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General Motors Technical Center India-Vijaya Kumar R L, Biswajit Tripathy, Jayaraj Radhakrishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2557
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Plastic automotive fuel tanks made up of blow molded, multi-layered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) material can take complex shapes with varying thickness. Accidental drop of fuel tank from a height during handling can lead to development of cracks. Damage can also occur due to an impact during a crash. This can be catastrophic due to flammability of the fuel. The objective of this work is to characterize and develop a failure model for the fuel tank material to simulate damage and enhance predictive capability of CAE for chassis and safety load cases. Methodology Different aspects were considered to develop a characterization and modelling strategy for the HDPE fuel tank. Material properties can be influenced by factors such as, service temperature, rate of deformation, state of stress etc. Hence, samples cut-out from different regions of the fuel tank were subjected to a variety of tests such as tensile test at different strain rates viz. 0.01/s, 0.1/s, 1/s, 10/s and 100/s, compression, shear, flexure and instrumented dart impact tests at different temperatures, -40°C, 23°C…

A Mathematical Approach to Determine Die Wear during Forging Process and Validation by Experimental Technique

Dr P K Ajeet Babu-Ajeet Babu P K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2563
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry is constantly trying to develop cost effective, high strength and lightweight components to meet the emission and safety norms while remaining competitive in the market. Forging process plays an important role to produce most of the structural components in a vehicle. Precision forging technology is used to produce components with little or no flash leading to elimination of machining process after forging. The load acting on the dies during net or near net forging is very high and leads to wear in the die. In order to have a good die it is important that die wear which is an inevitable phenomenon in a bulk metal forming processes is predicted mathematically. In this study a review on the vast number of studies done in the area of wear and various predictive models is carried out. The various models available for abrasive wear such as Archard, Felder-Montagut and IFUM model and for adhesive wear such as Holms model has been studied and implemented in commercial FE Code by developing FORTRAN subroutine and wear…

Advanced Assembly Solutions for the Airbus RACER Joined-Wing Configuration

University of Nottingham-David Bainbridge, Konstantinos Bacharoudis, Andrea Cini, Alison Turner, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1884
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Rapid And Cost Effective Rotorcraft (RACER) is being developed by Airbus Helicopters (ABH) to demonstrate a new Vertical Take-Off and Landing configuration to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and aeroplanes. RACER is a compound rotorcraft featuring wings and multiple rotors. The wing arrangement suggested by ABH is defined as a staggered bi-plane joined configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing, either side of the fuselage, connected at their outboard extent to form a triangular structure. The ASTRAL consortium, consisting of the University of Nottingham and GE Aviation Systems, are responsible for the design, manufacture and assembly of the wings. Producing an optimised strategy to assemble a joined-wing configuration for a passenger carrying rotorcraft is challenging and novel. The objective of this work concerns all aspects of assembling the joined-wing structure. The joined-wing and fuselage structures will be produced independently and mated together during the final RACER assembly. A multi-stage process will deliver the joined-wing assembly and ensure it will fit to the fuselage. Producing the individual wing structures requires a…

Numerical investigation of Electrostatic Spray Painting Transfer Processes for vehicle Coating

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Mohammad Reza Pendar, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1856
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study we examined numerically the electrostatic spray transfer processes in the rotary bell spray applicator, which is this case implemented in a full 3D representation. The algorithm implemented and developed for this simulation includes airflow, spray dynamics, tracking of paint droplets and an electrostatic modularized solver to present atomization and in-flight spray phenomena for the spray forming procedure. The algorithm is implemented using the OpenFOAM package. The shaping airflow is simulated via an unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes method. Solver for particle trajectory was developed to illustrate the process of spray transport and also the interaction of airflow and particle that is solved by momentum coupling. As the numerical results in this paper indicates dominant operating parameter voltage setting, further the charge to mass ratio and air-paint flow rate deeply effect the spray shape and the transfer efficiency (TE). The spin of the bell forced the paint to fall off from the bell edge into the high-velocity airflow. By increasing the shaping airflow more uniform distribution of mass of paint is produced but the…

