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SIMULATION OF SOFTENING AND RUPTURE IN MULTILAYERED FUEL TANK MATERIAL

General Motors Technical Center India-Vijaya Kumar R L, Biswajit Tripathy, Jayaraj Radhakrishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2557
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Plastic automotive fuel tanks made up of blow molded, multi-layered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) material can take complex shapes with varying thickness. Accidental drop of fuel tank from a height during handling can lead to development of cracks. Damage can also occur due to an impact during a crash. This can be catastrophic due to flammability of the fuel. The objective of this work is to characterize and develop a failure model for the fuel tank material to simulate damage and enhance predictive capability of CAE for chassis and safety load cases. Methodology Different aspects were considered to develop a characterization and modelling strategy for the HDPE fuel tank. Material properties can be influenced by factors such as, service temperature, rate of deformation, state of stress etc. Hence, samples cut-out from different regions of the fuel tank were subjected to a variety of tests such as tensile test at different strain rates viz. 0.01/s, 0.1/s, 1/s, 10/s and 100/s, compression, shear, flexure and instrumented dart impact tests at different temperatures, -40°C, 23°C…
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A Mathematical Approach to Determine Die Wear during Forging Process and Validation by Experimental Technique

Dr P K Ajeet Babu-Ajeet Babu P K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2563
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry is constantly trying to develop cost effective, high strength and lightweight components to meet the emission and safety norms while remaining competitive in the market. Forging process plays an important role to produce most of the structural components in a vehicle. Precision forging technology is used to produce components with little or no flash leading to elimination of machining process after forging. The load acting on the dies during net or near net forging is very high and leads to wear in the die. In order to have a good die it is important that die wear which is an inevitable phenomenon in a bulk metal forming processes is predicted mathematically. In this study a review on the vast number of studies done in the area of wear and various predictive models is carried out. The various models available for abrasive wear such as Archard, Felder-Montagut and IFUM model and for adhesive wear such as Holms model has been studied and implemented in commercial FE Code by developing FORTRAN subroutine and wear…
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Analogy of Thermal Properties of Polyamide 6 Reinforced with Glass Fiber and Glass Beads through FDM Process

Sri Krishna College of Engg and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Hari Nishok Rangasamy Suguna Thangaraj, Aravind Kumar Vasudevan, Dharshan Karthick Shanmugan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0137
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The essential target of this examination is to compare the morphological and thermal properties of two different polyamide composite blends with inventive thermal properties. The polyamide-6 (PA6) reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt. % glass fiber (GF) and PA6 reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt. % glass beads (GB) are the two different polyamide composite blends extruded in form of wire by twin screw extrusion process. The experimental study illustrates to print the specimens by means of Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM) based Three-Dimensional (3D) printer. The responses like morphology, Thermal Conductivity (TC) and Heat Distortion Temperature (HDT) of composites were observed. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis equal distribution of higher 30wt% GF and GB in the PA6 matrix was observed. The results compare the increasing thermal properties of the 3D printed specimen like TC and HDT with the enhancement of beads content during the investigation. The GB are crystalline material which improves the thermal properties of the PA6 matrix and the GF are dimensionally stable material that can provide high modulus…
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Development and Influence of Setting Process Variables in Single Point Incremental Sheet Metal Forming of AA 8011 Using Complex Proportional Assessment and ANOVA

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Durai Kumaran, Krishnaswamy Saravanan, Raj Rajendran, Harish Sriram
Tishk International University-Ganesh Babu Loganathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0064
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Single point Incremental forming (SPIF) is a metal forming process that has achieved impeccable quality since the early 1990s. ISF is a very limited twisting process in which an improved device that must be used after a particular direction travels on a metal sheet to form the desired shape. Process parameters such as axial feed (mm), feed (mm / min), tool diameter (mm) and depth (mm) at the interface between samples during SPIF greatly affect the quality of the cone. Maximum thinning (mm), cone height (mm), wall angle (mm), formation time (minutes), etc. The purpose of this study was to study these parameters by improving the cone mass formed by VMC. For a detailed study of these parameters, experiments were performed using the orthogonal array L9. Output parameters such as mechanical quality effects were analysed using COPRAS (Complex Proportional Assessment of alternatives) and ANOVA.
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Die Design Parameter Optimization for Steering Intermediate Tube Using Taguchi Method

Rane NSK Steering Systems Pvt Ltd.-Mohanraj Ramamoorthi, Chaitanya Gandhi, Bharathkumar Krishnadoss, Arunkumar Nagarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0128
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The increasing demand for lower cost and higher reliability of product of Indian OEM’s, one of the approach is using cheaper raw material considering design for X. In current steering intermediate tube, the development of replacing the imported material of STKM11A by local material of same grade has been done. The microstructure comparison shows there is variation in grain size and Mechanical properties of local and imported material and thus affects the formability of material. Increasing in mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength of material leads to challenge in actual forming as it affects the die life and its performance. In this paper, Non-linear explicit Axial cold forming process of Intermediate tube has been simulated through Finite Element Analysis Tool for both the local and imported material with optimization of die parameters. Dimensional requirement was one of the important parameter to correlate between the Design and Forming simulation. The parameter identified by past experience were Rough die opening angle, Mandrel forming angle, co-efficient of friction, Lobe width and Angle. Through Taguchi method, effect…
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Advanced Assembly Solutions for the Airbus RACER Joined-Wing Configuration

