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Self-Sensing, Lightweight and High Modulus Carbon Nanotube Composites for Improved Efficiency and Safety of Electric Vehicles

NoPo Nanotechnologies India Pvt Ltd-Aparna Allannavar
NoPo Nanotechnologies India Pvt, Ltd.-Gadhadar Changalaraya Reddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2532
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance. Here we report results of our work with NoPo HiPCO® Nanotubes with small amounts of Iron. 6K Carbon fiber was used as the fiber reinforcement. NoPo HiPCO® Nanotubes were reinforced in the Epoxy system by sonication. HiPCO® Nanotubes were produced using standard parameters. The coupons of CENCE composite were made using VARTM…


Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Institute of Tec-Thirugnana Sambandha T, Arun R
Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan institute of tec-Krishnaraj M
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2570
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.

Employing natural plant based fiber in interior automotive parts for cost & weight benefit

Vivekanandhan-Vivekanandhan Venkatesan Balaguru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2559
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The Automotive industry is in ever more need for a lesser weight car due to progressively stringent emission norms and the demand of customer to have better mileage. It can be a gargantuan challenge for automotive manufacturers to search for lesser weight material to meet both customers as well as regulatory norms. But in some cases such lower weight material can increase the cost and adding a expensive material which increases overall cost to a price sensitive market like India is not favorable. One such solution is using the indigenous plant fiber (Jute) in combination with propylene (PP) to make Interior plastics components. Jute a vegetable fiber also referred to as "the golden fiber" has high tensile strength, low extensibility and is well established in fabric, packing, agriculture, construction industries. The biodegradable Jute lesser weight & abundance (India is the leading manufacturer of the Jute) can be utilized in making automobile trim parts in India. Through this paper we will have insight of the natural fiber based plastic components the benefits (lesser weight, Less GSM…

Design and Analysis of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Automobile Hood

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Akhil Kumar Guduru, V N B Prasad Sodisetty, Vidya Prudhvi Sai Katari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0086
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The need for eco-friendly materials is recently increasing in the automobile and aerospace sectors. Material selection for automobile components is influenced by various factors such as cost, weight and strength. Natural fibers offers various advantages over conventional materials such as environmental friendly, easily available, recyclable and higher specific strength. Among the natural fibers Sisal and Kenaf fibers are selected for present study due to their good mechanical properties and availability. Kenaf fibers have great potential to be used as construction and automotive materials due to their long fibers which are derived from the bast. Sisal fibers do not absorb moisture and posses good impact, sound absorbing properties and high fire resistance properties. Epoxy LY556 is selected as matrix material to bind the combination of these two natural fibers due to its high temperature resistance and adherence to reinforcements. Alkaline treatment was carried out to remove the moisture from the natural fibers. Fabrication of epoxy/Kenaf fibre/Sisal Fibre composite materials of different stacking sequence was carried out by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) method. These composites…

Damage Analysis of Composite Laminates

GITAM School of Technology-Palaniammal Rajamani, Nathi Venu Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0092
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The favourable mechanical properties of Composite materials are excellent stiffness/weight and strength/weight ratios, easy formability and corrosion resistance. The application of composites in structural components is still limited by the difficulty in predicting their service lives. The objective of this research paper is to develop and evaluate damage initiation or delamination onset and growth in a C-C composite 8 layered pre-preg material 3D laminate model (dimension 25x3.4x85mm and ply thickness 1mm) under various loading conditions for two cases, one without crack and another with crack using ANSYS Autodyne tool subjected to a uni-axial load of 40N at the free end. Mapped quadrilaterals mesh is generated with 2610 nodes and 1792 elements. Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) formulations are more powerful than Fracture Mechanics approaches because they allow the prediction of both initiation and crack propagation. The composite laminate plate is thus bent due to Poisson effect, and crack opens up due to the heavy normal stress at the crack interface and the strain energy variation is uniform in length direction for pre-preg model. The bonding ply…

Characterization of Areca and Tamarind fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites for structural applications

Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College-Binoj Joseph Selvi, Manikandan Natarajan, Bhanu Prakash Palampalle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0168
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, natural fibers reinforced composites are used in various engineering arenas owing to its specific rewards like biodegradable, low cost, readily available, easy processing, less toxic and eco-friendly physiognomies. However, the commonly used E-glass fiber polymer composite was just inverse to the properties of the reported natural fibers. Therefore, in the present work discarded areca and tamarind fibers was collected, extracted, fabricated and evaluated for its overall performance and to implement it as an alternative for synthetic fiber composites. Composite specimens are fabricated with different proportions of fiber/matrix and investigated for their potentiality by exploring its mechanical, physical, chemical, water absorption and thermal properties as per standard test procedures. Moreover, the obtained areca and tamarind hybrid composite results are better than their individual based composites and in par with the existing synthetic fiber products. In addition, the fractography study of the fractured composite specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for inspecting the failure of the material. Hence, the tested results shown that the fabricated hybrid composites exhibits better specific properties and…

Design of Light Weight Footstep Using Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Brackets

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Vivek KV Shenoy, Ashish Kumar Sahu, Srivatsa Sriperumbudur, Anton Kumanan, K V Balaji
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0172
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Objective Utility or Off-road vehicles are characterized with their higher ground clearances. Higher ground clearance of vehicle requires the vehicle to have footsteps for easy entry and exit of passengers from the vehicle. A typical foot step construction consists of structural steel brackets with an Aluminium or plastic top panel. Conventional steel construction is heavier to meet weight bearing capacity and durability requirements. Our objective of this work is to explore lightweight materials which can meet these performance requirements with a lighter construction. We chose to study the continuous glass fiber reinforced plastic as an alternative to the metal construction. Methodology The continuous glass fibers in the PP matrix improves the material strength due to high strength to weight ratio. The strength of the matrix increases depending on the fiber length in the matrix. This technology uses twin screw extrusion and plunger type injection to retain the fiber length in the molded part which helps the part to bear higher loads depending upon the aspect ratio of fibers in the matrix. We have produced test…

Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties and Vibration Damping Frequency Factor of Kenaf Fibers Reinforced Epoxy Composite

Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science-Sathish Kumar Rajamanickam, Sivakumar Sattanathan, Deenadayalan Ganapathy, Joshuva Arockia Dhanraj
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Vishnuvardhan Ravichandran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0167
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Kenaf fiber regarded as industrial crop for different applications. It is one of the most important plants cultivated for natural fibers globally. Natural fibers such as Kenaf fibers are getting attention of researchers and industries to utilize it in different composites due to its biodegradable nature. In this present investigation mechanical properties, vibration damping frequency factor and thermogravimetric analysis of Kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite (KFREC) have been evaluated and reported. The tests were conducted with different weight categories of Kenaf fiber such as 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%. The effects of fiber content on tensile, flexural, impact strengths, hardness and thermal decomposition properties of the composite were determined. The failure mechanism and damage features of the KFREC were categorized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the increase in the fiber content decreases the damping vibration factor (ζ) correspondingly. The lowest value of the damping vibration factor was recorded as 0.033 for 35% weight content of Kenaf fiber in the composite. The maximum value of hardness, tensile, flexural, and impact strengths were…

Development and Investigation of Jute/Linen fibre Reinforced polymer composite.

BSA Crescent Institute of Science & Technology-Arvinda Pandian, Siddhi Jailani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0171
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, hybrid composite with natural fabrics reinforcements and with mineral powder as filler to matrix material is developed. The hand lay-up methodology is employed to fabricate the composite. The composites with and without mineral filler material are developed. The mechanical properties of the composites are assessed. The mechanical properties of composites with and without mineral filler are compared and their result shows that with addition of filler material, the mechanical properties of the composite are affected. Optical microscope is utilized to observe the composite’s morphology.

Exploration of dry sliding wear behaviour of sisal fiber-reinforced Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and epoxy polymer matrix composite as an alternative friction material in automobiles

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Shanthosh Gopal, Tharunkumar Magudeeswaran, Ramamoorthi Rangasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0173
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Brake pad is one of the foremost imperative part in the vehicle. Due to the environmental requirement, natural material/composites were the alternate source for component manufacturing. The composite made using hot press techniques by mixing ingredients such as natural fiber (treated sisal), cashew nut filler, graphite and alumina with resin (cashew nut shell liquid - CNSL and epoxy). Two formulas and four samples of each set were composed by varying the resin type and prepared the test samples with attain better hardness. The main intern of this proposed work is to appraise the dry sliding wear and friction performance of the prepared composites. The composites are taken for tribo test by varying the load of 10,20,30,40 N and sliding distance of 1000, 2000 m respectively. Experiments were performed at stated process parametric conditions to record the responses. The result shows that the CNSL resin composites specific wear resistance and frictional coefficients are found better than epoxy resin composites. The addition of filler element cashew nut shell particular shows a better wear resistant and friction coefficient.…