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Application of Extended Messinger Models to Complex Geometries

Georgia Institute of Technology-Avani Gupta, Lakshmi Sankar
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Richard Kreeger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0022
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since, ice accretion can significantly degrade the performance and the stability of an airborne vehicle, it is imperative to be able to model it accurately. While ice accretion studies have been performed on airplane wings and helicopter blades in abundance, there are few that attempt to model the process on more complex geometries such as fuselages. This paper proposes a methodology that extends an existing in-house Extended Messinger solver to complex geometries by introducing the capability to work with unstructured grids and carry out spatial surface streamwise marching.For the work presented here commercial solvers such as STAR-CCM+ and ANSYS Fluent are used for the flow field and droplet dispersed phase computations. The ice accretion is carried out using an in-house icing solver called GT-ICE. The predictions by GT-ICE are compared to available experimental data, or to predictions by other solvers such as LEWICE and STAR-CCM+. Three different cases with varying levels of complexity are presented. The first case considered is a commercial transport airfoil, followed by a three-dimensional MS(1)-317 swept wing. Finally, ice accretion calculations…
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Robots Assemble Large Structures from Little Pieces

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36001
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Today's commercial aircraft are typically manufactured in sections and often in different locations — wings at one factory, fuselage sections at another, tail components somewhere else — and then flown to a central plant in huge cargo planes for final assembly. If the entire plane could be built out of a large array of tiny identical pieces, all put together by an army of tiny robots, costs in manpower and transportation could be slashed.

Structure Deformation Calculation Program for Structural Shape Monitoring

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35289
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center are pioneering shape-sensing technologies that seek to maximize structural integrity and efficiency. A new and versatile computer program offers critical shape-monitoring capabilities and has applications for a wide variety of structures.

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Advanced Assembly Solutions for the Airbus RACER Joined-Wing Configuration

University of Nottingham-David Bainbridge, Konstantinos Bacharoudis, Andrea Cini, Alison Turner, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Rapid And Cost Effective Rotorcraft (RACER) is being developed by Airbus Helicopters (AH) to demonstrate a new Vertical Take-Off and Landing configuration to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and aeroplanes. RACER is a compound rotorcraft featuring wings and multiple rotors. The wing arrangement suggested by AH is defined as a staggered bi-plane joined configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing, either side of the fuselage, connected at their outboard extent to form a triangular structure. The ASTRAL consortium, consisting of the University of Nottingham and GE Aviation Systems, are responsible for the design, manufacture, assembly and testing of the wings. Producing an optimised strategy to assemble a joined-wing configuration for a passenger carrying rotorcraft is challenging and novel. The objective of this work concerns all aspects of assembling the joined-wing structure.The joined-wing and fuselage structures will be produced independently and mated together during the final RACER assembly. A multi-stage process will deliver the joined-wing assembly and ensure it will fit to the fuselage. Producing the individual wing structures requires a…
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Landing Gear Integration into Aircraft Structure in Early Design Stage

Bauhaus Luftfahrt EV-Ulrich Kling, Mirko Hornung
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The demanded development towards various emission reduction goals set up by several institutions forces the aerospace industry to think about new technologies and alternative aircraft configurations. With these alternative aircraft concepts, the landing gear layout is also affected. Turbofan engines with very high bypass ratios could increase the diameter of the nacelles extensively. In this case, mounting the engines above the wing could be a possible arrangement to avoid an exceedingly long landing gear. Thus, the landing gear could be shortened and eventually mounted at the fuselage instead of the wings. Other technologies such as high aspect ratio wings have an influence on the landing gear integration as well. To assess the difference, especially in weight, between the conventional landing gear configuration and alternative layouts a method is developed based on preliminary structural designs of the different aircraft components, namely landing gear, wing and fuselage. Simplified parametric finite element structural models for the different components are introduced. These models are used to investigate different aircraft configurations with special regard on the landing gear integration. The…
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Predicted Ice Shape Formations on a Boundary Layer Ingesting Engine Inlet