University of Nottingham-David Bainbridge, Konstantinos Bacharoudis, Andrea Cini, Alison Turner, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Rapid And Cost Effective Rotorcraft (RACER) is being developed by Airbus Helicopters (AH) to demonstrate a new Vertical Take-Off and Landing configuration to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and aeroplanes. RACER is a compound rotorcraft featuring wings and multiple rotors. The wing arrangement suggested by AH is defined as a staggered bi-plane joined configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing, either side of the fuselage, connected at their outboard extent to form a triangular structure. The ASTRAL consortium, consisting of the University of Nottingham and GE Aviation Systems, are responsible for the design, manufacture, assembly and testing of the wings. Producing an optimised strategy to assemble a joined-wing configuration for a passenger carrying rotorcraft is challenging and novel. The objective of this work concerns all aspects of assembling the joined-wing structure.The joined-wing and fuselage structures will be produced independently and mated together during the final RACER assembly. A multi-stage process will deliver the joined-wing assembly and ensure it will fit to the fuselage. Producing the individual wing structures requires a…
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Numerical Investigation of Electrostatic Spray Painting Transfer Processes for Vehicle Coating

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Mohammad Reza Pendar, Jose Pascoa
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study we examined numerically the electrostatic spray transfer processes in the rotary bell spray applicator, which is this case implemented in a full 3D representation. Instead of an experimental approach [Stevenin et al., 2015, Fluids Eng., 137 (11)], here an algorithm implemented and developed for this simulation includes airflow, spray dynamics, tracking of paint droplets and an electrostatic modularized solver to present atomization and in-flight spray phenomena for the spray forming procedure. The algorithm is implemented using the OpenFOAM package. The shaping airflow is simulated via an unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes method. Solver for particle trajectory was developed to illustrate the process of spray transport and also the interaction of airflow and particle that is solved by momentum coupling. As the numerical results in this paper indicates dominant operating parameter voltage setting, further the charge to mass ratio and air-paint flow rate deeply effect the spray shape and the transfer efficiency (TE). The spin of the bell forced the paint to fall off from the bell edge into the high-velocity airflow. By increasing…
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Development of Multi-Material Overhead Stowage Systems for Commercial Aircrafts by Using New Design and Production Methods

3D Systems GmbH-Gunnar Fick
Composite Technology Center / CTC GmbH-Marc Fette
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Innovative, lightweight and cost-efficient aircraft components require the use of modern lightweight materials and efficient production technologies. A promising technology is the combination of chopped fiber Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) and pre-impregnated, continuous fiber fabrics processed by single-stage compression molding. The so-called Hybrid SMC Technology obtains cost-efficiency as well as time-saving production of loaded and functional aircraft components. However, reliable design principles for components and computing methods for predicting the material behavior have to be developed for a use in aviation industry. Hence, this paper deals with the development of materials, fabrics, manufacturing processes and computing methods related to the Hybrid SMC Technology. Those developments are demonstrated and validated by the implementation of a lightweight multi-material overhead stowage compartment (OHSC) using new design approaches as well as assembly principles.
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Orbital Forming of Automotive Wheel Bearings

Orbitform-Jake Sponsler
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Orbital forming is considered an optimal assembly process for many designs of automotive wheel bearing assemblies. More specifically, this process involves forming the spindle over the inner race of the wheel bearing to maximize surface area contact on the inner ring for retention, and to maintain bearing preload. The unique forming properties and precise controls allow orbital forming to produce an ideal finished retention feature and form for these types of bearings. This paper discusses the specific benefits of orbital forming of automotive wheel bearings. Forming basics, the physics behind the benefits of orbital forming, as well as pre-form lip geometry and other part design considerations are presented. Advanced machine control methodologies and historical machine process improvements are also reviewed concluding with next steps in process control and in-machine quality assurance.
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Low- to High-Temperature Reaction Transition in a Small-Bore Optical Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

CCDC Army Research Laboratory, United States-Kenneth S. Kim, Chol-Bum Kweon
The University of New South Wales, Australia-Harsh Goyal, Yilong Zhang, Sanghoon Kook
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-05-0031
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
This study shows the development of low-temperature and high-temperature reactions in a gasoline-fuelled compression ignition (GCI) engine realizing partially premixed combustion for high efficiency and low emissions. The focus is how the ignition occurs during the low- to high-temperature reaction transition and how it varies due to single- and double-injection strategies. In an optically accessible, single-cylinder small-bore diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of formaldehyde (HCHO-PLIF), hydroxyl (OH-PLIF), and fuel (fuel-PLIF) has been performed. This was complemented with high-speed imaging of combustion luminosity and chemiluminescence imaging of cool flame and OH*. The diagnostics were performed for two different fuels including conventional diesel as a reference case and then a kerosene-based jet fuel which is a low-ignition quality fuel with cetane number of 30, firstly with single near top dead center (TDC) injection and then a double-injection strategy implementing very early injection and late injection in the same engine. For diesel combustion, it is shown that the cool-flame and HCHO signals appear from the jet axis before spreading…
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