Your Selections

Fleets
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

 

Autonomous “Wingman” Vehicles

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34344
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The US Army’s Futures Command is the most important administrative reorganization of the modern Army. Responding to the world’s changing priorities— especially the “near peer” threat of ascendant Russia and China—the Army is no longer modernizing, but re-inventing its ground vehicle fleet against new realities. Just like the U.S. Air Force stopped inventing better jets and pilot aids and moved to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for “dull, dirty and dangerous” missions, the Army envisions multiple autonomous vehicle concepts. Instead of a heavier Abrams main battle tank, or a replacement to the aging M113 APC, autonomous “wingman” vehicles may replace some of the human-heavy tasks on the future battlefield.

 

Autonomous “Wingman” Vehicles

Aerospace & Defense Technology: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP05_01
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

The Future of Military Unmanned Vehicle Technology

The US Army's Futures Command is the most important administrative reorganization of the modern Army. Responding to the world's changing priorities-especially the “near peer” threat of ascendant Russia and China-the Army is no longer modernizing, but re-inventing its ground vehicle fleet against new realities. Just like the U.S. Air Force stopped inventing better jets and pilot aids and moved to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for “dull, dirty and dangerous” missions, the Army envisions multiple autonomous vehicle concepts. Instead of a heavier Abrams main battle tank, or a replacement to the aging M113 APC, autonomous “wingman” vehicles may replace some of the human-heavy tasks on the future battlefield.

Annotation icon
 

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34394
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Founded on July 1, 1960, Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL is one of NASA’s largest field centers. Marshall engineers designed, built, tested, and helped launch the Saturn V rocket that carried Apollo astronauts to the Moon. Marshall developed new rocket engines and tanks for the fleet of space shuttles, built sections of the International Space Station (ISS), and now manages all the science work of the astronauts aboard the ISS from a 24/7 Payload Operations Integration Center. Marshall also manages NASA’s Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans — the agency’s premier site for the manufacture and assembly of large-scale space structures and systems.

 

R410A Based Automotive Heat Pump System That Hits Cabin Heating Goal Successfully in -30 °C Extreme Ambient

BAIC Motor Corporation, Ltd. New Energy-Kelvin Zhai
BYD Auto Industry Company Limited-Xuefeng Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To meet low ambient challenges on Battery based Electric Vehicles (BEV), it is necessary to employ heat pump systems on the HVAC systems. However, due to the boiling points limitation of the regular refrigerant R134A/R1234YF, even with Vapor Injection cycle (VI) added, due to -26°C Boiling Temperature (BT) limitation, it is still encountering serious challenges to meet -30 °C or lower ambient needs, although VI Heat Pump (VI H/P) may reach COP>=1.7 at ambient -18 °C. An alternative low BT refrigerant, R410A, plus VI participation, the combination provides potentials to operate in extreme low ambient like -30 °C. In order to find out the actual heating performance of R410A+VI, a demonstration fleet of three vehicles had been built up for road tests to compare each other, which consists of a traditional vehicle (ICE gas heating), a BEV with PTC water heating system (R134A) and a BEV with VI heat pump system (R410A). The testing area covers the coldest city in China such as Harbin, (-20°C), Yakeshi (-39 °C), The road tests have exhibited positive results…
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
 

Feasibility Analysis of Taxi Fleet Electrification using 4.9 Million Miles of Real-World Driving Data

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Moniot, Clement Rames, Erin Burrell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Ride hailing activity is rapidly increasing, largely due to the growth of transportation network companies such as Uber and Lyft. However, traditional taxi companies continue to represent an important mobility option for travelers. Columbus Yellow Cab, a taxi company in Columbus, Ohio, offers traditional line-of-sight hailing as well as digital hailing through a mobile app. Data from Columbus Yellow Cab was provided to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to analyze the potential for taxi electrification. Columbus Yellow Cab data contained information describing both global positioning system trajectories and taxi meter information. The data spanned a period of 13 months, containing approximately 70 million global system positioning system points, 840 thousand trips, and 170 unique vehicles. A variety of scenarios were evaluated using Columbus Yellow Cab data and the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) to understand challenges and opportunities associated with operating an electrified taxi fleet. Two main factors-access to home charging and vehicle specifications-are shown to be major variables affecting successful electric fleet operation. The analysis indicates that 95.7% of taxi travel days can…
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
 

Route-Optimized Energy Management of Connected and Automated Multi-Mode Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Dynamic Programming

