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Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures Using 1-D Simulation Technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization of off road vehicles is in its early phase but it is likely to increase in coming years. In order to improve fuel economy and overall emission of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict vehicle fuel consumption and emission using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Initially, An acceptable agreement within 5% deviation between simulation and experimental is established for engine steady state points, both for engine performance and NOx emission parameters. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE model. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE model for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying idle start stop and fully hybrid P0 type hybrid architecture. The hybrid P0 type involves idle start stop, e-boost and regeneration. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and NOx, HC and CO emission.
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Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Electric Bus Body

ARAI Academy-Amitabh Das, Yash Jain
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2394
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
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Computerized Experimental Investigation on Performance & Exhaust Emission of Twin Cylinder Adiabatic Diesel Engine Coated with YSZ

SVMIT Bharuch-Dr. Dipakkumar C. Gosai
SVNIT Surat-Anil Kumar Gillawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2548
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The fuel consumption and performance of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine is improved by adopting concepts of an adiabatic engine. An experimental investigation for different load conditions is carried out on a water-cooled, constant-speed, twin-cylinder diesel engine. This research is intended to emphasize energy balance and emission characteristic for standard uncoated base engine and adiabatic engine. The inner walls of diesel engine combustion chamber are thermally insulated by a top coat of Metco 204NS yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3ZrO2) powder (YSZ) of a thickness of 350 mm using plasma spray coating technology. The same combustion chamber is also coated with thermal barrier coating (TBC) bond coats of AMDRY 962 Nickle chromium aluminum yttria of thickness of 150 mm. The NiCrAlY powder specially designed to produce coating’s resistance to hot corrosion. The combination of this ceramic material produces excellent high-temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) resistant to thermal cycling stresses and strains. The engine valves, engine heads, and engine pistons were thermal barrier ceramic coated and computerized experimental results were compared to the base engine. Experimental results justified TBC…
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Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K A Subramanian
Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Verinder Kumar Bathla, Reji Mathai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2511
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hydrocarbon based fossil fuels are being used as the main energy resource, burning of which produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and other emissions harmful to environment. Moreover, CO2 is considered as the main contributor to global warming or greenhouse effect. These are the main drivers behind the ongoing research & development in the area of alternative energy sources. Among various alternatives, Hydrogen is identified as the most promising alternative fuel. Hydrogen is the cleanest fuel having some of the most attractive features such as various methods of production from renewable energy (solar, wind, biomass etc.), from fossil fuels etc. H2 as a fuel can be used in various applications such as spark ignition engine, fuel cells etc.Hydrogen has low ignition energy and ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture with air. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant…
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Powertrain Modelling of a Fuel Cell Three-Wheeler for the Indian Roads

PES University-Abhishek Puthige, Sharanabasappa Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2513
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The three wheeled vehicles are extremely popular in the Indian subcontinent and are constantly posting a positive growth in sales. Given this trend and their polluting nature they can be noted as sizeable contributors to the air quality issues plaguing the metropolitans. With the nation aiming at eradicating the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) in passenger transportation by the year 2030, there have been attempts to convert ICE three-wheelers to battery electric three-wheelers. However, the battery electric three-wheelers, which are quite commonly used for end-mile connectivity, serve to highlight the demerits of the technology pertaining to their range, charge cycles, power to weight ratio, and efficiency. Hydrogen based fuel cells are gaining traction as a potential alternative to batteries due to their efficient and clean power generation. The present paper aims to develop and recommend an optimized power management strategy along with a driveline model for addressing intra-city connectivity in a typical Indian city. The simulation models, considering a parallel hybrid electric three-wheeler with a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell as the prime mover,…
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Comparative Experimental Investigation of Thumba and Argemone Oil Based Dual Fuel Blend in a Diesel Engine for Its Performance and Emission Characteristics

Lovely Professional University-Sumit Kanchan
University of Kashmir-Shahid Qayoom
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2375
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics.The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and Thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like B10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), B20, B30 and B40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings.In this exertion, performance and emission parameters were evaluated. The performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), indicated power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake mean effective pressure, indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency were studied and compared with…
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Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends on GDI Engine to Reduce Cost of Vehicle Ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi, Karthikeyan N Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion engine development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline, and CNG are such alternative fuels. Reducing the consumption of Gasoline also helps India’s dependence on import of crude oil.The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was…
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A DIGITALIZED VALIDATION APPROACH FOR REAL TIME AND REMOTE MONITORING OF AN OFF HIGHWAY VEHICLE PERFORMANCE

Research & Devlopment Institute-Jagannathan Vasu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2531
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A DIGITALIZED VALIDATION APPROACH FOR REAL TIME AND REMOTE MONITORING OF AN OFF-HIGHWAY VEHICLE PERFORMANCE V.Jagannathan 1.a* , B.Jaiganesh 2.b & S.Sudarsanam 3.c Mahindra & Mahindra Limited, Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra World City, Anjur PO, TN, India Corresponding author Email- V.JAGANNATHAN@mahindra.com Validation of agricultural tractors is necessary to ensure that these machines perform to their expected potential and are aptly matched with implements. Testing these machineries in real-time while performing activities in the field allows a bigger picture to be seen; the performance data incorporates the effects of many external factors (Soil, Climate etc.). Tractor Performance data apprehending is the vital part of validation. Data acquisition of key performance parameters during field validation in different application/different countries is of utmost importance. Most prevailing methodology in Tractor validation is by capturing the performance parameters such as Fuel consumption, Area coverage, Wheel slip, Engine rpm drop, implement depth of cut, Tractor speed etc. in manual and physical way. These methodologies of capturing performance parameters are tedious, time consuming, involves manpower, not so secured or safe. The readings…
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Electric hybrid system Architecture & Functional component selection criteria for application based Off-Highway segment

Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
Hybrid Vehicle-Jaipal Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2495
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization continues to be growing trend in vehicular applications. Current study shows a holistic system approach for the design & integration of the powertrain in Off-Highway tractor applications. It includes study & benchmarking of system architecture of an all-electric and diesel-electric drive systems as per application requirement. Further comprehensive study was done on functional components for an electric powertrain, which includes electric drives, batteries & controllers. Selection & design of these components was studied & component selection approach was developed for typical Off-Highway tractor application. Current study was divided into three parts. 1.Study of different Off-Highway tractor applications & selection of all-electric, series & parallel hybrid architectures as per application requirement. For Parallel hybrid configuration, Comprehensive approach was developed for selection & optimization of degree of hybridization required as per Off-Highway tractor application requirement. Architecture selection approach considers the way to take care of % increase of cost price with conventional tractor, market availability of components, Integration constraints, fuel consumption, and efficiency of transmission & smooth delivery of power as required by operator. 2.For above…
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Enhanced Road condition monitoring for developing countries

STMicroelectronics-Saurabh Rawat, Prashant Pandey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2462
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
"According to Data on Road accidents in India by Transport Research Wing of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, more than 4 Lakhs road accidents happened every year from year 2003 to 2017. Poor road conditions and badly designed roads are the common cause of road accidents besides the driver's negligence. Poor roads and badly designed speed breakers are common in developing countries. Apart from accidents, poor road conditions can cause excessive fuel consumption & damage to vehicles. Road condition monitoring solutions aim to warn the drivers of upcoming bad patch on the road and optionally report road conditions to authorities. There are multiple existing solutions that use motion sensors and GPS to detect a bad patch on the road. The presented solution builds over capability of existing solutions by adding useful features making it more practical and useful. The presented scheme is able to differentiate between a pothole and a speed breaker using a machine learning based approach. It also employs additional sensors like gyroscope and optionally a camera to detect on which side…