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Evaluating the Effect of Light Weighting Through Roll Stiffness Change on Vehicle Maneuverability and Stability

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd-Eric Pranesh Reuben, Sreeraj N
Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.-Raghav Budhiraja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2406
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective To achieve better fuel economy and reduced carbon footprint, OEMs are reducing the sprung and unsprung mass. This translates into a reduction in stiffness which profoundly deteriorates the handling/road holding characteristics of the vehicle. To model these changes in stiffness, modifications are made to suspension roll stiffness at the front and rear. This study compares different configurations of roll stiffness and evaluates vehicle behavior using frequency response characteristics and phase change of Yaw Gain recorded. The present work associates acquired data with subjective feedback to outline the shift in vehicle balance emerging from a variation of sprung and unsprung mass ratio. Methodology To study the frequency response characteristics of the vehicle, the pulse input is chosen for this. An ideal pulse input’s Fourier transform represents constant amplitude over all the frequency ranges. By giving a single input, the system is subjected to a range of frequencies. The changes in roll stiffness at the front and rear axles are achieved through addition of Stabilizer Bars of different diameters and stiffness. The test is conducted using…
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Testing Methods and Signal Processing Strategies for Automatic Transmission Transient Multiplexed Pressure Data

Ford Motor Company-Steve Frait, Ram Sudarsan Devendran
Michigan Technological University-Mark Woodland, Jason Blough, Darrell Robinette, Carl Anderson
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Transmissions have multiple transient events that occur from gear shifting to torque converter clutch application. These transients can be difficult to capture and observe. A six speed front wheeled drive transmission was instrumented with pressure transducers to measure clutches and the torque converter. Due to size restrictions internal to the torque converter the data had to be multiplexed across three different transmitters. A method to capture a transient event through the use of multiplexed data was developed to create a data set with the transient event occurring on each channel. Once testing is completed, the data has to be split into individual channels and synced with the operational data. The data then can be used in both time and frequency domain analysis. It is important to understand that the data is not continuous and must be taken into consideration when post processing it for further results.
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Pure Electric Vehicles Simulation Using Powertrain Energy Estimator Tool

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Salem Al-Assadi, Jason McConnell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes first, the use of Powertrain Energy Estimator (PEE) tool to simulate and analyze the performance of the Pure Electric Vehicles (PEV’s) with all the powertrain components. The PEE uses basic physics calculations and measured components performance with the available vehicle parameters to model and simulate any conceptual PEV. The tool calculates the predicted torques, speeds, voltages, efficiency and power passed from one component to another then saves all the simulation results in a database for further user’s analysis. Secondly, we present a methodology to estimate the maximum power capacity required for PEV driving electric machine (E-Motor). The estimation approach is based on creating a power map, which combines the contour lines for all power levels over vehicle speeds/road climbing grades required for the PEV powertrain driving component (E-Motor) to meet all the vehicle’s performance requirements. The evaluation of the power map uses the vehicle’s specifications and performance requirements. The performance requirements are mainly cover the maximum vehicle speed, acceleration time and road climbing grade.Two types of PEV platform applications are considered in…
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Diagnosis and Elimination of Vehicle Lateral Shake in Passenger Car through Modification of Driveshaft Joints and Engine Mount System

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Sandip Hazra, Ajit Kharade, Sunil Thakur
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle lateral shake during take-off is sensitively felt by customers when the vehicle is driven at a low speed under drive away acceleration. The take-off shudder is complained by customers during 1st and 2nd gear take off. Under an engine torque and half shaft angle, the drive-away shudder usually occurs during acceleration to a specific low speed at 1200 to 1600 engine rpm, which makes the vehicle shake severely. A thorough investigation with possible design optimization of mounting system, drive shaft joint and lubrication is done to reduce the lateral vibration. This paper focuses on a passenger car, the take-off shudder of which occurs at a speed between 20 km/h and 30 km/h. The test vehicle is a monocoque construction with front wheel drive east west engine. Vehicle lateral shake is observed during the low gear power train run up in Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition. The lateral shake is felt predominantly on the front half of the vehicle which is easily perceivable by passenger.The paper discusses the measurement and analysis procedures to identify the…
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All-Wheel Drive Systems Classification

Drivetrain Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1952_201804
  • Current
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
In this SAE Recommended Practice, attention will be given to passenger cars and light trucks (through Class III).
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Simulation Based Control Strategy Design of All Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle Regenerative Braking System

Ricardo UK Ltd.-Ran Bao, Philip Griggs, James Baxter
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Maximising the recovered regenerative braking energy during the deceleration can significantly reduce the Electric Vehicle (EV) energy consumption and increase the range. Compared with the Front Wheel Drive (FWD) or Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) EV, an All Wheel Drive (AWD) EV with 2 electric machines (e-machines) has more control degree freedom when developing the regenerative braking control strategy. By implementing the regenerative braking at the front axle, rear axle, or at the front and rear axles simultaneously, the amount of recovered kinetic energy will be affected. Furthermore, the e-machines at the front and rear axle in the AWD EV can have different sizes or be the same. Therefore, the ratio between front and rear e-machine power rating should also be investigated to understand its effect on the amount of recovered energy during deceleration. This paper starts with the analysis of the vehicle braking behaviour compared over different driving cycles, and the comparison of two configurations of regenerative braking system, Category A and B. Then, the AWD EV is modelled, and its regenerative braking controller is…
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Value of Optimal Wavelet Function in Gear Fault Diagnosis

