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Study on Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Ion Exchange Resins of Fuel Cell Vehicles

Engineering Div. ROKI Co., Ltd.-Kaoru Kamo, Motohisa Miyashita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2370
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The thermal degradation of ion E/R (ion exchange resin) has been investigated in the pure water generation power plants, but not in electric power generation in Fuel Cell Vehicle (FC-V). Electric power generation fuel cell uses its coolant water of 50wt% ethylene glycol (EG). When EG degraded in the heated condition, ions elute in the coolant. This ion elution reduces the ion E/R performance through reduction of its capacity. This paper describes the effect of thermal degradation of ion E/R in FC-V.
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Fuel Cell Vehicles: An Opportunity for China's Greenhouse Gas Reduction

Tsinghua University-Zhexuan Mu, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu, Fuquan Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2263
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell vehicle and battery electric vehicle are two environmentally benign vehicle technology types possibly meeting the zero-emission regulations in the future. The premise is they can achieve parity with conventional vehicle both environmentally and economically. Besides, it is necessary to distinguish which technology is more suitable in China's current and future context. This paper compares their cost-effectiveness for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, examining the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of conventional gasoline vehicle, battery electric vehicle and fuel cell vehicle in China's energy context under three different scenarios. The results indicate that under the 500km drive range, fuel cell vehicles are less competitive than battery electric vehicles currently. Fuel cell vehicles generate much more greenhouse gas emissions than battery vehicles and conventional gasoline vehicles. While with the optimization of energy context, fuel cell vehicles can gain competitiveness with battery electric vehicles in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, and with mass production as well as fuel cell system cost reduction, fuel cell vehicles can realize a better cost-effectiveness. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that…
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Unsteady High-Speed Flow in the Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicle on Filling the Gas

Kyushu University- ANYOJI, Masayuki, AOKI, Toshiyuki
Soken, Inc.- MIYOSHI, Shinji, MITSUISHI, Yasushi, SHIMOMURA, Tetsuya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2262
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the high-pressure tank for Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), the shock wave might be occurs during filling of the hydrogen gas because of the high-pressure ratio. Therefore, the temperature sensor in the high-pressure tank might be affected by the shock wave. In this work, we investigated the effect of unsteady flow including shock wave by visualizing around the exit of filling pipe in the Schlieren method. As the result of visualizing the filling pipe exit, it confirmed that pressure wave following the barrel shock wave occurred at high pressure ratio.
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Hydrogen Surface Vehicle to Station Communications Hardware and Software

Fuel Cell Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2799_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-13 by SAE International in United States

This standard specifies the communications hardware and software requirements for fueling hydrogen surface vehicles (HSV), such as fuel cell vehicles, but may also be used where appropriate, with heavy-duty vehicles (e.g., busses) and industrial trucks (e.g., forklifts) with compressed hydrogen storage. It contains a description of the communications hardware and communications protocol that may be used to refuel the HSV. The intent of this standard is to enable harmonized development and implementation of the hydrogen fueling interfaces.

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A Novel Approach on Range Prediction of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Truck

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-C Venkatesh Chandrasekar, L R Amruth Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2514
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Today’s growing commercial vehicle population creates a demand for fossil fuel surplus requirement and develops highly polluted urban cities in the world. Hence addressing both factors is very much essential. Battery electric vehicles are with limited vehicle range and higher charging time. So it is not suitable for the long-haul application. In further the hydrogen fuel cell-based electric vehicles are the future of the commercial electric vehicle to achieve long-range, zero-emission and alternate for reducing fossil fuels requirement.The hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle range, it means the total distance covered by the vehicle in a single filling of hydrogen into the onboard cylinders. And here the prediction of the vehicle range is essential based on optimal parameters; vehicle acceleration, speed, trip time etc. before the start of the trip.If the driver starts the vehicle without range prediction and optimum driving strategy, will be led into midway vehicle stoppage and excessive energy consumption of the trip.This paper deals with different methods of electric vehicle range prediction and optimization, benefits and demerits are listed and discussed, to…
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Considerations for Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Airborne Applications

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR7765
  • Current
Published 2019-11-18 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this joint EUROCAE/SAE report is to compile the considerations relating to airborne application of hydrogen fuel cells. This document provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of hydrogen as a fuel by describing its existing applications and the experience gained by exploiting fuel cells in sectors other than aviation. The use of hydrogen fuel cells in aircraft can help in meeting aviation environmental targets (including noise pollution) and can be vital to achieving efficient electrically propelled air vehicles. The experience gained with mature fuel cells in terrestrial applications and the handling of other gases in aviation, as presented herein, will help in alleviating safety concerns and in demystifying the usage of hydrogen in aviation.
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Research on Test Method for Shielding Effectiveness to Cable of Vehicles

CATARC-Li Jiang, Xichen Chen, Haiming Liu, Zaiyuan Wu, Yun Wang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
With the development of electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVS), high voltage and large-current are applied to cables. Therefore, it is important to avoid electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems of cables, and a measurement methods is necessary for the shielding effectiveness of shielding cables. This paper discusses the existing test methods of cable shielding effectiveness and summarizes the main problems and deficiencies. Then, according to the practical requirements of high voltage cable testing, the direct injection method based on the national standard GB/T 18655-2018 (modified international standard CISPR 25) is proposed. The test method is verified by constructing a practical test platform. The test result show that the platform built can meet the test requirements of the new energy vehicles (NEVs) GB/T 18387 test frequency band 150k~30MHz, and can also meet the test requirements of the 150k~108MHz frequency band of the key component conducted emission of NEVs.
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Toyota unveils rear-drive FCEV Mirai, plug-in RAV4

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Paul Seredynski
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_15
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

As part of an electrified stable primed for the 2019 Los Angeles Auto Show (LAAS), Toyota will display its all-new Mirai fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and the upcoming plug-in hybrid version of its RAV4 compact SUV. The two 2021 models will further pad the Japanese company's already market-leading six hybrid offerings (12 if the premium Lexus brand is included). On top of previously announced plans for a “major battery electric vehicle (BEV) rollout,” Toyota also announced an extension of its hybrid battery warranties.

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Environmental and Health Impact of Electric and Hydrogen Light Vehicles: The Case of an Italian Small City

University of Roma Tor Vergata-Luca Andreassi, Giacomo Falcucci
University of Tuscia-Andrea Luigi Facci, Stefano Ubertini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell electric vehicles have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation.In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances.In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such…
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Simultaneous Optimization of Real-Time Control Strategies and Powertrain Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

University of Salerno, Italy-Marco Sorrentino, Dario Capaldo
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The successful introduction of low-carbon footprint and highly efficient fuel cell vehicles represents nowadays a key action to achieve sustainable mobility worldwide. The main technological barriers (i.e., market price, lifetime and performance) to be overcome justifies an increasing attention towards the development of mathematical tools featuring co-optimization capabilities, so as to adequately account for the strong interactions and mutual influence between design criteria and selected control strategies. This paper thus presents and discusses the integration of a comprehensive model of a generic FCHV architecture with a specifications independent control strategy within a modular constrained optimization algorithm, the latter conceived in such a way to simultaneously find the optimal FCHV powertrain design and real-time applicable control strategies. Suitable design and energy management criteria, accounting for also the impact of driving mission on proper management of available power sources, were selected. The proposed co-optimization procedure aims at determining the main powertrain design parameters (i.e., nominal fuel cell system power and battery pack energy density), as well as some key driving cycle-related information (i.e., power prediction time horizon),…
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