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Influence of port water injection on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ-Tianbao Wu, Xuesong Li
Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ.-Yadong Fan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0294
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engines have a huge advantage in fuel economy due to their good anti-knock performance compared to port fuel injection engines. However, higher particle number (PN) emissions associated with fuel impingement make the SIDI engines have additional difficulties to meet the upcoming China VI emission standards. In this study, the port water injection (PWI) techniques on a 1.0-L turbocharged, three cylinder, SIDI engine were investigated. PWI strategies were optimized to quantify port water injection as a means of mitigating the knock and improving the combustion performance by sweeping water-fuel mass ratios and PWI timing at different operating conditions. Measurements indicate that regardless of engine load, PWI induced a worsening of the maximum in-cylinder pressure (P-Max) and cycle-to-cycle variations (IMEPN-COV ) , which mainly due to the effects of water dilution and slower burning velocities. But by the advance of spark timing with knock mitigation, we find that the improvement of combustion phasing finally makes it possible to eliminate fuel enrichment, which bring the potential advantages on the…
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Investigation of Diesel/Natural Gas RCCI Combustion Using Multiple Reaction Mechanism at Various Engine Operating Conditions

FEV North America Inc.-Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological Univ-Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0801
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Past experimental studies conducted by the current authors on a 13 liter 16.7:1 compression ratio heavy-duty diesel engine have shown that diesel /natural gas Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion targeting low NOx emissions becomes progressively difficult to control as the engine load is increased due to difficulty in controlling reactivity levels at higher loads. For the current study, CFD investigations were conducted using the SAGE combustion solver in Converge with the application of Rahimi mechanism. Studies were conducted at a load of 5 bar BMEP to validate the simulation results against RCCI test data. In the low load study, it was found that the Rahimi mechanism was not able to predict the RCCI combustion behavior for diesel injection timings advanced beyond 30bTDC. This behavior was found at multiple engine speed and load points. To resolve this, multiple reaction mechanisms were evaluated and a new reaction mechanism that combines the GRI Mech 3.0 mechanism with the Chalmers mechanism was proposed. This mechanism was found to accurately predict the ignition delay and combustion behavior with early…
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Effect of Pilot Injection and Intake Air Humidification on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Marine Diesel Engine in Partially Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion Mode

Tianjin Univ-Ke Wang, Shiru Kong, Zhishang bian
Tianjin Univ.-Yujie Cai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0298
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to investigate combined effects of intake air humidification and pilot injection strategie on performance and emissions of a partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) marine diesel engine. In this research, a three-dimensional numerical model was established by a commercial code AVL-Fire to explore in-cylinder combustion process and pollutant formation factors in a four-stoke supercharged intercooled marine diesel engine under partial load at 1350 rpm. The novelty is that this study is to combine different air humidification ratio with different fuel injection strategies (pilot injection timings and pilot injection quantity), in order to find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as decrease the NOx-soot emissions and meet the increasingly stringent emissions restriction. The results indicate that as the humidification ratio increases, both of combustion pressure and temperature decrease and the ignition delay becomes longer and combustion phasing is delayed, resulting in a decrease in the combustion thermal efficiency. A high levels of humidification ratio is utilized to reduce overall combustion temperatures and achieve low temperature combustion of…
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Design and Simulation of a Multi Fuel Gas Mixture System of a Rotary Engine

University of Applied Sciences Zwickau-Tobias Dost, Joern Getzlaff
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0548
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper first includes the main objective and boundary conditions for design and simulation of a multi fuel gas mixture system of a rotary engine. New regenerative fuels are more and more important for use in automotive propulsion and stationary applications of combustion engines. Due the special design and operation of rotary engines there are opportunities for running these engines in future electric and hybrid applications with new designed liquids and gaseous fuels based on regenerative energy sources. The focus is on basic research and analyses of main physical and thermodynamic properties of separate lean burn gases (lower calorific value, mixed calorific value, AFR) and their effects on fuel mixing and combustion behavior. The work is focused on the development of simulation models capable to simulate the entire engine process and to map all factors influencing mixture formation and combustion of unconventional gaseous fuels. Moreover, analytical methods and modellation of the power estimation and fuel mixing are compared with 1d simulations of the fuel mixing and rotary engine thermodynamic performance. Analytical modells and calculations estimate…
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Numerical Investigation of the Combustion Kinetics of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Fueled with Primary Reference Fuel

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Xinlei Liu
Tianjin University-Yuanyuan Zhao, Hu Wang, Daojian Liu, Wang chen, Hongyan Zhu, Mingfa Yao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0554
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This work numerically investigates the detailed combustion kinetics in a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine using three fuel injection strategies, including single-injection, double-injection, port fuel injection and direct injection (PFI+DI). A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) chemical kinetics mechanism was coupled with CONVERGE-SAGE CFD model to predict GCI combustion under various operating conditions. To provide insight into key reaction pathways, a post-process tool was used. The validated Converge CFD code with the PRF chemistry and the post-process tool was applied to investigate how the ignition occurs during the low-to high-temperature reaction transition and how it varies due to single- and double-injection and PFI+DI injection strategies. Three characteristic GCI combustion features were selected: (1) initial low temperature heat release (LTHR); (2) intense LTHR, where both iso-octane and n-heptane were converted to intermediates through oxygen-related reactions; (3) early stage high temperature heat release (HTHR) with CH2O as the core source species. It is found that the heat release was primarily dominated by the reaction H+O2 (+M)=HO2 (+M) and AC8H¬17+O2=AC8H17O2 during LTHR. For single- and double-injection, the high…
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Effects of Pre-chamber Enrichment on Lean Burn Pre-chamber Spark Ignition Combustion with a Narrow-throat Geometry

