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Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Behavior of a Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene

FCA US LLC-Mingchao Guo, Congyue Wang, Jian Tao, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Johnson Joseph
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0190
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One approach of reducing vehicle weight is using composite materials. Fiber reinforced polypropylene is one of the most popular composite materials. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, static and fatigue properties of a 30% fiber reinforced polypropylene have been physically studied. This paper describes details of test coupon design, fabrication and test setup of both quasi static and fatigue tests. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C), mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered and the result of the tests discussed.
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LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy, Puspamitra Panigrahi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
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Design and Fabrication of Carbon Fibre/Epoxy-Aluminum Hybrid Suspension Control Arms for Formula SAE Race Car

ARAI FID PUNE-Pramod Hande
Vellore Institute of Technology-Mayank Gupta, Akash Porwal, Harshvardhan Rao Budi, Padmanabhan Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0230
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Suspension system of a vehicle plays an important role to carefully control motion of the wheel throughout the travel. The vertical and the lateral dynamics (ride and handling) is affected by the unsprung-to-sprung mass ratio. Lower value of this mass ratio leads to enhanced performance of the car. To optimize the unsprung mass of the car, design of control arm plate is optimized with Aluminum material and Carbon fibre reinforced composite control arms framework are used to achieve high stiffness to weight ratio. These leads to increase in overall power to weight ratio of the car which helps to deliver maximum performance to the wheels. Through analysis of real-life working conditions of the entire steering knuckle assembly in ACP pre- post ANSYS 18.1 with the defined boundary conditions, equivalent stress and total deformations are obtained. Based on the results, geometrical topology of the control arms plates is further optimized. After several tensile tests on different bond length and bond gap,the outer surface of control arm tube were bonded to inner surface of control arm plate…
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Development of a New High Orientation Paint System to Achieve Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

Toyota Motor Corporation-Takao Tsukimori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0899
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High metallic silver colors using thin, smooth aluminum flake pigments are typically adopted for the luxury grades by each car manufacturer. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(N.V.) content and high aluminum flake pigment content are generally known to be necessary to achieve high metallic appearance designs. However, poor distribution of the aluminum flake pigments can cause mottling. In addition, a high concentration of aluminum flake pigments can result in a weak coating. Therefore, current paint systems are limited in the degree of high metallic appearance design that is possible. As a countermeasure to those problems, we investigated whether cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid can function as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it forms strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces when it is dispersed for waterborne paint. For example, viscosity versus shear rate testing of an aqueous solution of 0.4wt% CNF and less than N.V. 5wt% showed a response curve similar…
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Performance Study of an Innovative Collaborative Robot Gripper Design on Different Fabric Pick and Place Scenarios

University of Windsor-Morteza Alebooyeh, Bowen Wang, Ruth Jill Urbanic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1304
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Light-weighting fiber composite materials introduced to reduce vehicle mass and known as innovative materials research activities since they provide high specific stiffness and strength compared to contemporary engineering materials. Nonetheless, there are issues related automation strategies and handling methods. Material handling of flexible textile/fiber components is a process bottleneck and it is currently being performed by setting up multi-stage manual operations for hand layups. Consequently, the long-term research objective is to develop semi-automated pick and place processes for flexible materials utilizing collaborative robots within the process. The immediate research is to experimentally validate innovatively designed grippers for efficient material pick and place tasks. Pick and place experiments on a 0/90 woven carbon fiber fabric with an innovative gripper design is tested using a YuMi 14000 ABB collaborative robot to validate the new-designed gripper enhanced performance on the grab, microscopic thread damage, slippage and material wrinkling based on the previous research [1] for two gripping forces, and two travel speeds. Also, different double-arm pick-move-place scenarios are sought to achieve an acceptable approach through which fabric de-wrinkling…
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CAE Modeling Static and Fatigue Performance of Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Coupons and Components

