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A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

FCA US LLC-Weiguo Zhang, Toon Tan, John Malicki, Glenn Whitehead
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1276
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH performance is a very important consideration for vehicle buyers in the marketplace. There are many noise sources from the fuel system to generate noise in a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise inside the vehicle cabin. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system is presented. First, the initial interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise was exhibited. The problem frequency ranges with pulse and ticking noise content were identified. Several test iterations on root causing analysis and countermeasures…
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Development of a method to measure soft particles in drop-in fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is a fuel produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Drop-in fuels in case of low fuel qualities can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified chemicals were characterized as soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates, since metal carboxylates were found to be one of the components of soft particles and it is associated with other engine malfunctioning as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuels effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with…
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Onboard Ethanol-Gasoline Separation System for Octane-on-Demand Vehicle

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Hiroshi Chishima, Daiko Tsutsumi, Toru Kitamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0350
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Bio-ethanol is being used worldwide as an alternative fuel because of CO2 emission reduction and energy sustainability. It is common knowledge that ethanol has an advantage of high anti-knock quality. It is also well known that enhancement of both fuel economy and high load performance for general gasoline engines are limited by knocking. In order to increase anti-knock performance, a fuel system was developed to separate ethanol blended gasoline fuel into high-octane number fuel (high-concentration ethanol fuel) and low-octane number fuel (low-concentration ethanol fuel) on a vehicle. The onboard fuel separation system, installed in the fuel tank, mainly consists of a pervaporation membrane module, a fuel supply pump for the membrane, heat exchangers for fuel heating, a condenser for the permeated fuel vapor and a vacuum pump to control the pressure on the permeation side. Vapor that was not condensed at the condenser is supplied to the engine through a canister purge line. In this study, it was revealed that the onboard fuel separation system has controllability sufficient for use in automobiles by evaluating the…
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A Vehicle Level Transient Thermal Analysis of Automotive Fuel Tanks

FCA US LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora
Optumatics LLC-Yehia Mazen, Amr Sami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1342
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Maintaining the fuel temperature and fuel system components below certain values is an important design objective. Predicting these temperature is therefore one of the key parts of the vehicles thermal management process. One of the physical processes affecting fuel tank temperature is fuel vaporization, which is controlled by the vapor pressure in the tank, fuel composition and fuel temperature. Models are developed to enable the computation of the fuel temperature, fuel vaporization rate in the tank, fuel temperatures along the fuel supply lines, and follows its path to the charcoal canister and into the engine intake. For Diesel fuel systems where a fuel return line is used to return excess fluid back to the fuel tank, an energy balance will be considered to calculate the heat added from the high-pressure pump and vehicle under-hood and underbody. In this work, a transient heat transfer model is developed to compute the heat transfer between the in-tank fuel and the vehicle under-hood or underbody where the effect of exhaust and convection are considered. A fuel vaporization model is…
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Durability Study of a Light-Duty High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using E10 Gasoline

Aramco Research Center-Tom Tzanetakis, Mark Sellnau, Vincent Costanzo, Michael Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Aniket Tekawade, Brandon Sforzo, Christopher F. Powell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0616
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a 500-hour test cycle was used to evaluate the durability of a prototype high pressure common rail injection system operating up to 1800 bar with E10 gasoline. Some aspects of the hardware were modified from their baseline design in order to accommodate an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine application and mitigate the impacts of exposure to gasoline. Overall system performance was maintained throughout testing as fueling rate and rail pressure targets were continuously achieved. Although evidence of vapor formation in the low-pressure part of the system was observed, there was no significant physical damage to the associated components. Injectors showed no deviation in their flow characteristics after exposure to gasoline and high resolution imaging of the nozzle tips and pilot valve assemblies did not indicate the presence of cavitation damage. The high pressure pump did not exhibit any performance degradation during gasoline testing and teardown analysis after 500 hours showed no evidence of cavitation erosion. Despite the lack of lubricity-improving additives in the gasoline, all other fuel-wetted components survived the test cycle without any…
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Acid Resistant POM in Fuel Flanges