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Ponnya Hlaing, Manuel Echeverri Marquez, Eshan Singh, Fahad Almatrafi, Moez Ben Houidi, Bengt Johansson
Saudi Aramco-Emre Cenker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0825
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Pre-chamber spark ignition (PCSI) combustion is an emerging lean-burn combustion mode capable of extending the lean operation limit of an engine. The favorable characteristic of short combustion duration at the lean condition of PCSI results in high indicated efficiencies and low specific fuel consumption compared to conventional spark ignition combustion. Since the engine operation is typically lean, PCSI can significantly reduce engine-out NOx emissions while maintaining relatively short combustion duration. In this study, experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty engine at mid to low loads to study the effects of pre-chamber enrichment on globally lean combustion with methane fuel injection in both pre and main chambers. Two parametric variations were performed where, in the first study, the total fuel energy input to the engine was fixed while the intake pressure was varied, which resulted in varying the global air excess ratio. In the second, the intake pressure was fixed while the amount of fuel injection was changed to alter the global air excess ratio. At each global air excess ratio, the fuel injection to the…
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An Investigation of Real-Gas and Multiphase Effects on Multicomponent Diesel Sprays

Sandia National Laboratories-Stephen Busch
Wisconsin Engine Research Consultants-Federico Perini, Rolf Reitz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0240
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lagrangian spray modeling represents a critical boundary condition for multidimensional simulations of in-cylinder flow structure, mixture formation and combustion in diesel engines. Segregated models for injection, breakup, collision and vaporization are usually employed to pass appropriate momentum, mass, and energy source terms to the gas-phase solver. Careful calibration of each sub-model generally produces appropriate results. Yet, the predictiveness of this modeling approach has been questioned by recent experimental observations, which showed that at trans- and super-critical conditions relevant to diesel injection, classical atomization and vaporization behavior is replaced by a mixing-controlled phase transition process of a dense fluid. In this work, we assessed the shortcomings of classical spray modeling with respect to real-gas and phase-change behavior, employing a multicomponent phase equilibrium solver and liquid-jet theory. A Peng-Robinson Equation of State (PR-EoS) model was implemented, and EoS-neutral thermodynamics derivatives were introduced in the FRESCO CFD platform turbulent NS solver. A phase equilibrium solver based on Gibbs free energy minimization was implemented to test phase stability and to compute phase equilibrium. Zero-dimensional flash calculations were employed to…
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The Effects of Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings on Low-Temperature Combustion

Clemson Univ.-Ziming Yan, Brian Gainey, Benjamin Lawler
Stony Brook Univ-James Gohn, Deivanayagam Hariharan, John Saputo, Carl Schmidt, Felipe Caliari, Sanjay Sampath
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0275
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study was conducted on a Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder light-duty diesel research engine. Start of Injection (SOI) timing sweeps from -350 deg aTDC to -210 deg aTDC were performed on a total number of five pistons including two baseline metal pistons and three coated pistons to investigate the effects of thick thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on the efficiency and emissions of low-temperature combustion (LTC). A fuel with a high latent heat of vaporization, wet ethanol, was chosen to eliminate the undesired effects of thick TBCs on volumetric efficiency. Additionally, the higher surface temperatures of the TBCs can be used to help vaporize the high heat of vaporization fuel and avoid excessive wall wetting. A specialized injector with a 60° included angle was used to target the fuel spray at the surface of the coated piston. Throughout the experiments, the equivalence ratio, ϕ, was maintained constant at 0.4; the combustion phasing was consistently matched at 6.8 ± 0.4 deg aTDC. It can be concluded that the thick TBC cases achieved 1 to 2 percentage points…
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Effective Utilization of Low Carbon Fuels in Agricultural Engines Using Low Cost Electronic Primary Fuel Injection Unit

Hindustan Institute of Tech. & Science-Sasikumar Nandagopal, Vamshidhar Busireddy, Madhu Kovuru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reliability and cost effectiveness of electronics demand its usage in all the wings of science and technology. Thus an attempt was made in this work to investigate the potential of using electronics for injecting primary fuel for the compression ignition engine used by farmers for agricultural purpose. In the first phase of the work, new Electronic Control Unit (ECU) for primary fuel injection was developed and tested for its repeatability on fuel injection quantity for the different input voltages. Test engine was developed and tested under various load condition for its performance, emission, and combustion characteristics with neat diesel and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) as baseline readings in the second phase of the work. In the third phase of the work, developed engine was modified to operate in duel fuel mode with developed ECU. In this work, ethanol was chosen as primary fuel due to its availability and less toxic nature as compared to other green fuels. Pilot fuel (i.e. WCOME) was injected using mechanical fuel injection system. Results inferred that the brake…
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Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion- Part II

Hyundai Motor Co-Kyoung-Pyo Ha, Hyeon Woo Kim
Michigan Technological Univ-Youngchul Ra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0780
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to extend the operability limit of the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine, as an avenue for low temperature combustion (LTC) regime, the effects of parametric variations of engine operating conditions on the performance of six-stroke GCI (6S-GCI) engine cycle are numerically investigated, using an in-house 3D CFD code coupled with high-fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a skeletal chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Authors' previous study highlighted the effects of the variation of injection timing and split ratio on the overall performance of the 6S-GCI engine and the unique mixing-controlled burning mode of the charge mixtures during the two additional strokes. As a continuing effort, the present study details the parametric studies of initial gas temperature, boost pressure, fuel injection pressure, compression ratio, and EGR ratio. The focus of this paper is on the impact of these parameters on the performance of the two additional strokes of the 6S-GCI cycle such that the extent of controllability of ignition, combustion, and…