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Assessment of Numerical Cold Flow Testing of Gas Turbine Combustor through an Integrated Approach using Rapid Prototyping and Water Tunnel

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Ssheshan Pugazhendhi
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundararaj Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0051
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, it is aimed at developing an integrated approach for combustor modeling involving rapid prototyping and water tunnel testing to assess the cold flow numerical simulations; the physical model will be subjected to cold flow visualization and parametric studies and CFD analysis to demonstrate its capability for undergoing rigorous cold flow testing. A straight through annular combustor is chosen for the present study because of it has low pressure drop, less weight and used widely in modern day aviation engines. Numerical Analysis has been performed using ANSYS-FLUENT. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved using k-ɛ model for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.64 x 10^5- 1.5 x 10^5 based on the annulus diameter. Post processing the results is done in terms of jet penetration, formation of re-circulation zone, effective mixing, flow split and pressure drop for different cases. Physical combustor models are fabricated using Rapid prototyping with Poly Lactic Acid material and approximated 2D combustor model is used for capturing important flow patterns using high speed camera in 2D water tunnel, and…

Parameter optimization during minimum quantity lubrication turning of Inconel 625 alloy with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles dispersed vegetable-oil-based cutting fluid

Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0061
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Inconel 625, nickel based alloy, is found in gas turbine blades, seals, rings, shafts, and turbine disks. Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in turning process provides as an advanced and green machining concept. The addition of nanoparticle of weight percentage parameters along with machining parameters has a significant influence on the machining characteristics and so, parameter optimization is vital role to obtain the best machining performance. In this study, MQL with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT nanoparticles dispersed vegetable-oil-based cutting fluid is prepared in turning of Inconel 625. The nanofluids are prepared by dispersing 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 wt% into vegetable oil-based nanofluids to improve the machining characteristics of the Inconel 625. Then Taguchi-Desirability analysis optimization method is used to evaluate the effect of MQL+ machining parameters on the turning characteristic and determine the optimal conditions combination. Results reveals that both surface roughness, Ra and tool wear Vba found to lower value at the optimized cutting parameters of 0.5 (wt%) concentration, velocity 40 m/min and feed rate 0.14 mm/rev and in this case, it is…

Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations.

GIFT, Bhubaneshwar-Alok Kumar Mohapatra
VIT Universtity Vellore-Tapano Hotta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1863
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gases emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present study aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied. Selected exergetic measures under consideration are Exergy Efficiency, Fuel Exergy Depletion Ratio, Relative Exergy Consumption Ratio, Exergetic Improvement potential and Productivity Lack ratio. The total fuel exergy depletion ratio of the turboprop engine is estimated to be around 44%. . Also, among the identified…

A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency

Dolphin N2 Ltd-Nicholas Owen, Fabrizio Treccarichi
Hiflux Limited-David Barnes, Tanzi Besant
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0190
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The Recuperated Split Cycle Engine is a new type of ICE, offering a step change in efficiency and tailpipe emissions. It targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector (trucks, rail, shipping), where electrification is most challenging, and distributed generation, where capacity is required to support rising electrification. The engine separates cold (induction, compression) and hot (combustion, expansion) parts of the cycle; waste exhaust heat is recovered between them via a recuperator, as in a recuperated gas turbine. Recent research presented in another paper at this conference shows that the sonic airflows seen in the induction event give rise to extraordinary fuel mixing and clean, cool combustion, with potential for after-treated emission levels between SULEV and zero-impact (either unmeasurable or below ambient). However, recuperation and thermal insulation of the hot cylinder also enable high thermal efficiency, with a much flatter efficiency map than a conventional ICE. Combining the two attributes, and introducing sustainable fuels, places this readily manufactured, affordable technology on a par with battery-electric and fuel cell propulsion. Results from simulation to optimise the concept are…

Test Cell Analytical Thrust Correction

EG-1E Gas Turbine Test Facilities and Equipment
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5436A
  • Current
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
This document describes a method to correct engine thrust, measured in an indoor test cell, for the aerodynamic effects caused by the secondary airflow induced in the test cell by the engine operating in an enclosed environment in close proximity to an exhaust duct. While it is not recommended to be used to replace test cell correlation, it does provide a means to verify an existing thrust correlation factor.
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Experimental Study and Analysis of Ice Crystal Accretion on a Gas Turbine Compressor Stator Vane