Orbital Forming of Automotive Wheel Bearings

Orbitform-Jake Sponsler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2133
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Orbital forming is considered an optimal assembly process for many designs of automotive wheel bearing assemblies. More specifically, this process involves forming the spindle over the inner race of the wheel bearing to retain the inner ring and to maintain bearing preload. The unique forming properties and precise controls allow orbital forming to produce an ideal finished retention feature and form for these types of bearings. This paper discusses the specific benefits of orbital forming of automotive wheel bearings. Forming basics, the physics behind the benefits of orbital forming, as well as pre-form lip geometry and other part design considerations are presented. Advanced machine control methodologies and historical machine process improvements are also reviewed concluding with next steps in process control and in-machine quality assurance.

Analysis of TWC Operation Characteristics in a Euro6 Gasoline Light Duty Vehicle

Aristotle University Thessaloniki-Grigorios Koltsakis
Empa-Viola Papetti, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0162
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A Euro6 gasoline light duty vehicle has been tested at the engine dynamometer and the emissions have been analyzed upstream and downstream the Three-Way-Catalyst (TWC) during the WLTP cycle. Catalyst simulations have been used for assessing the processes inside the catalytic converter using a reaction scheme based on 19 brutto reactions (Direct oxidation and reduction, selective catalytic re-ductions with CO, C3H6 and H2, steam reforming, water-gas shift and bulk Ceria as well as surface Ce-ria reactions). The reactions have been parametrized in order to best approximate the measurements. Based on the reactions taken into account, the real vehicle emissions can be predicted with good accu-racy. The simulations show that the cycle emissions are comprising mainly by the cold start contribution as well as discrete emission break-through events during transients. During cold start no reactions are evident in the catalyst before the temperature of the gas entering the catalyst reaches 270°C. Following the light-off, prevailing reactions are direct oxidation for CO and direct oxidation as well as surface ceria reactions for THC. NO reduction during cold…

A New Take on Porous Medium Approach for Modelling Monoliths and Other Multiple Channel Devices

Coventry University-Gianluca Padula, Jonathan Saul, Svetlana Aleksandrova, Humberto Medina, Stephen Benjamin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0049
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Porous medium approach is widely used in modelling high resistance devices such as heat exchangers, automotive catalysts or filters, where details of flow distribution inside the channels are not important. This reduces the computational time considerably, as the whole length of the monolith does not need to be modelled, and the thin boundary layers in each channel do not need to be resolved. The drawback of the approach is compromised accuracy of the flow predictions downstream of the monolith, because the mixing of the individual jets coming out of the monolith channels is not accounted for. Very few studies exist where this issue has been addressed. The methods include artificial turbulence generation, inferring turbulence information from upstream, or using hybrid modelling approach to separate the flow into channels. In this study, a different technique is suggested, where the porous medium model is used simultaneously for imposing the axial flow resistance presented by the monolith, and forming the multiple jet flow downstream of the monolith. The results for a planar diffuser with a catalyst are compared…

Superfinishing of HVOF Applied Tungsten Carbide Coatings

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2452
  • Current
Published 2019-07-15 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers requirements for the superfinishing of High Velocity Oxygen/Fuel (HVOF) applied tungsten carbide thermal spray coatings.
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Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34754
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE™) allows creation of wire, bar, and tubular extrusions that show significant improvement in material properties; for example, magnesium extrusions have been manufactured with unprecedented ductility (how far the material can stretch before it breaks) and energy absorption (how much energy can be absorbed during compression of a tubular extrusion) over conventional methods.


A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Vellore Institute of Technology, India-Nilesh Satonkar, Venkatachalam Gopalan
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0010
Published 2019-05-29 by SAE International in United States
Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
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