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A Progress Review on Heating Methods and Influence Factors of Cold Start for Automotive PEMFC System

Tongji University-Pengcheng Liu, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0852
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have become a promising transportation tool because of their high efficiency, fast response and zero-emission. However, the cold start problem is one of the main obstacles to limit the further commercialization of FCV in cold weather countries. Many efforts have made to improve the cold start ability. This review presents comprehensive heating methods and influence factors of the research progress in solving the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) system cold start problems with more than 100 patents, papers and reports, which may do some help for PEMFC system cold start from the point of practical utilization. Firstly, recent achievements and goals will be summarized in the introduction part. Then, regarding the heating strategies for the PEMFC system cold start, different heating solutions are classified into self-heating strategies and auxiliary-heating heating depending on their heating sources providing approach. Then, the next part will review the main influence factors for PEMFC system cold start, including the fuel cell stack, PEMFC system integration and design, cold start control strategies. Shutdown purge and heating…
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Parameter Identification for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Model

Tongji University-Hao Yuan, Haifeng Dai, Xuezhe Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0858
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system has emerged as the state-of-art power source for the electric vehicle, but the widespread commercial application of fuel cell vehicle is restricted by its short service life. An enabling high accuracy model holds the key for better understanding, simulation, analysis, subsystem control of the fuel cell system to extract full power and prolong the lifespan. In this paper, a quasi-dynamic lumped parameters model for a 3kW stack is introduced, which includes filling-and-emptying volume sub-models for the relationships between periphery signals and internal states, static water transferring sub-model for the membrane, and empirical electrochemical sub-model for the voltage response. Several dynamic experiments are carried out to identify unknown parameters of the model. According to the periphery measurable signals, the model is parameterized using a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA)/particle swarm optimization (PSO) method, which combined the advantages of conventional GA and PSO to reduce risks of being trapped into local optima. Comparison of the identified results and test voltages shows that the model is capable of predicting the voltage…
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Energy Management of Dual Energy Source of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

China FAW Group Co.,Ltd.-Haoyuan Song, Yuanzhi Liu, Zhao Yu
Jilin University Automotive Engineering College-Yongqiang Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0595
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the growing shortage of oil resources and the increasingly strict environmental regulations, countries are vigorously developing new energy vehicles, and as a truly zero-emission vehicle in the application, fuel cell electric vehicles can not only completely replace gasoline cars in term of fuel, but also have the advantages of high energy conversion efficiency, short hydrogenation time and long driving range. For Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCEV), and the Energy Management Control Strategy is the "core" of the whole vehicle control system, which has a direct and significant effect on the power and economy of the vehicle. In this paper, the "dual energy source system" composed of fuel cell and power battery is taken as the research object. Based on the proposed power system structure, a fuel cell hybrid power management control strategy is designed, and the simulation model based on Matlab/Simulink and real vehicle are adopted to perform performance verification on standard operating conditions. The strategy aims at optimizing the power and economy, sets the target control value of the SOC, coordinates the…
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Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicle for Mexico City

Oxford Brookes University-Stephen Samuel
UNAM-Rogelio Gonzalez-Oropeza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1169
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The search for alternative fuel for transport vehicles and also replacement of internal combustion engines in order to reduce the harmful emissions have been forcing the vehicle manufacturers to develop, design and propose technology solutions for meeting the stringent legislative targets. Mexico’s commitment for de-carbonisation of transportation sector and meeting the environmental goals is shaping its policy towards this sector and favours the move towards electrification of the vehicles. Therefore, as an interim solution, the presence of hybrid vehicle is increasing in Mexico City. The aim of the present work is to numerically evaluate the possibility of replacing the internal combustion engines in the existing hybrid vehicles with the Hydrogen fuel cell. This work numerically modelled a Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle based on Toyota MIRAI and validated the fuel economy performance of the vehicle using experimental data. This validated model was used to estimate the fuel economy for real-world drive cycles generated in 2019 from Mexico City. It considered three different drive cycles representing real-world driving in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico.…
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Design and control of Thermal Management System for Fuel Cell vehicle in Low-temperature Environment

