Absorption using New Perforated Thin Aluminum Plate

Hyundai Motor Group-Jaegi Sim, Minsoo Kim, KwangMin Yoon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0405
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This technology is a technology for reducing the gas flow noise generated from the noise of the vehicle, especially the exhaust system. The primary function of the heat protector is thermal shutdown. However, due to the increase in engine power, downsizing of engines, and the rise of consumer's eye level, solutions about noise are now emphasized. Established the manufacturing technology of 3-ply composite board which can absorb sound in the existing heat protector. For this purpose, mold technology for punching aluminum sheet, optimization technique for punching effect, unique high-strength / high-forming pattern design, sound absorbing material selection and composite sheet molding technology, and noise vibration reduction mounting technology for plate joining were developed.
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Detailed Chemistry based Analysis of the Water Effect on Auto-Ignition of different Octane Number Fuels

Brandenburg University of Technology-Tim Franken, Fabian Mauss
Chalmers University of Technology-Andrea Matrisciano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0551
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water injection can be applied to spark ignited (SI) gasoline engines to increase the Knock Limit Spark Advance (KLSA) and improve the thermal efficiency. The KLSA potential of 6°CA to 11°CA is shown by many research groups for EN228 gasoline fuel using numerical tools and experimental methods. The influence of water is multi-layered since it reduces the in-cylinder temperature by vaporization and higher heat capacity of the fresh gas, it changes the chemical equilibrium in the end gas and prolongs the ignition delay and laminar flame speed. The aim of this work is to extend the investigation of water injection to different octane number fuels (RON0, RON20, RON50, RON80, RON90 and RON100). The investigation is performed for high load operating conditions at three different engine speeds at 1500rpm, 2000rpm and 2500rpm. The numerical toolbox used for the analysis consists of a detailed reaction scheme for gasoline fuels that was previously used to evaluate the water effect on thermodynamics and chemistry, the quasi-dimensional Stochastic Reactor Model and the Detonation Diagram. The detailed reaction scheme is used…
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Pre-design Investigation of Resonant Frequency Effects on Gas Exchange Efficiencies of a One-kW Natural-Gas Linear Engine Alternator

West Virginia University-Nima Zamani Meymian, Mahdi Darzi, Derek Johnson, Parviz Famouri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0488
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Performance of a natural gas two-stroke engine incorporated in a 1-kW free-piston oscillating Linear Engine Alternator (LEA) - a household electricity generator - was investigated under different resonant frequencies for pre-design phase purposes. To increase the robustness, power density, and thermal efficiencies, the crank mechanism in free-piston LEA is omitted and all moving parts of the generator operate at a fixed resonant frequency. Flexure springs are the main source of the LEA’s stiffness and the mass-spring dynamics dominates the engine’s speed. The trade-off between the engine’s performance, mass-spring system limits, and power and efficiency targets versus the LEA speed is very crucial and demands a careful investigation specifically at the concept design stages to find the optimum design parameters and operating conditions. CFD modeling was performed to analyze the effects of resonant frequency on the engine’s gas exchange behavior. To take combustion effects into account, a semi-empirical method was employed to obtain the initial and boundary conditions during the gas exchange from experiments and imported into CFD simulation. The numerical results of the gas exchange…
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Predictive Breakdown Modelling for Spark Plug Design

Caterpillar Inc-Jay Cress
Esgee Technologies-Ashish Sharma, Douglas Breden
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0781
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The lifetime of a spark plug is often limited by the ability of a spark plug to generate spark as the plug erodes and deforms. Many parameters including the spark plug gap distance, geometric features such as corners, and the gas itself influence the breakdown event. In order to asses the viability of a spark plug design, the most ideal solution is to perform full fidelity plasma simulations for each design configuration. However, these simulations are extremely expensive and take a long time to give meaningful results. Thus, there is a need for a fast spark plug breakdown model which can predict the breakdown effectiveness for a large number of spark plug design configurations over a much shorter period of time, narrowing the range of spark plug design which can then be studied using a higher fidelity plasma simulation tool. The objective of this work is to describe a fast, predictive breakdown model to simulate the effectiveness of different spark plug configurations. A spark discharge is preceded by a transient filamentary plasma called a streamer…