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

CTU-Gabriela Achtenova
Helwan University-Mohamed El morsy
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1771
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Gear fault diagnosis is important in the vibration monitoring of any rotating machine. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always display non-stationary behavior. In early stage of gear failure, the gear mesh frequency (GMF) contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations. An effective signal processing method would be necessary to remove such corrupting noise and interference. This paper presents the value of optimal wavelet function for early detection of faulty gear. The Envelope Detection (ED) and the Energy Operator are used for gear fault diagnosis as common techniques with and without the proposed optimal wavelet to verify the effectiveness of the optimal wavelet function. Kurtosis values are determined for the previous techniques as an indicator parameter for the ability of early gear fault detection. The comparative study is applied to real vibration signals. First, to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations, the vibration signal is filtered with a band-pass filter determined by a Morlet wavelet whose parameters are optimized based on maximum Kurtosis.…
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A Study on Reducing Gear Rattle Noise Based on Sensitivity Analysis of Drivetrain Torsional Model

Changan Automobile Co., Ltd.-Xianwu Yang, Jian Pang, Lanjun Wang, Xiong Tian, Yu Tang
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
With drastically reduction of engine noise, the gear rattle noise generated by the impact between neutral gears inside transmission can be much easily perceived. It is well known that the torsional mode has a direct relationship with the transmission gear rattle noise. This paper establishes a torsional model of a front wheel drive automotive drivetrain, including clutch system, transmission box and equivalent load of a full vehicle, in AMESim software. The experimental engine speed fluctuations at different gears are used to excite the torsional model. The influences of several parameters, including flywheel inertia, clutch stiffness, clutch hysteresis and drive shaft stiffness, on the 2nd order (major engine firing order for a 4-cylinder-4-stroke engine) torsional resonant frequency and the 2nd order torsional resonant peak of the transmission input shaft are analyzed by changing them alternatively. The model is validated by a comparison between the simulated and measured 2nd torsional resonant peaks. It is concluded that the optimized drivetrain parameters reduce the 2nd order torsional resonant peak of the transmission input shaft effectively. Some control strategies are…
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Optimization of Front Wheel Drive Engine Mounting System for Third Order Shudder Improvement

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Altair Engineering Inc.-Makarand Datar
Ford Motor Company-Kalyan Addepalli, Natalie Remisoski
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9175
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the vehicle design is highly ruled by the increasing customer demands and expectations. In addition to ride comfort and vehicle handling, the Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior of the powertrain is also a critical factor that has a big impact on the customer experience. To evaluate the powertrain NVH characteristics, the NVH error states should be studied. A typical NVH event could be decoupled into 3 parts: source, path, and receiver. Take-off shudder, which evaluates the NVH severity level during vehicle take-off, is one of the most important NVH error states. The main sources of Front Wheel Drive (FWD) take-off shudder are the plunging Constant Velocity Joints (CVJ) on the left and right half shafts. This is because a plunging CVJ generates a third order plunging force with half shaft Revolution Per Minute (RPM), which is along the slip of the plunging CVJ. The primary path of take-off shudder is the Engine Mounting System (EMS), which isolates the vibration inputs from the vehicle body. A typical receiver of shudder is the passenger seat,…
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Development of Compact Torque Converter with New Multiple Disk Clutch for Toyota New FWD Eight-Speed Transmission Direct Shift-8AT

Aisin AW Co Ltd-Takamitsu Kuroyanagi, Makoto nakazuru
Toyota Motor Corporation-Isamu Hachisuwa, Naoki Kato, Daisuke Kusamoto, Hideki Miyata, Takuya Okada, Hitoshi matsunaga
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent environmental regulations requiring lower CO2 emissions and higher fuel economy have made it essential to develop vehicles with superior fuel efficiency and cleaner emissions. At the same time, there is growing demand for even more powerful and quieter vehicles. To help satisfy these requirements, Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission for front wheel drive vehicles, incorporating its first compact torque converter with a multiple disk lock-up mechanism. This newly developed compact torque converter with a multiple disk lock-up mechanism was designed under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) development concept to achieve an excellent balance between higher efficiency through the commonization of components and stronger product appeal through installation on a whole family of transmissions. This compact torque converter is compatible with a variety of engines from inline 4-cylinder to V6 configurations. This transmission also includes a multiple disk lock-up clutch that can be used all through the torque range, which helps create a direct dynamic response and better fuel economy. A new ultra-flat torus was developed with the…
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