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Virtual Verification of Wrecker Tow Requirements

Ford Motor Company-Majid Tabesh, Steven Foster, Sethuprasant Boomipaulraj, Arthur Gariepy, Jim Alanoly
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0766
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Under various real world scenarios, vehicles can become disabled and require towing. OEM’s allow a few options for vehicle wrecker towing that include wheel lift tow using a stinger or towing on a flatbed. These methods entail multiple loading events that need to be assessed for damage to the towed vehicle. OEMS have several testing and evaluation methodologies in place for those scenarios with majority requiring physical vehicle prototypes. Recent focus to reduce product development time and cost has replaced the need for prototype testing with analytical verification methods. In this paper, the CAE method involving multibody dynamic simulation (MBS) as well as finite element analysis (FEA) of vehicle flatbed operation, winching onto a flatbed and stinger-pull towing methods are discussed. The simulations evaluate and address events such as bumper and underbody parts impact with the ground, subframe impact with the stinger arm, chain loading on the body, as well as winch cable contact with underbody parts. MBS-FEA co-simulations appear to be computationally expensive and, more importantly, target only a specific vehicle configuration and loading…
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Virtual Validation of BHL Dipper using CAE tools and correlation with Test

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Surya Kiran Guduru, Pradeep Kudva, Sandeep Kumar, Rajendra Gopalkrishna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0515
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Use of CAE tools for virtual validation has become an essential part of every product development process. Using CAE tools, accurate prediction of potential failure locations is possible even before building the proto. This paper presents a detailed case study of virtual validation of Backhoe Loader (BHL) dipper arm using CAE tools (Multi Body Dynamics: MBD and Finite Element Analysis: FEA) and comparison of simulation results with test data. In this paper, we have illustrated the MBD modelling of BHL in ADAMS. The detail MBD model was created and validated. The component mass, CG and MOI was taken from CAD data. Trenching is simulated by operating the different hydraulic cylinders of the BHL. Loader arm cylinders and stabilizer cylinders are operated to lift the machine tires above the ground level. Boom, Dipper, Swing Arm and Bucket cylinders are operated to simulate the trenching operation. Theoretically calculated Bucket Break-out forces are applied on bucket tip during digging phase of trenching cycle. Hydraulic Cylinder pressure are monitored using ADAMS measures. Loads exported from MBD simulation are used…
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Comparison of Different Methods for Panel Dent Resistance using Numerical Assessment and Influence of Materials used in Automotive Industry

Tata Technologies Ltd.-Ashish Sathaye, Deepak Srivastava, Manivasagam Shanmugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0483
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditionally, the automotive outer panels, giving vehicle its shape, have been manufactured from steel sheets. The outer panels are subjected to loads due to wind loading, palm-prints, person leaning on the vehicle, cart hits, and hail stones for example. Consumer awareness about these two panel characteristics: Oilcanning and Dent resistance, has been increased through recent marketing studies. Apart from perceptive quality, another factor depending on the dent performance is insurance and respective cost implications. Dents can occur due to several reasons such as object hits, parking misjudgment, hail stones etc. Phenomenon can be divided in two types, static and dynamic denting. Static dent case covers scenario wherein interaction with outer panel is mostly quasi-static. Hail stones presents dynamic case where object hits a panel with certain kinetic energy. Automotive companies usually perform static dent assessment to cover all the cases. In this paper, scope is to discuss the comparison between two methods and its results using Finite Element Analysis. Influence of panel stiffness on dent resistance is also studied. Panel dent resistance depends on different…
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Design for crashworthiness optimization using the meta-modeling technique with extended-HCA framework

General Motors LLC-Chandan Mozumder, Simon Xu
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis-Andres Tovar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0627
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In most engineering design problems, it is either difficult or impossible to directly couple the analyzing tool (e.g., finite element analysis) with the optimization algorithms. For instance, in the design optimization for crashworthiness, the implicit relationship between the design parameters and the crash indicators are not generally available. Moreover, the computational cost associated with repeated explicit finite element analysis of a crash simulation is substantial. Therefore, surrogate modeling or meta-model-based analysis have been widely used to solve such optimization problems. Among the different techniques, Kriging meta-model has shown good accuracy for highly non-linear problems. In this study, the extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton (xHCA) framework is employed to design for targeting desired crash indicators (maximum intrusion and maximum deceleration). To this end, the volume fraction and the design time are used as the main meta-parameters to create a purposive design of the experiment. The proposed method is implemented into the numerical example of B-pillar under a side rigid wall impact. The set of 24 experiments are used as training points to generate surrogate models. Therefore, the…
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Functionality analysis of thermoplastic composite material to design engine components

Politecnico di Torino-Abbas Razavykia, Cristiana Delprete, Carlo Rosso, Paolo Baldissera
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0774
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Developing of innovative technologies and materials to meet the requirements of environmental legislation on vehicle emissions has paramount importance for researchers and industries. Therefore, improvement of engine efficiency and fuel saving of modern internal combustion engines (ICE) is one of the key factors, together with the weight reduction. Thermoplastic composite materials might be one of the alternative materials to be employed to produce engine components to achieve these goals as their properties can be engineered to meet application requirements. PEI-AS4 unidirectional thermoplastic composite is used to design engine connecting rod and wrist pin, applying commercial engine data and geometries. The current study is focused on some elements of the crank mechanism because the weight reduction of these elements affects not only the curb weight of the engine but the overall structure. As a matter of fact, by reducing the reciprocating mass, alternate force will be reduced and hence the size of the structural elements. Also, other elements of the engine can be designed for lightweighting but the crank mechanism elements maximize the effect, by reducing…
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Optimization of Electric Vacuum Pump Mount to Improve Sound Quality of Electric Vehicle

