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Experimental Investigation on Performance of a Variable Compression Ratio Engine Fueled with Diesel Butanol Blends with Nano Additives

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Butanol is an attractive alcohol having closer properties to that of diesel. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of a variable compression ratio engine fueled with diesel butanol blends enhanced by two nano additives (nano alumina and nano zinc oxide) in various proportions. To start with a solubility test was conducted with various proportions of diesel and butanol (0% to 50%). Optimal blend as (50% diesel and 50% butanol) from diesel butanol blends was selected from this step. Nano zinc oxide (100 - 500ppm) and nano alumina (0 - 100ppm) were blended with this optimal blend through ultasonication. This blend was tested for essential properties such as cetane number, energy content, kinematic viscosity, oxygen content, the heat of vaporization and flash point. Out of the 10 proportions of diesel butanol blends with nano-additives, two blends were chosen with respect to the properties in comparison to that of diesel. These two blends were tested in a variable compression ratio engine by varying compression ratios (16: 1, 17.5:1, 19:1 & 20.5:1) under various load conditions.…
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Evaluation of Gasoline Additive Packages to Assess Their Ability to Clean Up Intake Valve Deposits in Automotive Engines

Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc.-Vivek Raja Raj Mohan, Edward Nelson, Jannik Reitz, Jennifer Kensler, Varun Gauba
Southwest Research Institute-Matthew Hinojosa, Brent Shoffner
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The majority of passenger car and light-duty trucks, especially in North America, operate using port-fuel injection (PFI) engines. In PFI engines, the fuel is injected onto the intake valves and then pulled into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke. Components of the fuel are unstable in this environment and form deposits on the upstream face of the intake valve. These deposits have been found to affect a vehicle’s drivability, emissions and engine performance. Therefore, it is critical for the gasoline to be blended with additives containing detergents capable of removing the harmful intake valve deposits (IVDs).Established standards are available to measure the propensity of IVD formation, for example the ASTM D6201 engine test and ASTM D5500 vehicle test. However, rigorous testing conducted in a modern fleet of vehicles in a statistically robust design can provide greater insight into the actual performance of modern PFI engines with available gasoline additive packages. In this study, an optimized mileage accumulation protocol was used to assess the performance of new experimental gasoline additive packages in removing the IVDs…
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The Effect of Cerium Oxide Nano Particles Fuel Additive on Performance, Combustion, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Karanja and Jatropha Biodiesel in a Military 585 kW CIDI Engine

CVRDE-S Suresh
College of Engineering-Milankumar Nandgaonkar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Rapid depletion of petroleum reserves, stringent emission legislations and global warming has given us an opportunity to find biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel. Biodiesel is a biogradable, renewable, sulphur free, non-toxic, and oxygenated green fuel. Recent emission legislations have also restricted the nano particles emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non-edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatropha oil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by the process of transesterification. Biodiesel emits lesser gaseous emission as compared to diesel fuel. However, the only major concern in the use of biodiesel is that it increases NOx emission. Nano particle fuel additive is one of the essential techniques to overcome the NOx emission drawback of biodiesel. In the present study, the engine performance and emission of CO, UHC, NOx and PM including nano particle emission, were compared for diesel, Karanja and Jatropha oil biodiesel with Cerium Oxide nano particles fuel additive, in a 12-cylinder, 585 kW, CIDI military heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental results showed that…
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Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

Center For Quality Assurance-Michael Kunselman
Daimler AG-Daniel Kozub
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges. Various fuel properties of concerns from OEMs perspective are discussed, and details of the TOP TIER TM Diesel standard, including the test methods and corresponding limits, are described.
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Automotive Gasolines

Fuels and Lubricants TC 7 Fuels Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J312_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice summarizes the composition of modern automotive gasolines, the significance of their physical and chemical characteristics, and the pertinent test methods for defining or evaluating these properties.
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The Effect of Cerium Oxide Nano Particles Fuel Additive on Performance and Emission of Karanja Biodiesel Fueled Compression Ignition Military 585kW Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Army Base Workshop- Pune-Anil Varghese
CVRDE, DRDO, Chennai-S Suresh
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Global warming with stringent emission legislation along with the depletion of fossil fuel has given us an opportunity to find biodiesel as alternative to diesel fuel. Biodiesel has been widely accepted as comparable fuel to diesel in diesel engine. This is due to its renewable property, better lubricity, along with lesser gaseous emission as compared to diesel fuel. However, there is a major disadvantage in the use of biodiesel as it increases NOx emission. Fuel additive becomes one of the essential tools to overcome the drawback of biodiesel required to meet the international standard of performance and emission. In this study, the performance, combustion, and gaseous emission of CO, CO2, HC, NOx and PM including particle size number distribution characteristics, were compared for diesel, Karanja oil biodiesel, and Karanja oil biodiesel with Cerium Oxide Nano particles fuel additive, in a 12 cylinder, 585 kW, CIDI military diesel engine. The experimental result showed that engine performance with Karanja oil biodiesel with fuel additive increased by 5%, along with lower gaseous emission including 14% - 26% lower…
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Diesel Fuel Improvers and Their Effect on Microbial Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends

National Technical University of Athens-Chrysovalanti Tsesmeli, George S. Dodos, Fanourios Zannikos
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Additives that enhance properties, such as cetane number or cold flow, are introduced in diesel-biodiesel blends in order to upgrade its performance as well as to aid its handling and distribution. Furthermore, in order to protect the engine and fuel operating system equipment, diesel fuel may be treated with corrosion inhibitors and detergents. However, additives could also have an impact on other parameters beyond those that they are intended to boost. In the present study the effect of diesel fuel improvers on fuel’s microbial stability is examined. An additive-free ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was blended with Soybean Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and the resulting blend was treated separately with a series of commercially available diesel fuel additives. Specific products belonging to the groups of cold-flow improvers, cetane improvers, metal deactivators and corrosion inhibitors were employed and were added both at the recommended treating rate as well as in a range of concentrations (1000, 250 and 500 ppm). Following to this, the impact of those agents on microbial proliferation in diesel fuel was studied…
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Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Karanja Oil Biodiesel with Cerium Oxide Nano Particle Fuel Additive on Lubricating Oil Tribology and Engine Wear in a Heavy Duty 38.8L,780 HP Military CIDI Diesel Engine

C V R D E, DRDO, Chennai-S Suresh
College of Engineering Pune-Milankumar Nandgaonkar
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel fuels are an alternative to diesel fuel. Biodiesel is an oxygenated, sulphur free, non-toxic, biogradable and renewable fuel. It is derived from vegetable oils. Since straight vegetable oils have quite high viscosity compared to mineral diesel, they have to be modified to bring their combustion-related properties and viscosity closer to mineral diesel. This is done by modifying their molecular structure through a transesterification process. In the present study, a military heavy duty 38.8 liter, 585 kW supercharged, compression ignition diesel injection (CIDI) engine was fuelled with diesel, Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) biodiesel, and KOME biodiesel with cerium oxide fuel additive, respectively. These were subjected to 100 hours long term endurance tests. Lubricating oil samples, drawn from the engine fuelled with these fuels after a fixed interval of 20 hours, were subjected to elemental analysis. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was done for quantification of various metal debris concentrations. Lubricating oil samples were also subjected to ferrography test which indicated lower wear debris concentrations for a biodiesel with fuel additive operated engine. Number of tests was…
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Methods for Determining Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials Exposed to Hydrocarbon Fuels or Their Surrogates and Their Blends with Oxygenated Additives

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1748_201808
  • Current
Published 2018-08-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to determining worst-case fuel or test fluid surrogate, conditioning test specimens in worst-case fuel(s)/surrogate(s) prior to testing, individual tests for properties of polymeric materials exposed to oxygenate fuel/surrogate mixtures with additives. The determination of equilibrium, as well as typical calculations are also covered.
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Literature Review on the Effects of Organometallic Fuel Additives in Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Coordinating Research Council-Amber Leland
Desert Research Institute-S. Kent Hoekman
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-01-0005
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
A literature review was conducted and fuel survey data were obtained to identify the use of metallic fuel additives (MFAs) within market fuels and determine their effects on engines, exhaust systems, and vehicle performance. The primary focus was on modern vehicles equipped with on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems and advanced emissions control systems. For gasoline, this includes vehicles categorized as National Low Emission Vehicles (NLEV) and Tier 2 or beyond in the U.S., and Euro-3 through Euro-6 in the EU. For diesel, this includes engines/vehicles with original equipment manufacturer (OEM)-equipped oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters. The literature search of peer-reviewed papers and other publicly available articles returned over 100 items relevant to the use of organometallic fuel additives, but did not provide significant evidence of widespread use of MFAs in either gasoline or diesel fuels. It is possible, however, that in specific cases, MFAs are added to fuels downstream of refinery blending. Recent fuel survey information confirmed that relatively few MFAs are found in market fuels, and they are generally present at quite low concentrations.…
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