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Innovative Acoustic Material Concept Integration Into Vehicle Design Process

Odenwald-Chemie GmbH-Michael Feist-Muench
dBVibroAcoustics-Denis Blanchet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1527
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Integration of acoustic material concepts into vehicle design process is an important part of full vehicle design. The ability to assess the acoustic performance of a particular sound package component early in the design process allows designers to test various designs concepts before selecting a final products. This paper describes an innovative acoustic material concept which is easily integrated in a design process through the use of a database of Biot parameters. Biot parameters are widely used in the automotive industry to describe the physical interactions between the acoustics waves travelling through foams, fibers or metamaterials and the solid and fluid phase of these poro-elastic materials. This new acoustic material concept provides a combination of absorption, transmission loss and added damping on the panel it is attached to. It has shown unique vibro-acoustics performance when tested on a German car manufacturer flagship vehicle and provides the ability to reduce the space needed for sound package component compared with classical solutions.
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Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Behavior of a Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene

FCA US LLC-Mingchao Guo, Congyue Wang, Jian Tao, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Johnson Joseph
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0190
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One approach of reducing vehicle weight is using composite materials. Fiber reinforced polypropylene is one of the most popular composite materials. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, static and fatigue properties of a 30% fiber reinforced polypropylene have been physically studied. This paper describes details of test coupon design, fabrication and test setup of both quasi static and fatigue tests. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C), mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered and the result of the tests discussed.
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LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy, Puspamitra Panigrahi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
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Development of a New High Orientation Paint System to Achieve Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

Toyota Motor Corporation-Takao Tsukimori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0899
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High metallic silver colors using thin, smooth aluminum flake pigments are typically adopted for the luxury grades by each car manufacturer. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(N.V.) content and high aluminum flake pigment content are generally known to be necessary to achieve high metallic appearance designs. However, poor distribution of the aluminum flake pigments can cause mottling. In addition, a high concentration of aluminum flake pigments can result in a weak coating. Therefore, current paint systems are limited in the degree of high metallic appearance design that is possible. As a countermeasure to those problems, we investigated whether cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid can function as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it forms strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces when it is dispersed for waterborne paint. For example, viscosity versus shear rate testing of an aqueous solution of 0.4wt% CNF and less than N.V. 5wt% showed a response curve similar…
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Performance Study of an Innovative Collaborative Robot Gripper Design on Different Fabric Pick and Place Scenarios

University of Windsor-Morteza Alebooyeh, Bowen Wang, Ruth Jill Urbanic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1304
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Light-weighting fiber composite materials introduced to reduce vehicle mass and known as innovative materials research activities since they provide high specific stiffness and strength compared to contemporary engineering materials. Nonetheless, there are issues related automation strategies and handling methods. Material handling of flexible textile/fiber components is a process bottleneck and it is currently being performed by setting up multi-stage manual operations for hand layups. Consequently, the long-term research objective is to develop semi-automated pick and place processes for flexible materials utilizing collaborative robots within the process. The immediate research is to experimentally validate innovatively designed grippers for efficient material pick and place tasks. Pick and place experiments on a 0/90 plain woven carbon fiber fabric with an innovative gripper design is tested using a YuMi 14000 ABB collaborative robot to validate the new-designed gripper enhanced performance on the slippage and material wrinkling based on the previous research [20] for two gripping forces, and two travel speeds. Also, different double arm pick and place scenarios are sought to achieve an acceptable approach through which fabric wrinkling…
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CAE Modeling Static and Fatigue Performance of Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Coupons and Components

FCA US LLC-Congyue Wang, Mingchao Guo, Mohan Shanmugam, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1309
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) is a typical anisotropic composite and its material properties highly depend on the fiber orientations within the material. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, simulation of manufacturing process is necessary to obtain distribution of fibers and their orientations at every location of the structure. This paper describes a CAE modeling techniques to simulate 1) injection molding process, 2) static and fatigue performance of coupons and 3) static and fatigue performance of components made of 30% FRPP. Details of CAE model setup, analysis procedures and correlation between analysis and test results are presented. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C) and mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered. To demonstrate correlation, battery trays made of this FRPP have been tested subjected to block cycle loads, results of which have been discussed.
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Numerical Investigation of Friction Material Contact Mechanics in Automotive Clutches

