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Fuel Systems and Components - Electrostatic Charge Mitigation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1645_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice deals with electrostatic charge phenomena that may occur in automotive fuel systems and applies to the following: Fuels that are in a liquid state at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressures and are contained in vehicle fuel tanks that operate at or near atmospheric pressure. This includes gasoline and diesel fuels, as well as their blends with additives such as alcohols, esters, and ethers, whether the additives are petroleum based or bio-fuel based. The group of components that comprise the fuel system (in contact and not in contact with fuels). Other components in proximity to the fuel system that may be affected by electrostatic fields caused by the fuel system. Electrostatic phenomena that arise from, or are affected by, the following aspects of vehicle or fuel system operation: ○ Flowing fuel in the fuel delivery system. ○ Flowing fuel being dispensed to the vehicle while it is being fueled.
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Test Procedure to Determine the Hydrocarbon Losses from Fuel Tubes, Hoses, Fittings, and Fuel Line Assemblies by Recirculation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1737_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for the determination of the losses of hydrocarbon fluids, by permeation through component walls, as well as through "microleaks" at interfaces of assembled components while controlling temperature and pressure independently of each other. This is achieved in a recirculating system in which elements of a test fuel that permeate through the walls of a test specimen and migrate through the interfaces are transported by a controlled flow of dry nitrogen to a point where they are measured. That measurement point is a device, such as a canister containing activated charcoal or other means of collection or accumulation where the hydrocarbon losses are then measured by weight change or analyzed by some other suitable means.
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Aerospace Fuel System Specifications and Standards

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1408B
  • Current
Published 2019-05-24 by SAE International in United States
This report lists documents that aid and govern the design of aircraft and missile fuel systems. The report lists the military and industry specifications and standards and the most notable design handbooks that are commonly used in fuel system design. Note that only the principle fuel specifications for the U.S. and Europe (Military Specifications, ASTM, and Def Stan) have been included within this report. The specifications and standards section has been divided into two parts: a master list arranged numerically of all industry and military specifications and standards, and a component list that provides a functional breakdown and a cross-reference of these documents. It is intended that this report be a supplement to specifications ARP8615, MIL-F-17874, and JSSG 2009. Revisions and amendments which are correct for the specifications and standards are not listed. The fuel system design handbooks are listed for fuels and for system and component design.
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High Strength Elevated Temperature Bolting Practice

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP700C
  • Current
Published 2019-05-03 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides general information on the design and installation of threaded fasteners in high strength and high temperature applications in propulsion systems. Some of the more common definitions of fastener terminology are also provided.
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A Dynamic Test Bench for the Assessment of Common Rail Fuel Injection Systems Impact on CO2 Emissions over the WLTP Cycle

General Motors GPS - Torino-Francesco Concetto Pesce
Università degli Studi di Perugia-Andrea Cavicchi, Lucio Postrioti
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The internal combustion engine technological development is today driven by the pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction targets imposed by law. The request of lowering CO2 emission reflected in a push towards the improvement of engine efficiency, without sacrificing performances and drivability.The latest generations of Diesel engines for passenger cars are characterized by increasing injection pressure levels (250 MPa for the current production). Enhancing the injection pressure has the drawback of increasing the energy needed to pressurize the fuel and thus the high-pressure fuel pump energy request. A small but not negligible quantity of fuel has to be burned in order to provide this energy, generating a contribution in CO2 emission. In this frame, the injector back-flow represents a significant energy loss for the fuel injection system and for the whole engine.The energetic analysis of the overall fuel injection system of a modern passenger car is therefore interesting.In this research an experimental test bench was developed in order to energetically assess the behavior of a common-rail fuel injection system over the Worldwide harmonized Light…
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GDi High Efficiency Fuel Pump for Fast Engine Starts and Reduced Cam Loads