NASA Glenn Research Center-Christopher Porter
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Computational ice shapes were generated on the boundary layer ingesting engine nacelle of the D8 Double Bubble aircraft. The computations were generated using LEWICE3D, a well-known CFD icing post processor. A 50-bin global drop diameter discretization was used to capture the collection efficiency due to the direct impingement of water onto the engine nacelle. These discrete results were superposed in a weighted fashion to generate six drop size distributions that span the Appendix C and O regimes. Due to the presence of upstream geometries, i.e. the fuselage nose, the trajectories of the water drops are highly complex. Since the ice shapes are significantly correlated with the collection efficiency, the upstream fuselage nose has a significant impact on the ice accretion on the engine nacelle. These complex trajectories are caused by the ballistic nature of the particles and are thus exacerbated as particle size increases. Shadowzones are generated on the engine nacelle, and due to the curvature of the nose of the aircraft the shadowzone boundary moves from lower inboard to upper outboard as particle size…
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Self-Healing, Fluid-Inspired Material

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34180
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Even tiny cracks can cause bridges to collapse, pipelines to rupture, and fuselages to detach from airplanes due to hard-to-detect corrosion in tiny cracks, scratches, and dents. A new coating strategy for metal self-heals within seconds when scratched, scraped, or cracked. The novel material could prevent tiny defects from turning into localized corrosion, which can cause major structures to fail.

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Automated Surface Preparation of Embraer’s Commercial Jet Fuselage for Painting Process

Embraer-Rogerio Scafutto Scotton
Encore Automation-Karl Schuknecht
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
The surface preparation of the fuselage prior to painting is largely done manually in the Aerospace Industry; utilizing scrubbers, sanders, chemicals, and manlifts resulting in safety and ergonomic issues without delivering a consistent result. The automation of the process employing robots, vision systems, machine movers, and automated process equipment provided the following benefits: Improved Safety and ErgonomicsReduced exposure to hazardous materials and working conditionsImproved Consistency and QualityImproved Production Capabilities and Reduced Labor CostsReduced Material UsageLess weightLower environmental risksLower costThis paper will describe the equipment used and the process changes required to automate the surface preparation process, then discuss the benefits that were realized.
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Axiomatic Design of a Reconfigurable Assembly System for Aircraft Fuselages

Baskent University-Tansel Ic
Gazi University-Mustafa Yurdakul
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Modern aerospace industry develops assembly process lines for new aircraft which is produced on a single production line while shortening production times by new technologies. Production processes are developed with systems such as lightweight fixtures, reconfigurable tools, automated part positioning, automated scanning countersink control, automated riveting, robotic measurement etc. These systems provide the necessary flexibility for aircraft fuselage and wing assembly projects. Aerospace manufacturers invest in assembly lines in order to increase production rates and meet growing customer demands. Most of the investments are allocated to state-of-the-art robots for drilling and riveting, sealing, coating and painting applications, in addition to material handling, carbon fiber layup and different types of machining operations. In this study, an assembly system design methodology is developed by using axiomatic design principles in order to propose a solution to design complexity for aircraft fuselage structures assembly. Framework of design methodology is shaped based on system design methods, academic research, industry requirements and industrial case studies. Axiomatic design and reconfigurability principles integrated to developed methodology. Holistic and hierarchical design approach is demonstrated.…
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Numerical Analysis of Asymmetric Canard-Wing System in Detroit Flying Cars

ChenXing Yu
Emergent Systems-Isaac Shanth Kocherla
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
A numerical simulation system of airflow around the Detroit Flying Cars-Wild Dream 1 (WD-1) is introduced. It involves the application of FVM, the mesh-independence system, boundary conditions and the verification of the simulation conditions to NACA airfoil data and the discussion of technological treatments corresponding to the evaluation of asymmetric wings.The present work is investigating the aerodynamic behavior of an asymmetric canard-wing system used on the Detroit Flying Cars-WD 1 model. The work involves the application of Finite Volume Method (FVM), the mesh-independence system, boundary conditions and the verification of simulation conditions to NACA airfoil data using OpenFOAM software. The Reynolds number based on free stream velocity and root chord is 5X106. Based on the Coefficient of Lift and Coefficient of Drag obtained from the analysis, the effect of canards on the wings, the distance between the canard trailing edge and the leading edge of the wings and the sensitivity of the staggered height between the canard-wing configuration on the left and right side of the fuselage is studied.
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