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Design and Development of Constant Speed Diesel Engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIE

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Omprakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan, Vishal Kumar, Vasundhara Arde, Sanjay Aurora, Remesan Chirakkal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2549
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust Inline Fuel Injection System.This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit @ 1500 rpm with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure. Various combustion parameters such as Combustion Bowl Geometry, selection of Turbocharger, Swirl, FIP, Nozzle configuration, EGR flow rate, EGR operation strategy, optimizing injection pressures, start of injection, end of injection, injection duration are optimized. The innovative way of Temperature Input based EGR valve operation is used to meet emission at reduced cost and complexity.This Paper describes Inline Fuel Injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms up to…
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Influence of Inflow Boundary Conditions on High-Pressure Fuel Injection: Assessment Based on LES Approach

SAE International Journal of Engines

AVL List GmbH, Australia-Amir Zilic, Klaus Pachler, Marco Cristofaro
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0009
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The Engine Combustion Network case Spray A with a high-pressure fuel injection is at typical operating conditions of Diesel engines. Detailed pieces of information on this experiment are available, which supports a high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with real fluid thermodynamics. An internal injector flow simulation with the needle movement measured during the experiments is used to provide a realistic boundary condition for the fuel spray simulation. Two spray simulations have been conducted: one with a constant velocity profile and one with the velocity distribution obtained from a separate injector internal flow simulation. Peculiar emphasis is placed on the velocity and turbulence distribution to quantify the influence of spray inlet boundary conditions. The fuel injection is modeled with a single-phase approach applying adequate resolution to capture phase boundaries. Observations from simulation results indicate a significant influence of the inlet boundary conditions on fuel distribution and penetration length, turbulent mixing, and enthalpy propagation.
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Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on End of Injection Spray Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injectors

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mark Meinhart
Michigan Technological University-Robert A. Schroeter, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work. Additionally, the impact of the test fuel used will also be evaluated. This work will present the large influence of fuel…
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Experimental Analysis of Gasoline Direct Injector Tip Wetting

SAE International Journal of Engines

Technical University of Munich, Germany-Fabian Backes, Sebastian Blochum, Martin Härtl, Georg Wachtmeister
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0006
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
At gasoline direct injection, light-duty engines operated with homogeneous, stoichiometric combustion mode, particulate emissions are mainly formed in diffusion flames that result from prior fuel wall wetting. Besides the piston, liner, and intake valves, the injector tip acts as a main particulate source when fuel is adhered to it during an injection. Hence, this injector tip fuel wetting process and influences on this process need to be analyzed and understood to reduce engine-out particulate emissions. The present work analyzes the injector tip wetting process in an experimental way with a high-speed and high-resolution measurement system at an optically accessible pressure chamber. The performed measurements reveal that injector tip wetting can occur during the complete injection event by different mechanisms. Large spray cone angles at start and at end of injection or distortions of the spray result in direct contact of the fuel spray with the step-hole wall. Additionally, fuel accumulates during an injection in the step-hole volume and discharges onto the injector tip surface subsequently. Furthermore, a poor primary breakup at end of injection can…
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Gasoline Particulate Filter Substrate Heterogeneity Effects on Its Performance

SAE International Journal of Engines

Combustion & Reaction Characterization Laboratory, USA Texas A&M Department of Mechanical Engineering, USA-Pengze Yang
Combustion & Reaction Characterization Laboratory, USA University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA-Andrea Strzelec
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0004
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Continuously tightening Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations make Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop highly desirable as Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines increase in market share. Due to packaging constraints, GPFs are often coated with three-way catalyst (TWC) materials to achieve four-way functionality. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effects of various washcoating strategies on GPF performance. A three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, along with an analytical filtration model was created. A User Defined Function (UDF) was implemented to define the heterogeneous properties of the GPF wall due to washcoating or ash membrane application. The model demonstrated the ability to predict transient filtration efficiency and pressure drop of uncoated and washcoated GPFs. Simulation results showed the evenly coated GPF yielded the best performance compared to other washcoating profiles. The model-predicted results indicated that the sample GPF with a 2.6 g/L ash loading was able to achieve a balance between high initial filtration efficiency and low pressure drop.
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Reduction of Emissions and Noise Variations by Adjustment of Fuel Injection Quantity

Mahindra Research Valley-Vagesh Shangar Ramani, Gurtej Bhachchu, Anbarasu Muthusamy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Fuel injection system is a very sensitive structure deciding the optimum quantity of fuel to be injected for combustion process with acceptable accuracy. Learning of fuel quantity with respect to injection type, duration, number of injections requires proper correction values in order to reduce the variation which would result in dissimilar emissions and performance. Deviation of injection quantities are inevitable due to the variations in production tolerance of the injectors. This study focuses on the maximum reduction in fuel quantity which avoids deviation of soot emissions with three different sets of injectors statistically deviating from the ideal pilot fuel quantity. Three sets of injectors deviating from the mean value were chosen and named as Min sample, Mean sample and Max sample. Min sample was with lower injection quantity than the actual and max sample was with higher injection quantity than actual quantity. Engine was tested on dynamometer as per the standards with all the sets of injectors at part loads and the emission parameters were recorded at each load points. Heat release rate was observed…
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Parametric Calculation and Significance of Engine Dynamic Torque in Performance Benchmarking of a Vehicle

