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Silencer Design Methodology for Motorsport Prototypes

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil-Alexandre Piccini, Paulo H. Mareze, William D. Fonseca, Cássio Freitas, Felipe Balbom, Mario E. S. Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0295
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust silencer design in motorsport is a matter of establishing the best compromise between rules compliance, mass savings and engine restriction. A design methodology that acknowledges these difficulties is likely to be desirable to ensure that the best solution is always provided for the competing team. The present work takes into account a comprehensive analysis of mass versus silencer restriction matter, based on simulated lap times to find the optimal compromises. A thorough discussion concerning the different techniques concerning passive noise control is held, establishing a widely comprehensive concept study phase. Further optimisation of the best concept is conducted via Design of Experiments. A final finite element analysis is conducted in order to assess the quality of the proposed solution across a larger range of frequencies and confirm the design formulated so far as effective. Checking the transmission loss curve against the known sound power curve of the engine makes possible to know beforehand whether the design will comply with the applicable standards or not. Application of such methodology in a motorsports case has provided…
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A Coupled Approach Using CFD and FEA Solution for Solving the Cooling of Automotive Disk Brake

Siemens Industry Software-Joel Sanvezzo Junior, Douglas Dutra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0012
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The cooling efficiency of automotive disk brakes comprises an important area of development, since the system performance is directly related to the overheating level that is being achieved during the braking period. The heat generation occurs during the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. After this process, it is crucial an effective thermal dissipation in order to assure the decay of temperature levels. Such thermal dissipation results mainly from the interaction of the brake components with the external airflow in the wheel arch, where there are the occurrence of heat transfer mechanisms including conduction, convection and radiation. In this sense, through the application of simulation models, it is possible to predict the thermal- structural behavior by combining solutions in the fluid dynamics and structural areas. In this work, a one-way fluid-structure approach is proposed by combining conventional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models. The CFD modeling aim to solve the disk brake cooling during the airflow passage in the wheel arch and its interaction with the brake components. The FEA modeling…
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A methodology for a thermal-displacement simulation applied on clutches by finite element analysis

Schaeffler Brasil Ltda.-Joed Henrique Paes, Gustavo dos Santos Gioria
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0129
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Clutches are mechanisms used for coupling between shafts in order to transmit torque from one to the other. This coupling is made mechanically by friction between the parts with a high friction intermediate material. In this process, the slippage between the parts becomes a source of heat that makes the system temperature to raise up to high values. Under high temperature, the capacity of torque transmission of the clutch can be reduced by the variation of the effective contact diameter, once the contact region of friction change as the temperature is rising. This is caused by the thermal-displacement effect induced by the friction. The torque capacity also can be affected by the friction coefficient that varies with the temperature. Therefore, in order to design an optimized system, it is necessary an analysis of the parts and materials under the influence of temperature changing. This work proposes a simulation methodology for the evaluation of tensions and deformations influenced by the friction heat generation through a test of 15 uniform load cycles of energy by 30 kJ…
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Development and analysis of a rotary wall crane design using CAD and CAE Tools

Unesp – Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá-Jessé de Jesus Silva, Fernando de Azevedo Silva
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0220
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Cranes and rigging equipment are important machines in industrial activities, construction, port operations and in many sectors that demand the lifting of high loads in a safe, controlled and efficient way. And the design of these equipment, in turn, requires the use of machine elements, mechanisms, and structures that are widely used in engineering, such as wire ropes, gears, pulleys, bolted connections, structural profiles, etc. In this work, a rotary wall crane was built in a virtual environment. The design was based mainly on the ABNT NBR 8400 standard. The software used for 3D modeling was Autodesk Inventor® and the main structure of the equipment was analyzed, according to its functionality, using numerical simulations based on the finite element method. Firstly, the structure of the crane, consisting of L and U structural profiles, bolted joints, structural reinforcements and other connections, was analyzed separately. Static structural simulations were conducted in this subassembly. Concomitantly, structural calculations were performed using statics and vector mechanics methods and by the finite element analysis. In this case, the Direct Stiffness Method…
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A proposal for semi-analytical model of teeth contact with application to gear dynamics

Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospac-Carlo Rosso, Fabio Bruzzone, Tommaso Maggi, Claudio Marcellini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2269
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this paper a semi-analytical (SA) algorithm developed for the solution of the contact problem between two mating spur gears is presented and its application to the study of engagement dynamics is shown. Firstly, a quasi-static two-dimensional (2-D) approach is implemented to solve the contact taking into account several flexibility contributions related to the mating gears. In detail, a modified Hertzian model for the investigation of the real contact area considering the variable curvature of the profiles is developed. A comparison between this model and the classical Hertzian model is shown: the limitations of the classical method, for instance the possibility of analyzing bodies with varying curvatures and the peaks of pressure due to corner contact are therefore overcome. Furthermore, all the different tooth and gear deformations due to the meshing interaction are shown. This allows the computation of the Static Transmission Error (STE), main source of vibration and noise. The influence of tooth profile modifications is also highlighted. A comparison of the calculation of the STE with a Finite Element Method (FEM) model and…
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Diesel injector elasticity effects on internal nozzle flow