Michigan Technological University-Neeraj Rama, Huanqing Wang, Joshua Orlando, Darrell Robinette, Bo Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a methodology to optimize the blending of charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes in a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces overall energy consumption when the selected route cannot be completely driven in all-electric mode. The PHEV used in this investigation is the second-generation Chevrolet Volt and as many as four instrumented vehicles were utilized simultaneously on road to acquire validation data. The optimization method used is dynamic programming (DP) paired with a reduced-order powertrain model to enable onboard embedded controller compatibility and computational efficiency in optimally blending CD, CS modes over the entire drive route. The objective of the optimizer is to enable future Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) to best utilize onboard energy for minimum overall energy consumption based on speed and elevation profile information from Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), Internet of Things (IoT), High-definition Mapping, and onboard sensing technologies. Emphasis is placed on runtime minimization to quickly react and plan an optimal mode scheme in highly dynamic road conditions with minimal computational resources. On-road performance of the…
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
 

Calculating Heavy-Duty Truck Energy and Fuel Consumption Using Correlation Formulas Derived From VECTO Simulations

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Nikiforos Zacharof
European Commission's Joint Research Centre-Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used in Europe for calculating standardised energy consumption and CO2 emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks (HDTs) for certification purposes. The tool requires detailed vehicle technical specifications and a series of component efficiency maps, which are difficult to retrieve for those that are outside of the manufacturing industry. In the context of quantifying HDT CO2 emissions, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission received VECTO simulation data of the 2016 vehicle fleet from the vehicle manufacturers. In previous work, this simulation data has been normalised to compensate for differences and issues in the quality of the input data used to run the simulations. This work, which is a continuation of the previous exercise, focuses on the deeper meaning of the data received to understand the factors contributing to energy and fuel consumption. Fuel efficiency distributions and energy breakdown figures were derived from the data and are presented in this work. Correlation formulas were produced to calculate the energy loss contributions of individual components and resistances (air drag,…
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
 

Large-Scale Simulation-Based Evaluation of Fleet Repositioning Strategies for Dynamic Rideshare in New York City

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Jae Young Jung
New York University-Joseph Chow
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There has been a growing concern about increasing vehicle-mile traveled (VMT) associated with deadhead trips for dynamic rideshare services, particularly with the emergence of Shared Autonomous Vehicle (SAV) services. Studies in the literature on repositioning strategies have been limited to synthetic or small-scale study areas. This study considers a large-scale computational experiment involving a New York City study area with a network of 16,782 nodes and 23,337 links with 662,455 potential travelers from the 2016 Yellow Taxi data. We investigate the potential to reduce VMT and deadhead miles for dynamic rideshare operations combined with vehicle repositioning strategies. Three repositioning strategies are evaluated: (1) Roaming around areas with higher pickup probabilities to maximize the chance of picking up passengers, (2) Staying at curb side after completing trips, and (3) Repositioning to depots to minimize deadhead trips. The study suggests the last strategy of having optimized depots can minimize both trip rejections and passenger journey time at the expense of increased VMT, although the amount depends significantly on fleet size.
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
 

Considerations of Periodical Technical Inspection of Vehicles with deNOx Systems

Aurigna Consulting GmbH-Volker Hensel
ETH-Thomas Lutz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
An independent periodical technical inspection (PTI)*) of vehicles is proposed in the last time as a better prevention against increased emissions of the fleet.Several projects focused on the Diesel vehicles (HD & LD) and on the functionality of the exhaust aftertreatment systems as a key element for lowering emissions of a vehicle or machine.The present paper summarizes the results obtained on 3 modern passenger cars Euro 6b (with EGR, DOC, DPF & SCR) during load jumps, representing the heat-up or cool-down behaviour of the exhaust system.The portable devices for PTI were tested together with the stationary measuring systems of the engine laboratory.In the second part of the report, the present knowledge and proposals of supplementary test procedures (like IUC or PTI) were shortly described.It can be stated that the efficiency of the SCR-systems in a short PTI test is visible, and it is possible to quantify it in the positive or negative load jump, if a longer driving period at the constant OP (10 to 15 minutes) is realized in order to attain the stabilization…
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
 

Particle Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines during Engine Start-Up (Cranking)

Southwest Research Institute-Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Engine start-up (cranking) can be an important source of particle emissions from vehicles. With the penetration of GDI vehicles in the global vehicle fleet, it is important to analyze and understand the contribution of start-up particle emissions from GDI vehicles, and the potential effects of fuel properties on that process. In this work, chassis dynamometer based investigation on the effect of several gasoline fuels (commercial and blended) on both, naturally aspirated and turbocharged GDI vehicles were conducted to understand the importance of engine start up, in particular, cranking. 10 commercially available gasoline fuels were tested on a naturally aspirated 2010 model year GDI vehicle, 3 among these commercially available fuels were tested on another 2009 model year turbocharged GDI vehicle, and 8 blended gasoline fuels were tested on 12 other GDI vehicles (7 turbocharged and 5 naturally aspirated) ranging in model years 2011-2015. The cranking event was defined as the first 25 seconds (inclusive of transport time to sample point) of the cold-start phase (Phase 1) and hot-start phase (Phase 3) of the FTP-75 and/or…
Datasets icon
Annotation icon