FCC Co., Ltd.-Masatoshi Miyagawa, Takahiro Tsuchiya, Shinji Nakamura, Matthew Wendel
Ford Motor Company-Hiral Haria, David Popejoy, Rachel Divinagracia, Yuji Fujii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1417
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A wet clutch model is required in automotive propulsion system simulations for enabling robust design and control development. It commonly assumes a Coulomb’s model for simplicity, even though it does not physically represent viscous torque transfer. A Coulomb friction coefficient is treated as a tuning parameter in simulations to match vehicle data for targeted conditions. The simulations tend to deviate from actual behaviors for different drive conditions unless the friction coefficient is adjusted repeatedly. Alternatively, a complex hydrodynamic model, coupled with a surface contact model, is utilized to enhance the fidelity of system simulations for broader conditions. The theory of elastic asperity deformation is conventionally employed to model clutch surface contact. However, the recent examination of friction material shows that elasticity modulus of surface fibers significantly exceeds contact load, implying no deformation of fibers. This article investigates the friction material contact mechanics through numerical simulations. A surface model is constructed based on microscopic examination of material topography and properties. FEM simulation is conducted to examine the interactions between surface fibers and surrounding medium under loaded…
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Phenolic SMC for Automotive Fire Resistance

Hexion Inc.-Ian Swentek, Cedric A. Ball, Stephen Greydanus, Kameswara Rao Nara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0771
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Phenolic resins that meet REACH compliance and contain lower free-formaldehyde are safer to handle, compound, and mold. These resin systems do not contain any styrene or require any fillers to achieve their rated fire resistance. A commercial phenolic sheet-molding compound (SMC) is presented that achieves a 2-minute cycle time and addresses the unique requirements in an electrified vehicle architecture. This new SMC material includes all the industrially relevant considerations including material processing, shelf life, and surface finish. Other topics such as material hybridization and comparison to incumbent materials also discussed. The resin system uses a water-based phenolic resole which is acid-cured. This chemistry presents several unique challenges and opportunities for the industry such as managing formulation pH and appropriate methods for quality control. A demonstrator battery cover highlights the superior fire performance, impact resistance, and light weighting that is achieved with this resin technology. The phenolic SMC formulation is compatible with already established engineering fibers and textiles resulting in low-shrink, creep-resistant composites. The mechanical performance demonstrates strength and impact energy absorption greater than cast aluminum,…
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DEVELOPMENT OF AN EPOXY CARBON FIBER REINFORCED ROOF FRAME USING THE HIGH PRESSURE RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING (HP-RTM) PROCESS

Hexion Inc.-Cedric A. Ball, Stephen Greydanus, Ian Swentek, Kameswara Rao Nara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0773
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Composites technology for the automotive market continues to advance rapidly. Increasing knowledge of composite design, simulation tools, new materials and process equipment are all contributing to make composites better performing and more affordable for mass-produced vehicles. In particular, the high pressure resin transfer molding (HP-RTM) and related liquid compression molding (LCM) processes are enabling manufacturers to produce complex composite parts at shorter and shorter cycle times. This paper describes the development of an epoxy carbon fiber roof frame targeted for future vehicle production. Several composite processes were considered for the roof frame. The case illustrates that when the (product) design, material and process are considered together, a high-performing, cost-efficient part can be produced. The resulting carbon fiber roof frame met all OEM performance requirements and economic targets while weighing 44% less than the original design in magnesium and 32% less on the overall assembly. The part was the first HP-RTM part successfully demonstrated in North America and stands as a model for future lightweighting developments. Of equal significance, the development process for the part involved…
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A finite element design study and performance evaluation of an ultra-lightweight carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite vehicle door assembly

Clemson University-Anmol Kothari, Aditya Yerra, Madhura Limaye, Sai Aditya Pradeep, Gaurav Dalal, Gang Li, Srikanth Pilla
Honda R & D Americas Inc.-Skye Malcolm, Duane Detwiler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0203
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever-growing concern to reduce the impact of transportation systems on environment has pushed automotive industry towards fuel efficient and sustainable solutions. While several approaches have been used to improve efficiency, the light-weighting of automobile components has proven broadly effective. A substantial effort is devoted to lightweight body in white which contributes ~35% of total weight of the vehicle. Closure systems, however, have been often overlooked. Closure systems are extremely important as they account for ~ 50 % of the structure mass and have a very diverse range of requirements including crash safety, durability, strength, fit, finish, NVH, and weather sealing. To this end a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite door is being designed to enable 42.5% weight reduction for an OEM’s mid-size SUV steel door. In this work, several novel composite door assembly designs are developed by using an integrated design, analysis and optimization approach. A design optimization is performed to satisfy static load case requirements which represent daily use and misuse. The crashworthiness of the door assembly is assessed by considering three non-linear…