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An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns and the amount and location of fire damage to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar 20XX Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured in the passenger compartment and video and still photography were recorded. Post-burn, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn on: ability to determine a window was open during the fire, which window was open, the effect the open window had on burn patterns and burn damage, and the…
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Full-Scale Burn Test of a 2014 Sport Utility Vehicle

Colwell Consulting LLC-Benjamin Knox, Michael Papageorge, Jeff D. Colwell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0925
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Results from a full-scale vehicle burn test involving a sport utility vehicle illustrated how fire spread throughout the vehicle, how temperature distributions changed over time, and how arcing-through-char is not guaranteed in a vehicle fire. The fire was initiated on a grommet on the rear portion of the passenger’s side of the engine compartment. Once the temperature near the origin reached approximately 600°C, the rate of fire spread rapidly increased. Over the next 3.5 minutes, the fire spread to all locations within the engine compartment and both front tires. Although the vehicle’s electrical system was energized for the duration of the fire, with the battery located at the rear of the passenger compartment, no evidence of beaded copper wires was observed on any of the conductors located in the engine compartment.
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Fast Catalyst Light-off with Dynamic Skip Fire

Tula Technology Inc.-Xi Luo, Sam Hashemi, Ram Subramanian, Anastasios Arvanitis, Matthew Younkins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0313
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Catalytic aftertreatment is commonly used to reduce toxic gas emission from internal combustion (IC). Fast catalyst light-off time is always been a challenge for automobile IC engine application. This paper experimentally studied the thermal management and toxic gas emission from spark ignition (SI) engine cold start period with dynamic skip fire (DSF). The study has found that DSF can improve up to 100 °C exhaust gas temperature at catalyst inlet, and the exhaust enthalpy increased up to 20% for catalyst heating. 10% ~20% cold start CO and HC reduction can be achieved because of increasing exhaust gas temperature and enthalpy. Dynamic air pumping can further increase 30 °C exhaust gas temperature on top of DSF benefit, and nearly doubled catalyst heating power which reduced more than 50% cold start HC emission.
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Phenolic SMC for Automotive Fire Resistance

Hexion Inc.-Ian Swentek, Cedric A. Ball, Stephen Greydanus, Kameswara Rao Nara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0771
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Phenolic resins that meet REACH compliance and contain lower free-formaldehyde are safer to handle, compound, and mold. These resin systems do not contain any styrene or require any fillers to achieve their rated fire resistance. A commercial phenolic sheet-molding compound (SMC) is presented that achieves a 2-minute cycle time and addresses the unique requirements in an electrified vehicle architecture. This new SMC material includes all the industrially relevant considerations including material processing, shelf life, and surface finish. Other topics such as material hybridization and comparison to incumbent materials also discussed. The resin system uses a water-based phenolic resole which is acid-cured. This chemistry presents several unique challenges and opportunities for the industry such as managing formulation pH and appropriate methods for quality control. A demonstrator battery cover highlights the superior fire performance, impact resistance, and light weighting that is achieved with this resin technology. The phenolic SMC formulation is compatible with already established engineering fibers and textiles resulting in low-shrink, creep-resistant composites. The mechanical performance demonstrates strength and impact energy absorption greater than cast aluminum,…
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Evaluation of flow paths due to leakages of flammable liquids by the SPH method. Application to real engines.

AVL France-Simon Ameye
AVL LIST GmbH-David Greif
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1111
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One the most important safety issues for automotive engineering is to avoid any fire due to the ignition of flammable liquids, which may result from leaks. Fire risk is a combination of hot temperature, fast vaporization and accumulation of vapor in a cavity. In IC engines, potentially flammable liquids are fuel and oil. To guarantee safety, no flammable liquids must come into contact hot parts of the engine. Consequently, shields are designed to guide the flow path of possible leakages and to take any flammable liquid out of the hot areas. Simulation is a great help to optimize the shape of the shield by investigating a large number of possible leakages rapidly. Recent breakthroughs in numerical methods make it possible to apply simulations to industrial design concepts. The approach is based on the Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The SPH method is an efficient method to capture the rivulets on highly complex geometries and thus determine the relevance of the design. A new implicit algorithm was developed to make the simulations faster. Preliminary tests…
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AI enhanced methods for virtual prediction of short circuit in full vehicle crash scenarios

Applus + Idiada-Cristian Jimenez
CRF SCpA-Stefano Menegazzi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0950
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new artificial intelligence (model order reduction) / finite element coupled approach will be presented for the risk assessment of battery fire during a car crash event. This approach combines standard crash finite element for the main car body with a reduced order model for the battery. Simulation is today used by automotive engineering teams to design lightweight vehicle bodies fulfilling vehicle safety regulations. Legislation is rapidly evolving to accommodate the growing electrical vehicle market share and is considering additional battery safety requirements. The focus is on avoiding internal short circuit due to internal damage within a cell which may result in a fire hazard. Assessing short circuit risk in CAE at the vehicle level is complex as there involves phenomena at different scales. The vehicle deforms on a macroscale level during the impact event. The battery cells deform locally and damage extremely thin components such as the separator, generating short circuits at the meso scale level. It is therefore necessary to evaluate phenomena from macroscale to microscale. AI methods will help to bridge the…

Laser-Based System Detects Fires Even in Dusty, Harsh Environments

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35756
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have developed a new laser-based system that offers an efficient and low-cost way to detect fires in challenging environments such as industrial facilities or large construction sites. With further development, the system could eventually detect fires that are more than a kilometer away. It could be used in a variety of industries such as waste management facilities, power supply plants, food processing factories, and textile factories.

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Qualified Hoses for Marine Applications

Hydraulic Hose and Hose Fittings Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1942/1_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-27 by SAE International in United States
The following list consists of hose data provided as of December, 2019, and is for convenience in determining acceptability of nonmetallic flexible hose assemblies intended for usage under 46 CFR 56.60-25. Where the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) or type of fitting is not specified, use the manufacturer's recommended MAWP or type of fitting. This list has been compiled by SAE staff from information provided by the manufacturers whose product listings appear in this document. Manufacturers wishing to list their products in this document shall: a Successfully test their hose to the requirements of SAE J1942, Table 1. b Submit a letter of certification to the SAE J1942 test requirements for each specific type of hose tested (see sample table, Table 1) along with the test results. All sizes should be included in the same letter which must also include all of the information necessary to make a SAE J1942-1 listing. c The SAE will review the letter and may, at their discretion, request to see further test results. A copy of the submittal letter…
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Aerogel-Fiber Layered Laminate System

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35710
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Scientists at Kennedy Space Center have developed a multifunctional composite laminate material for structural and thermal applications for use in residential and commercial construction. The innovation is a lightweight aerogel-fiber laminate composite system that has good compressive strength, tailorable impact and acoustic energy absorption, reduced heat transfer (compared to a fiber-only system), and fire barrier properties.

Motion-Powered, Fireproof Sensor

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35431
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have created a motion-powered, fireproof sensor that can track the movements of firefighters, steelworkers, miners, and others who work in high-risk environments where they cannot always be seen. The sensor alerts someone outside if the movement ceases.