Mahindra Research Valley-Praveen Kumar Ramani, Bharathraj Jayaraman, Sangeetha Ramasamy Thiruppathi
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industries around the world is undergoing massive transformation towards identifying technological capabilities to improve vehicle performance. In this regard, the engine dynamic torque plays a crucial role in defining the transient performance and drivability of a vehicle. Moreover, the dynamic torque is used as a visualization parameter in performance prediction of a vehicle to set the right engineering targets and to assess the engine potential. Hence, an accurate measurement and prediction of the engine dynamic torque is required. However, there are very few methodologies available to measure the engine dynamic torque with reasonable accuracy and minimum efforts. The measurement of engine brake torque using a torque transducer is one of the potential methods. However, it requires a lot of effort and time to instrument the vehicle. It is also possible to back-calculate the engine torque based on fuel injection quantity and other known engine parameters. Though this calculation method is relatively easy, it is not an accurate method. Moreover, it would not be possible to extract engine information of benchmark vehicles. Since every…
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Experimental Investigation of Performance of Di Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel Butanol Blends by Modification of Engine Operating Parameters

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Butanol is an attractive fuel that can be utilized in compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of direct injection diesel engine fueled with diesel-butanol blends with and without modification of engine operating parameters. This study includes three stages: Solubility of diesel butanol blends, property testing of the blends followed by an engine test with and without modification of nozzle opening pressure (190 bar, 200 bar, 210 bar and 220 bar), fuel injection timing (230, 260, 290 and 320 before top dead centre) and compression ratio (16:1, 17.5:1,19:1 and 20.5:1). Optimal parameters among these were attained by using an L16 orthogonal array and Taguchi method. Results indicated that 220 bar of nozzle opening pressure, 260 before the top dead centre of fuel injection timing and 19:1 compression ratio were found suitable for the blend containing 50% diesel and 50% butanol. This blend produced similar brake thermal efficiency, peak incylinder pressure, peak heat release rate, ignition delay, emissions of oxides of nitrogen and smoke. However, the emissions produced by this blend were…
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Effects of Water Injector Spray Angle and Injector Orientation on Emission and Performance of a GDI Engine - A CFD Analysis

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India-Ankit Ashokrao Raut, J.M. Mallikarjuna
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0002
Published 2019-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Higher water evaporation and proper water vapor distribution in the cylinder are very vital for improving emission and performance characteristics of water-injected engines. The concentration of water vapor should be higher and uniform near the walls of the combustion chamber and nil at the spark plug location. In direct water-injected engines, water evaporation, vapor distribution, and spray impingement are highly dependent on injector parameters, viz., water injector orientation (WIO), location, and spray angle. Therefore, in this article, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation is conducted to study the effects of water injector spray angle (WISA), and WIO on the water evaporation, emission, and performance characteristics of a four-stroke, wall-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The WISA is varied from 10° to 35°, whereas the WIO is varied from 15° to 35° in steps of 5°. The water is injected in the compression stroke with an optimum injection pressure of 50 bar. Water-to-fuel (W/F) ratio and spark timing are fixed at their optimum values with a compression ratio (CR) of 13.5. The engine is operated at…
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How to Improve SI Engine Performances by Means of Supercritical Water Injection

University of Basilicata – Potenza 85100-Antonio Cantiani, Annarita Viggiano, Vinicio Magi
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
The efficiency of ICEs is strongly affected by exhaust gases and engine cooling system heat losses, which account for about 50% of the heat released by combustion. A promising approach is to transfer this exhaust heat to a fluid, like water, and inject it into the combustion chamber under supercritical conditions. In such a way, the recovered energy is partially converted into mechanical work, improving both engine efficiency and performance.A quasi-dimensional model has been implemented to simulate an SI engine with supercritical water injection. Specifically, a spark ignition ICE, four-stroke with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) has been considered. The model accounts for gas species properties, includes valves opening/closing, wall heat transfer, a water injection model and a combustion model. The influence of some injection parameters, i.e. Water/Fuel ratio (W/F), Start Of water Injection (SOI) and Water Injection Duration (WID), on engine performances and efficiency is discussed in details.The results show that an increase of W/F ratio has the strongest impact on the performances with respect to SOI and WID, i.e. higher W/F ratio, SOI closer…
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