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A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

FCA US LLC-Weiguo Zhang, Toon Tan, John Malicki, Glenn Whitehead
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1276
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH performance is a very important consideration for vehicle buyers in the marketplace. There are many noise sources from the fuel system to generate noise in a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise inside the vehicle cabin. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system is presented. First, the initial interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise was exhibited. The problem frequency ranges with pulse and ticking noise content were identified. Several test iterations on root causing analysis and countermeasures…
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Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
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A Vehicle Level Transient Thermal Analysis of Automotive Fuel Tanks

FCA US LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora
Optumatics LLC-Yehia Mazen, Amr Sami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1342
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Maintaining the fuel temperature and fuel system components below certain values is an important design objective. Predicting these temperature is therefore one of the key parts of the vehicles thermal management process. One of the physical processes affecting fuel tank temperature is fuel vaporization, which is controlled by the vapor pressure in the tank, fuel composition and fuel temperature. Models are developed to enable the computation of the fuel temperature, fuel vaporization rate in the tank, fuel temperatures along the fuel supply lines, and follows its path to the charcoal canister and into the engine intake. For Diesel fuel systems where a fuel return line is used to return excess fluid back to the fuel tank, an energy balance will be considered to calculate the heat added from the high-pressure pump and vehicle under-hood and underbody. In this work, a transient heat transfer model is developed to compute the heat transfer between the in-tank fuel and the vehicle under-hood or underbody where the effect of exhaust and convection are considered. A fuel vaporization model is…
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Durability Study of a Light-Duty High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using E10 Gasoline

Aramco Research Center-Tom Tzanetakis, Mark Sellnau, Vincent Costanzo, Michael Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Aniket Tekawade, Brandon Sforzo, Christopher F. Powell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0616
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a 500-hour test cycle was used to evaluate the durability of a prototype high pressure common rail injection system operating up to 1800 bar with E10 gasoline. Some aspects of the hardware were modified from their baseline design in order to accommodate an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine application and mitigate the impacts of exposure to gasoline. Overall system performance was maintained throughout testing as fueling rate and rail pressure targets were continuously achieved. Although evidence of vapor formation in the low-pressure part of the system was observed, there was no significant physical damage to the associated components. Injectors showed no deviation in their flow characteristics after exposure to gasoline and high resolution imaging of the nozzle tips and pilot valve assemblies did not indicate the presence of cavitation damage. The high pressure pump did not exhibit any performance degradation during gasoline testing and teardown analysis after 500 hours showed no evidence of cavitation erosion. Despite the lack of lubricity-improving additives in the gasoline, all other fuel-wetted components survived the test cycle without any…
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Acid Resistant POM in Fuel Flanges

FCA US LLC-Monica Shammas, Edward Luibrand, Linda Hess
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0231
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Investigation into fuel system warranty has led to the need to develop cost effective, robust materials that are resistant to both fuel and aggressive cleaners. Acetal (POM) is the current material that is used universally by OEM’s throughout the fuel system for its excellent performance in fuel and relatively low cost, but lacks resistance to strong acidic solutions. Acid containing wheel cleaning solutions are increasingly being used by customers to clean their aluminum and magnesium wheels. Due to the proximity of the fuel modules to the wheel openings, acidic wheel cleaners chemically attack the POM resulting in cracks. FCA worked closely with suppliers in recent years to develop cost effective, acid resistant POM materials that can withstand the stress-cracking at severe acid concentrations and meet FCA’s functional requirements. Other material alternatives that were considered outside of the acetal family provided adequate resistance but had other design and functional issues that would drive up cost. Our study included three unique vehicle flange designs molded in both types of POM and subjected to an extensive acid exposure…
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Strategies to Gain the Loss in Power in a Military Diesel Engine Using JP-8 Instead of ULSD

Wayne State University-Prasad D. Raut, Omkar A. Atre, Manan Trivedi, Naeim Henein
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0804
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Department of Defense (DOD) has adopted the use of JP-8 under the “single battlefield fuel” policy. Fuel properties of JP-8 which are different from ULSD include cetane number, density, heating value and compressibility (Bulk modulus). While JP8 has advantages compared to ULSD, related to storage, combustion and lower soot emissions, its use cause a drop in the peak power in some military diesel engines. The engines that has loss in power use the Hydraulically actuated Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) fuel system. The paper explains in details the operation of HEUI including fuel delivery into the injector and its compression to the high injection pressure before its delivery in the combustion chamber. The effect of fuel compressibility on the volume of the fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber is explained in details. A fuel such as JP-8 which has a lower Bulk modulus is compressed to a smaller volume than ULSD which has a higher Bulk modulus before its delivery in the combustion chamber, and this is the main reason for the drop…
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Self-Sealing Breakaway Valves for Crash-Resistant Aircraft Fuel Systems

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1616B
  • Current
Published 2020-03-19 by SAE International in United States
MIL-STD-1290, 14 CFR 27.952, and 14 CFR 29.952 provide crash resistant fuel system design and test criteria that significantly minimize fuel leaks and occurrence of post-crash fire in survivable impacts. This document does not change and does not authorize changes in or deviations from MIL-Standard or regulatory requirements. This document provides guidance for the design, performance, and test criteria for self-sealing breakaway valves.
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Thesaurus for Fuel System Components

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1615B
  • Current
Published 2020-02-24 by SAE International in United States
This document provides a summary of names commonly used throughout the industry for aircraft fuel system components. It is a thesaurus intended to aid those not familiar with the lexicon of the industry.
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EUROCAE/SAE WG80/AE-7AFC Hydrogen Fuel Cells Aircraft Fuel Cell Safety Guidelines

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6464
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
This document defines the technical guidelines for the safe integration of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems (FCS), fuel (considered to be liquid and compressed hydrogen storage types only), fuel storage, fuel distribution and appropriate electrical systems into the aircraft. Editorial Note: Today PEM systems and fuel storage represent the most mature FCS technology and currently forms the basis for this standard. Other types of fuel cell systems and fuels (including reforming technologies and electrolyzers), may be covered by a further update to this document.
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Experimental Comparison of Biogas and Natural Gas as Vibration, Emission, and Performance in a Diesel Engine Converted to a Dual Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ege University, Turkey-Günnur Koçar
National Defense University, Turkish Military Academy, Turkey-Emre Aytav
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0004
Published 2020-01-27 by SAE International in United States
Biogas, natural gas, and their usage in the diesel engine will be important in the future. For this purpose, the effects of biogas on engine performance, emissions, and engine vibrations of the diesel engines with dual fuel system are investigated in comparison with natural gas. It has also been included in evaluating the deformation of the engine oil due to hydrogen sulfide combustion reactions. In this study, a constant speed, naturally aspirated, and direct injection of the diesel engine with volume of 2.5 liter has been converted into a dual fuel system that can be included in gas fuels. In order to determine engine performance, exhaust emissions, engine vibration, and noise, the tests were carried out at load stages of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kW and at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The experiments were first performed in a mono operation condition of the conventional diesel fuel. Subsequently, tests were repeated under natural gas/diesel and biogas/diesel dual fuel operation conditions, respectively. As a result of the tests, it was observed that the…
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