Oregon State University, 1500 SW Chandler Ave., Bend, OR-Shane Daly
Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Ave, 94550 Livermore-Koji Yasutomi, Joonsik Hwang, Julien Manin, Lyle Pickett, Marco Arienti, Scott Skeen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2279
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Numerical simulations of internal nozzle flow that include transient needle valve motion offer the potential to better predict spray penetration, mixing and liquid breakup. For example, the level of gas initially inside the sac and holes, as well as the rate of needle movement, influence the initial fuel delivery rate and spray development, thereby affecting ignition position and combustion. In this study, needle movement and gas exchange inside operating transparent fuel injectors are imaged at high speed, and CFD simulations with fine resolution (2- micrometers) in the needle-seat area are performed to understand the impact of needle movement and initial gas in the sac on ramp-up in rate of injection. The injector bodies and sac geometries are replicas of the Engine Combustion Network Spray A and Spray D injectors. Imaging shows that gas is ingested into the injector at the beginning of needle movement, an unexpected results given the high injection pressure above the needle valve. Finite element analysis simulations accounting for the elastic properties of the metal seat and needle are performed to explain…
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Conceptual Design, Material, and Structural Optimization of a Naval Fighter Nose Landing Gear for the Estimated Static Loads

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Anna University Chennai - Regional Office Tiruchirappalli, India-Swagata Paul, K. Suresh
Senior Grade Assistant Professor, India-C. Senthilkumar
  • Journal Article
  • 01-12-02-0009
Published 2019-12-13 by SAE International in United States
The Naval Nose Landing Gear (NLG) structural assembly consists of components with complex structural geometry and critical functionalities. The landing gear components are subjected to high static and dynamic loads, so they must be appropriately designed, dimensioned, and made by materials with mechanical characteristics that meet high strength, stiffness, and less weight requirements. This article contributes to the shape, size, and material optimization for the NLG of a supersonic naval aircraft for the estimated static loads. The estimated modal frequency values of the NLG assembly using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software were compared with available Ground Vibration Test data of an aircraft to literally prove the accuracy and suitability of finite element (FE) model that can be used for any further analysis. Static structural analysis was performed for the critical landing load cases, and the Reserve Factor (RF) values of the landing gear components were calculated to determine their static strength capacity. Iterations including shape, size, and material optimization were done in the NLG to reduce the mass with the required strength characteristics.
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Fluid-Structure Interaction-Based Simulation Methods for Fluid Sloshing in Tanks

John Deere Technology Center India Pvt Ltd-Nitin Shelke, Amol Bade, Sourabh Mukhopadhyay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5091
Published 2019-12-06 by SAE International in United States
One of the conventional approaches of structural analysis of containers or tanks accounting for fluid sloshing is based on the dynamic equilibrium of fluid in constant acceleration. This method does not account for the effect of structural deformation on fluid, which may affect the solution accuracy. During sloshing, the liquid exerts a dynamic force on the surrounding walls, which results in high strains at the welded joints of the tank and its mounting structure. This paper compares simulation techniques, which can handle highly nonlinear, dynamic, and random processes of sloshing motion, as well as tackle the variability due to other parameters such as tank motion and liquid depth. This paper discusses Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL), smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH), and fluid (computational fluid dynamics, CFD)-structural (finite element analysis, FEA) one-way coupled techniques through the simulation of the sloshing phenomenon in a tank using “Abaqus” software tools. The CEL and SPH capabilities allow for the interaction between the Lagrangian and Eulerian domain. Representing fluids by using Eulerian elements eliminates the problem of extreme element deformation associated with Lagrangian…
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FEA Beyond Basics: Nonlinear Analysis Web Seminar RePlay

  • Webinar Recordings
  • PD331725
Published 2019-11-26

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been an indispensable tool for design simulation for several decades but this wide spread use has been limited to simple types of analyses. Relatively recently, more advanced analyses have given easy-to-use interfaces enabling design engineers to simulate problems formerly reserved for analysts. FEA Beyond Basics targets the FEA users who wish to explore those advanced analysis capabilities. It will demonstrate how to move past the ubiquitous linear structural analysis and solve structural nonlinear problems characterized by nonlinear material, large displacements, buckling or nonlinear connectors. The discussion will help participants identify, set up and solve complex nonlinear problems and as well as use results of nonlinear analysis to support the product design process.

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Light-Weighting of Additive Manufactured Automotive Fixtures through Topology Optimization Techniques

General Motors Technical Center India-Abhijith Naik, T Sujan, Suraj Desai, Saravanakumar Shanmugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2544
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent times. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques like injection molding, casting etc.; AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the parts. This paper reports the case studies of 3D-printed Automotive Fixtures which utilize computational methods (CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part. These methodologies were used to validate the current operating conditions, optimize the design, increase the stiffness of the original part and reduce the material costs. The newly optimized designs were verified successfully passing the Finite Element Analysis tests. The components have been printed and…
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