FCA US LLC-Monica Shammas, Edward Luibrand, Linda Hess
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0231
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Investigation into fuel system warranty has led to the need to develop cost effective, robust materials that are resistant to both fuel and aggressive cleaners. Acetal (POM) is the current material that is used universally by OEM’s throughout the fuel system for its excellent performance in fuel and relatively low cost, but lacks resistance to strong acidic solutions. Acid containing wheel cleaning solutions are increasingly being used by customers to clean their aluminum and magnesium wheels. Due to the proximity of the fuel modules to the wheel openings, acidic wheel cleaners chemically attack the POM resulting in cracks. FCA worked closely with suppliers in recent years to develop cost effective, acid resistant POM materials that can withstand the stress-cracking at severe acid concentrations and meet FCA’s functional requirements. Other material alternatives that were considered outside of the acetal family provided adequate resistance but had other design and functional issues that would drive up cost. Our study included three unique vehicle flange designs molded in both types of POM and subjected to an extensive acid exposure…
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EUROCAE/SAE WG80/AE-7AFC Hydrogen Fuel Cells Aircraft Fuel Cell Safety Guidelines

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6464
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
This document defines the technical guidelines for the safe integration of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems (FCS), fuel (considered to be liquid and compressed hydrogen storage types only), fuel storage, fuel distribution and appropriate electrical systems into the aircraft. Editorial Note: Today PEM systems and fuel storage represent the most mature FCS technology and currently forms the basis for this standard. Other types of fuel cell systems and fuels (including reforming technologies and electrolyzers), may be covered by a further update to this document.
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Experimental Comparison of Biogas and Natural Gas as Vibration, Emission, and Performance in a Diesel Engine Converted to a Dual Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ege University, Turkey-Günnur Koçar, Abdulhalik Emre Teksan
Turkey-Emre Aytav
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0004
Published 2020-01-27 by SAE International in United States
Biogas, natural gas, and their usage in the diesel engine will be important in the future. For this purpose, the effects of biogas on engine performance, emissions, and engine vibrations of the diesel engines with dual fuel system are investigated in comparison with natural gas. It has also been included in evaluating the deformation of the engine oil due to hydrogen sulfide combustion reactions. In this study, a constant speed, naturally aspirated, and direct injection of the diesel engine with volume of 2.5 liter has been converted into a dual fuel system that can be included in gas fuels. In order to determine engine performance, exhaust emissions, engine vibration, and noise, the tests were carried out at load stages of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kW and at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The experiments were first performed in a mono operation condition of the conventional diesel fuel. Subsequently, tests were repeated under natural gas/diesel and biogas/diesel dual fuel operation conditions, respectively. As a result of the tests, it was observed that the…
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Simulation Analysis of the Scavenging Process of a Uniflow and Loop Scavenging Concept

Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics,-Stefan Sturm, Michael Lang, Stephan Schmidt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0549
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The two-stroke engine, as a today unconventional concept in automotive applications, has a great potential for a relaunch in the fast-growing market of Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) or Range Extender Electric Vehicle (REX) [2, 3, 4, 8, 9]. An efficient scavenging to remove the in-cylinder burnt gases and to fill the cylinder with fresh charge, performed at the same time is one of the major challenges, as losses of fresh air and fuel towards the exhaust line should be avoided when operating a lambda = 1 concept necessary for a 3-way catalyst aftertreatment system.A prior study [1] of different gas exchange designs for two-stroke engines concludes that two possible concepts cover this purpose. In this paper, 3D-CFD simulation is used to compare these two different scavenging concepts, a uniflow and a loop scavenging type with control elements for the gas exchange process. As boundary conditions, it is assumed that both concept types have nearly the same displacement, are used with an external scavenging blower and have a lubrication system like a conventional oil sump…
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THE EFFECT OF BIODIESEL ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF AUTOMOTIVE ELASTOMERIC COMPOUNDS

Ford Motor Company-Rodrigo Polkowski Ângelo Aguiar, Oberti Almeida, Cristiane Gonçalves, Cristiano Herbert, Helano Santos, Jodalva Souza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0327
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The lack of electrical conductivity on materials, which are used in automotive fuel systems, can lead to electrostatic charges buildup in the components of such systems. This accumulation of energy can reach levels that exceed their capacity to withstand voltage surges, which considerably increases the risk of electrical discharges or sparks. Another important factor to consider is the conductivity of the commercially available fuels, such as biodiesel, which contributes to dissipate these charges to a proper grounding point in automobiles. From 2013, the diesel regulation in Brazil have changed and the levels of sulfur in the composition of diesel were reduced considerably, changing its natural characteristic of promoting electrostatic discharges, becoming more insulating. Taking into account the critical factors mentioned above, the SAE J1645 standard specifies the levels of conductivity and maximum electrostatic energy accumulation (ESD) that automotive materials must meet to avoid unintentional discharges on these systems and guarantee the integrity of the involved components and the safety of occupants. Thus, this work aims to analyze the effect of (bio)diesel on the electrical properties…
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