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A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

FCA US LLC-Weiguo Zhang, Toon Tan, John Malicki, Glenn Whitehead
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1276
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH performance is a very important consideration for vehicle buyers in the marketplace. There are many noise sources from the fuel system to generate noise in a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise inside the vehicle cabin. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system is presented. First, the initial interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise was exhibited. The problem frequency ranges with pulse and ticking noise content were identified. Several test iterations on root causing analysis and countermeasures…
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A Vehicle Level Transient Thermal Analysis of Automotive Fuel Tanks

FCA US LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora
Optumatics LLC-Yehia Mazen, Amr Sami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1342
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Maintaining the fuel temperature and fuel system components below certain values is an important design objective. Predicting these temperature is therefore one of the key parts of the vehicles thermal management process. One of the physical processes affecting fuel tank temperature is fuel vaporization, which is controlled by the vapor pressure in the tank, fuel composition and fuel temperature. Models are developed to enable the computation of the fuel temperature, fuel vaporization rate in the tank, fuel temperatures along the fuel supply lines, and follows its path to the charcoal canister and into the engine intake. For Diesel fuel systems where a fuel return line is used to return excess fluid back to the fuel tank, an energy balance will be considered to calculate the heat added from the high-pressure pump and vehicle under-hood and underbody. In this work, a transient heat transfer model is developed to compute the heat transfer between the in-tank fuel and the vehicle under-hood or underbody where the effect of exhaust and convection are considered. A fuel vaporization model is…
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Aircraft Fuel System Design Guidelines

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR7975
  • Current
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
This document describes the major design drivers and considerations when designing a fuel system for a large commercial aircraft. It discusses the design at a system/aircraft level, and is not intended as a design manual for individual system components, though it does refer out to other SAE specifications where more detail on specific components and sub-systems is given. It does include examples of a number of calculations associated with sizing of fuel systems, based on those given in NAV-AIR-06-5-504, as well as an appendix summarizing basic fluid mechanical equations which are key for fuel system design. It is acknowledged that most of these calculations would today be performed by modelling tools, rather than by hand, but it is considered important for the designer to understand the principles. It is intended that later issues of this document will include appendices which give specific considerations for military aircraft, smaller commercial aircraft, and rotorcraft.
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Effect of PODE-Diesel Blends as High-Reactivity Fuel in a Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion

SAE International Journal of Engines

Anna University, India-Murugan Rangasamy, Ganesh Duraisamy, Nagarajan Govindan
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0011
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
To overcome the limitations such as lower combustion efficiency (CE) and higher cyclic variability in methanol/diesel (M/D) reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion, a fuel having higher reactivity than diesel (i.e., polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers, PODE) was used in our previous study. Methanol/PODE RCCI combustion resulted in improved CE and reduction in soot and unburned emissions compared to M/D RCCI combustion. However, it was noticed that the use of neat PODE as high-reactivity fuel had damaged the fuel line materials frequently due to its higher oxygen content and lower viscosity. In addition, Methanol/PODE RCCI has also resulted in higher NO emissions compared to M/D RCCI combustion. Hence to sort this out, an attempt is made in this study to investigate the effect of PODE-diesel blend on dual-fuel RCCI combustion in order to propose a suitable blend proportion which can tackle the fuel line material damage, increased NO emissions, CE, and cyclic variability. In the present investigation three PODE-diesel blends, namely, PODE10, PODE30, and PODE50, have been prepared and tested at 21 kW and 28 kW fuel…
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Maintenance of Design Voltage - Snowmobile Electrical Systems

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J277_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and requirements for maintenance of design voltage in snowmobile electrical systems. It pertains to both battery-equipped and battery-less systems.
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Fuel Systems and Components - Electrostatic Charge Mitigation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1645_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice deals with electrostatic charge phenomena that may occur in automotive fuel systems and applies to the following: Fuels that are in a liquid state at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressures and are contained in vehicle fuel tanks that operate at or near atmospheric pressure. This includes gasoline and diesel fuels, as well as their blends with additives such as alcohols, esters, and ethers, whether the additives are petroleum based or bio-fuel based. The group of components that comprise the fuel system (in contact and not in contact with fuels). Other components in proximity to the fuel system that may be affected by electrostatic fields caused by the fuel system. Electrostatic phenomena that arise from, or are affected by, the following aspects of vehicle or fuel system operation: ○ Flowing fuel in the fuel delivery system. ○ Flowing fuel being dispensed to the vehicle while it is being fueled.
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Test Procedure to Determine the Hydrocarbon Losses from Fuel Tubes, Hoses, Fittings, and Fuel Line Assemblies by Recirculation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1737_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for the determination of the losses of hydrocarbon fluids, by permeation through component walls, as well as through "microleaks" at interfaces of assembled components while controlling temperature and pressure independently of each other. This is achieved in a recirculating system in which elements of a test fuel that permeate through the walls of a test specimen and migrate through the interfaces are transported by a controlled flow of dry nitrogen to a point where they are measured. That measurement point is a device, such as a canister containing activated charcoal or other means of collection or accumulation where the hydrocarbon losses are then measured by weight change or analyzed by some other suitable means.
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Coupling Assemblies, Quick Disconnect, Automatic Shutoff

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS7413A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-23 by SAE International in United States
This specification establishes requirements for automatic shutoff, quick-disconnect coupling assemblies for fuel and oil lines.
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Test Procedure to Measure Permeation of Elastomeric Hose or Tube by Weight Loss

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2663_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This test method is intended for measuring fuel permeation at elevated temperature through low permeating hose or tubing samples of elastomeric or composite construction. The expected accuracy of the method is about ±10% of the sample permeation rate. Hose permeation testing can be done two ways: Method A – Plug and Fill or Method B – using a fuel reservoir. Method A involves plugging one end of the hose, filling the sample to about 90% full with test fuel, plugging the other end, and then exposing the plugged sample to a desired test temperature, with the weight loss measured over time. Method B involves plugging one end of a hose, and then connecting the other end to a fuel reservoir. The hose sample and reservoir are then exposed to a desired test temperature with the weight loss measured over time. This procedure presents a recommended plug design that permits inserting the plugs prior to adding the test fluid. One of the plugs has a small fill hole with a gasketing system that insures low permeation.…
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Optimized Fuel Tank Sender Closure

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2587_201903
  • Current
Published 2019-03-08 by SAE International in United States
This practice describes recommended performance requirements of fuel tank closures used in conjunction with fuel level senders and fuel delivery systems. It provides guidelines that assure interchangeability and compatibility between fuel tanks and fuel pump/sender closure systems without specifying a specific closure system design. These systems may be used in rigid fuel tank systems made of plastic or metal. Complete details of specific designs shall be established by mutual agreement between customer and supplier. The dimensions and performance requirements are selected to optimize a The closure system, durability and reliability with respect to — Vehicle SHED measurements — Fuel system / crash integrity — LEV – II useful life b Assembly and service ease and reliability c Packaging of fuel tanks and their sending units d Interchangeability of sender closures between various fuel tank designs
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