Tsinghua University-Hongliang Jiang, Liangfei Xu, Jian qiu Li, Zunyan Hu, Minggao Ouyang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0851
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In low-temperature environment, heat supply requires considerable energy, which significantly increases the energy consumption and shortens the mileage of electric vehicles. In fuel cell vehicles, waste heat generated by fuel cell systems can supply heat for vehicles. In this paper, a thermal management system is designed for a fuel cell interurban bus. Heat exchange between fuel cell cooling system and vehicle heat supply system is realized and controlled by heat exchange and coolant flow path design. System model is developed, consisting of vehicle and powertrain model, fuel cell cooling system model, cabin heat supply model and vehicle heat dissipation models. In order to control the temperature of fuel cell stack and vehicle cabin at proper value and minimize the energy consumption, a thermal management strategy is proposed. Simulation of thermal management system and control strategy at -20℃ ambient temperature is conducted based on AMESim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. Results show that in fast startup mode, fuel cell temperature and cabin temperature reach target values in 280s and 400s respectively. After startup process, Errors of the fuel…
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Dynamics of Water Crossover in Fuel Cell and Application to Freeze Driveaway Reliability

General Motors LLC-Manish Sinha, Biju Edamana, Michael Cartwright
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0853
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reliable drive away from frozen condition is one of the challenging design and control problem for fuel cell vehicles. Different approaches for warm-up from frozen conditions have been developed by OEMs, e.g. low voltage inefficient operation, or use of coolant heaters. However, most methods result in water generation in the fuel cell which risk icing and blocking the valves and rendering them nonfunctional till they thaw. One such valve is the anode drain valve which is needed to remove water that crosses over across the membrane to anode side. This work discusses characterization of dynamics of water buildup in anode subsystem via experiments on full scale systems, and development of an online estimator to detect onset of anode water crossover via open loop model and closed loop feedback. Building on this understanding, a control approach is prototyped for warm up and drive-away even with a frozen valve. This approach is demonstrated via repeated starts at -30C with “simulated” nonfunctional frozen valve.
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Off-Road Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis and Development with a Model-Based Design Approach

AVL Powertrain UK-Tom Kigezi, Bill Insup Kim, Tommi Jokela, Bo Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1170
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell and battery electric powertrains are maturing zero-emission technologies expected to complement each other in the future. At present, battery electric powertrains have emerged competitive for urban light-duty transportation while fuel cell powertrains have emerged competitive in heavy-duty commercial transportation, alongside conventional internal combustion engine propulsion. This paper assesses the benefit for fuel cell powertrains in off-road vehicles, taking into account current and target industry data for powertrain components. Specific emphasis is placed on three important aspects, namely driving range, vehicle weight, and vehicle cost. A model-based design approach is then adopted to size the powertrain to meet a set of performance requirements. Owing to the high performance demands of off-road vehicles such as high gradeability and payload capacity, the paper evaluates the merits of a two-speed transmission in comparison to a single speed transmission under drive cycle and performance testing scenarios. A detailed fuel cell model is adopted and validated with real vehicle test data, also from which a highly scalable energy management system is systematically developed. This work adds to a growing…
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Hydrogen Fuel Quality for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel Cell Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2719_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This standard provides background information and a hydrogen fuel quality standard for commercial proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. This report also provides background information on how this standard was developed by the Hydrogen Quality Task Force (HQTF) of the Interface Working Group (IWG) of the SAE Fuel Cell Standards Committee.
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Nikola's FCEV pickup surprise

Automotive Engineering: March 2020

  • Magazine Article
  • 20AUTP03_14
Published 2020-03-01 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Study on Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Ion Exchange Resins of Fuel Cell Vehicles

Engineering Div. ROKI Co., Ltd.-Kaoru Kamo, Motohisa Miyashita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2370
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The thermal degradation of ion E/R (ion exchange resin) has been investigated in the pure water generation power plants, but not in electric power generation in Fuel Cell Vehicle (FC-V). Electric power generation fuel cell uses its coolant water of 50wt% ethylene glycol (EG). When EG degraded in the heated condition, ions elute in the coolant. This ion elution reduces the ion E/R performance through reduction of its capacity. This paper describes the effect of thermal degradation of ion E/R in FC-V.
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