Delphi Technologies-Joseph G. Spakowski, Joseph Kazour, Brandon C. Kaswer, Mark Harstad, Timothy D. Spegar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline direct injection (GDi) fuel pumps use a plunger reciprocating in a sleeve to deliver pressurized fuel. Current industry-standard clearances between the plunger and sleeve create internal fuel leakage rates which are large enough to negatively affect pumping efficiency at low engine speeds. A polymer seal located between the plunger and sleeve has been developed to minimize the fuel leak solving the low engine speed efficiency problem.This paper will present analytical, experimental and validation testing results of improved pumping efficiency attained with this new seal. With the plunger seal, pumping efficiencies are shown to improve by a few percentage points at high engine rpms (erpm) but can double at low (cranking and idle) rpms, without degradation of performance after durability testing. Considering the rate of pressure rise during engine cranking, pumps with the plunger seal exhibit faster system pressure build which is independent of system pressure and cranking speed. Additional benefits of improved efficiency such as pump and cam downsizing will also be discussed where a decrease in maximum cam load and torque are predicted.
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Development of Reliability Test mode for GDI Fuel Rail

Hyundai Kefico Corporation-Kwangwon Koo, Seunghyuk Oh, Youngil Kang
Korea Automotive Technology Institute-Daesung Kim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Main role of fuel rail for GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) system is to store and distribute gasoline between high pressure pump and injector. Under the engine operating condition, fuel pressure and ambient temperature are applied to fuel rail as fatigue load, which can cause fatigue failure.To meet current a global environmental regulation, a fuel injection pressure is gradually increasing. Therefore a fuel rail for GDI engine which is installed between fuel pump and injector must be stronger than now. Also the target reliability of the fuel rail has to be increased than before.Accordingly, fatigue behaviors of fuel rail must be analyzed and expected at the development stage.In this study, a procedure for assessment the fatigue life of GDI fuel rail was developed. With this, fatigue load on the GDI fuel rail can be expected under actual vehicle operating conditions. Furthermore, fatigue life of a part can be verified based on the expected fatigue load. To establish certain process, pressure and temperature on fuel rail were measured under actual vehicle operating conditions. Afterwards, measured data was…
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Test Procedure to Measure Permeation of Elastomeric Hose or Tube by Weight Loss

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2663_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This test method is intended for measuring fuel permeation at elevated temperature through low permeating hose or tubing samples of elastomeric or composite construction. The expected accuracy of the method is about ±10% of the sample permeation rate. Hose permeation testing can be done two ways: Method A – Plug and Fill or Method B – using a fuel reservoir. Method A involves plugging one end of the hose, filling the sample to about 90% full with test fuel, plugging the other end, and then exposing the plugged sample to a desired test temperature, with the weight loss measured over time. Method B involves plugging one end of a hose, and then connecting the other end to a fuel reservoir. The hose sample and reservoir are then exposed to a desired test temperature with the weight loss measured over time. This procedure presents a recommended plug design that permits inserting the plugs prior to adding the test fluid. One of the plugs has a small fill hole with a gasketing system that insures low permeation.…
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Optimized Fuel Tank Sender Closure

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2587_201903
  • Current
Published 2019-03-08 by SAE International in United States
This practice describes recommended performance requirements of fuel tank closures used in conjunction with fuel level senders and fuel delivery systems. It provides guidelines that assure interchangeability and compatibility between fuel tanks and fuel pump/sender closure systems without specifying a specific closure system design. These systems may be used in rigid fuel tank systems made of plastic or metal. Complete details of specific designs shall be established by mutual agreement between customer and supplier. The dimensions and performance requirements are selected to optimize a The closure system, durability and reliability with respect to — Vehicle SHED measurements — Fuel system / crash integrity — LEV – II useful life b Assembly and service ease and reliability c Packaging of fuel tanks and their sending units d Interchangeability of sender closures between various fuel tank designs
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Electrical Wiring Fuel Compatibility

AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6820
  • Current
Published 2018-12-12 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited to the subject of compatibility of wiring as part of aircraft Electrical Wiring and Interconnect Systems (EWIS) installed in and around aircraft fuel tanks.
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