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier, Alasdair Reed
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie, Peter Forsyth, Hassan Saad Ifti
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A significant number of historical engine powerloss events have recently been attributed to ingestion of high altitude ice crystals, prompting regulators to expand engine certification envelopes to incorporate ‘ice crystal icing’ conditions. There has been a resulting effort by OEMs and academia to develop analytical and semi-empirical models for the phenomenon, partly through use of rig testing. The current study presents results and analysis of experiments conducted in the National Research Council’s Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). The experiments used a simplified compressor stator vane test article, designed to produce data to build semi-empirical models and validate an existing ice crystal icing code. Accretion growth rates, extracted from backlit shadowgraphy, are presented as a function of test condition, and the algorithm of a new image processing technique using Canny filtering is discussed. Wet bulb temperature, Mach number, particle size and test article angle of attack were systematically varied. In line with previous experiments, the accretion growth rate was observed to be strongly dependent upon bulk particle melt ratio, with a peak growth rate at approximately…
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Icing Test and Measurement Capabilities of the NRC’s Gas Turbine Laboratory

National Research Council Canada-Jennifer Chalmers, Craig Davison, James MacLeod, Martin Neuteboom, Dan Fuleki
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The National Research Council’s Gas Turbine Laboratory provides industry leading icing facilities that allow manufacturers to develop, validate and certify new products for flight in adverse conditions. This paper shows how NRC measurement techniques are used across the facilities, and presents a literature-review of recently developed capabilities. The overview includes new details on some facilities, and future capabilities that are in development or planned for the near future.Methods developed at the NRC for characterizing inclement conditions are discussed and include the Isokinetic Probe, Particle Shadow Velocimetry, the Particle Detection Probe, and a size-binned real-time thermodynamic evaporation model. These are used to deliver accurate icing water content in facilities like the sea-level ice crystal generator, the Rotating Icing Rig, the Research Altitude Testing Facility, and liquid water test facilities in Ottawa and in Thompson, Manitoba at the Global Aerospace Centre for Icing and Environmental Research (GLACIER).
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Balancing Machines, Dynamic, Ball Type Slave Bearings for Rotor Support

EG-1A Balancing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1202B
  • Current
Published 2019-04-25 by SAE International in United States
This ARP specifies both the nominal dimensions and the tolerances for a series of ball bearings with semifinished inside diameters which are suitable for supporting gas turbine rotating components in dynamic balancing machines.
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SI Engine Combustion and Knock Modelling Using Detailed Fuel Surrogate Models and Tabulated Chemistry

AVL Dacolt BV-Dmitry Goryntsev, Ferry Tap
AVL List GmbH-Mijo Tvrdojevic, Peter Priesching
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the context of today’s and future legislative requirements for NOx and soot particle emissions as well as today’s market trends for further efficiency gains in gasoline engines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models need to further improve their intrinsic predictive capability to fulfill OEM needs towards the future. Improving fuel chemistry modelling, knock predictions and the modelling of the interaction between the chemistry and turbulent flow are three key challenges to improve the predictivity of CFD simulations of Spark-Ignited (SI) engines. The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) combustion modelling approach addresses these challenges. By using chemistry pre-tabulation technologies, today’s most detailed fuel chemistry models can be included in the CFD simulation. This allows a much more refined description of auto-ignition delays for knock as well as radical concentrations which feed into emission models, at comparable or even reduced overall CFD run-time. The FGM model has a high level of intrinsic predictive capability, as already demonstrated for many academic cases as well as for industrial burners, gas turbines and diesel engines. The application to gasoline engines has…
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A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

Oakland University-Han Lin, Peng Zhao
Texas Tech University-Haiwen Ge
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC). The computation of laminar flame speed of lean and stoichiometric mixtures of fuel/air was performed at different ignition reaction progress, by selecting the thermal chemical states corresponding to different residence times during auto-ignition as the flame…
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