Tongji University-Rong Guo, Ziwei Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1259
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The noise and vibration of electronic vacuum pump (EVP) become a major problem for electric vehicles when the vehicle is stationary. This paper aims at the EVP’s abnormal noise of an electric vehicle when stationary. Driver’s right ear (DRE) noise was tested and spectrogram analysis was carried out to identify the noise sources. In order to attenuate this kind of abnormal noise, a new EVP rubber mount with a two-part structure was introduced, which optimized the transmission path of vibration. Then dynamic stiffness and fatigue life of the EVP mount with different rubber hardness were calculated through finite element analysis (FEA) approach. Bench tests of dynamic stiffness and fatigue life were performed to validate the FEA results. Test data of the sample mount shows that sound pressure level of DRE was dramatically attenuated and thus passengers’ ride comfort was enhanced.
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Engine mount design & failure analysis in commercial vehicle and a correlation between virtual & physical validation.

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Mahendra Parwal
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Arushi Dev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0491
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle life and performance is affected by many factors when in use. The most influential being the vibrations generated especially when the vehicle is in motion. These vibrations are directly experienced by the driver, whose performance goes down, if under continuous influence of these vibrations. This increases the fatigue and greatly reduces the return on investment done by the customer. There are two major sources of vibrations, the engine and the road on which the vehicle moves. To prevent such issues engine mounts are used in vehicles, which may seem simple but perform a critical role, of providing comfort to the driver. Therefore it becomes important that thoroughly designed and examined mounts are being used in the vehicle. This paper focuses on the parameters and methodology to be followed for design and validation of an engine mount used in heavy duty vehicles. Case study has been presented to show the failure cases in an engine mount, especially the separation of rubber and metal bonding. Importance of surface pre-treatments to have better bonding has been discussed…
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Finite Element Analysis Technique To Roll Crimp Solenoid’s Can

BorgWarner Inc.-Chandreshwar Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0749
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Roll forming assemblies are generally neat and robust, but there are structural integrity risks involved too if the forming procedures and design features do not complement each other. Specifically, in solenoid valves, an imprecised roller crimping (or forming) adversely affect the desired magnetic performance of the valves. Furthermore, in-depth evaluations of the formed shape using hardware and lab testing are extremely challenging cost wise and time consuming as well. However, utilizing simulation technique such as finite element analysis (FEA) to understand the in-sights of roller formed assemblies of a solenoid valve (or other products) could be an effective way to minimize overall cost and time involved in the product development. Therefore, a three-dimensional non-linear FEA model of roller crimping simulation was established in ANSYS Workbench Mechanical, and the predicted results were correlated with real hardware data to prove the technique & process adopted. Then the design was improved computationally to eliminate the magnetic Core's flux-bridge distortion issue of a solenoid valve, and finally the design was validated through hardware testing.
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A Method Using FEA for the Evaluation of Tooling and Process Requirements to Meet Dimensional Objectives

FCA US LLC-Amandeep Singh Jhajj, Steven Ford, Gregory Dwyer, William Stewart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0497
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dimensional Engineering concentrates effort in the early design phases to meet the dimensional build objectives in automotive production. Design optimization tools include tolerance stack up, datum optimization, datum coordination, dimensional control plans, and measurement plans. These tools are typically based on the assumption that parts are rigid and tooling dimensions are perfect. These assumptions are not necessarily true in automotive assemblies of compliant sheet metal parts on high volume assembly lines. To address this issue, FEA has been increasingly used to predict the behavior of imperfect and deformable parts in non-nominal tooling. This paper demonstrates an application of this approach. The complete analysis is divided into three phases. The first phase is a nominal design gravity analysis to validate the nominal design and tooling. In the second phase, the worst case scenarios are considered based on the previous programs to see their effects on assembly. Lastly, dimensional deviations and tooling loads are estimated to determine if they meet the constraints of both the part design and the tooling design. The novelty of this approach lies…
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A Novel Hybrid Technique for Thermal Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Used in Electric Vehicle Application

University of Windsor-Pratik Roy, Muhammad Towhidi, Firoz Ahmed, Shruthi Mukundan, Himavarsha Dhulipati, Narayan Kar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0464
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to high torque and power density, nowadays permanent magnet synchronous motor has become the most viable candidate as traction motor for electric vehicle application. Moreover, the permanent magnet synchronous motor is also comparatively more advantageous in terms of size and weight due to its compact structure which is a favorable feature for the smooth operation of electric vehicles. However, on the other hand, such high torque and high power density within such a compact motor structure cause a significant temperature rise within the motor while in operation. As a result of such high temperature rise, permanent demagnetization may occur within the motor. Thus, the permanent magnet synchronous motor is susceptible to thermal instability. Therefore, to ensure thermally stable operation condition, thermal analysis is also a mandatory procedure besides electromagnetic analysis during the design phase of the motor. In this paper, a computationally efficient numerical finite element analysis process has been proposed for thermal analysis of the permanent magnet synchronous motor. The proposed method is a hybrid technique which is also utilizing the analytical lumped…