FCA US LLC-Congyue Wang, Mingchao Guo, Mohan Shanmugam, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1309
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) is a typical anisotropic composite and its material properties highly depend on the fiber orientations within the material. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, simulation of manufacturing process is necessary to obtain distribution of fibers and their orientations at every location of the structure. This paper describes a CAE modeling techniques to simulate 1) injection molding process, 2) static and fatigue performance of coupons and 3) static and fatigue performance of components made of 30% FRPP. Details of CAE model setup, analysis procedures and correlation between analysis and test results are presented. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C) and mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered. To demonstrate correlation, battery trays made of this FRPP have been tested subjected to block cycle loads, results of which have been discussed.
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Numerical Investigation of Friction Material Contact Mechanics in Automotive Clutches

FCC Co., Ltd.-Masatoshi Miyagawa, Takahiro Tsuchiya, Shinji Nakamura, Matthew Wendel
Ford Motor Company-Hiral Haria, David Popejoy, Rachel Divinagracia, Yuji Fujii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1417
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A wet clutch model is required in automotive propulsion system simulations for enabling robust design and control development. It commonly assumes a Coulomb’s model for simplicity, even though it does not physically represent viscous torque transfer. A Coulomb friction coefficient is treated as a tuning parameter in simulations to match vehicle data for targeted conditions. The simulations tend to deviate from actual behaviors for different drive conditions unless the friction coefficient is adjusted repeatedly. Alternatively, a complex hydrodynamic model, coupled with a surface contact model, is utilized to enhance the fidelity of system simulations for broader conditions. The theory of elastic asperity deformation is conventionally employed to model clutch surface contact. However, the recent examination of friction material shows that elasticity modulus of surface fibers significantly exceeds contact load, implying no deformation of fibers. This article investigates the friction material contact mechanics through numerical simulations. A surface model is constructed based on microscopic examination of material topography and properties. FEM simulation is conducted to examine the interactions between surface fibers and surrounding medium under loaded…
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Phenolic SMC for Automotive Fire Resistance

Hexion Inc.-Ian Swentek, Cedric A. Ball, Stephen Greydanus, Kameswara Rao Nara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0771
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Phenolic resins that meet REACH compliance and contain lower free-formaldehyde are safer to handle, compound, and mold. These resin systems do not contain any styrene or require any fillers to achieve their rated fire resistance. A commercial phenolic sheet-molding compound (SMC) is presented that achieves a 2-minute cycle time and addresses the unique requirements in an electrified vehicle architecture. This new SMC material includes all the industrially relevant considerations including material processing, shelf life, and surface finish. Other topics such as material hybridization and comparison to incumbent materials also discussed. The resin system uses a water-based phenolic resole which is acid-cured. This chemistry presents several unique challenges and opportunities for the industry such as managing formulation pH and appropriate methods for quality control. A demonstrator battery cover highlights the superior fire performance, impact resistance, and light weighting that is achieved with this resin technology. The phenolic SMC formulation is compatible with already established engineering fibers and textiles resulting in low-shrink, creep-resistant composites. The mechanical performance demonstrates strength and impact energy absorption greater than cast aluminum,…
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DEVELOPMENT OF AN EPOXY CARBON FIBER REINFORCED ROOF FRAME USING THE HIGH PRESSURE RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING (HP-RTM) PROCESS

Hexion Inc.-Cedric A. Ball, Stephen Greydanus, Ian Swentek, Kameswara Rao Nara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0773
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Composites technology for the automotive market continues to advance rapidly. Increasing knowledge of composite design, simulation tools, new materials and process equipment are all contributing to make composites better performing and more affordable for mass-produced vehicles. In particular, the high pressure resin transfer molding (HP-RTM) and related liquid compression molding (LCM) processes are enabling manufacturers to produce complex composite parts at shorter and shorter cycle times. This paper describes the development of an epoxy carbon fiber roof frame targeted for future vehicle production. Several composite processes were considered for the roof frame. The case illustrates that when the (product) design, material and process are considered together, a high-performing, cost-efficient part can be produced. The resulting carbon fiber roof frame met all OEM performance requirements and economic targets while weighing 44% less than the original design in magnesium and 32% less on the overall assembly. The part was the first HP-RTM part successfully demonstrated in North America and stands as a model for future lightweighting developments. Of equal significance, the development process for the part involved…
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Hybrid forming – a novel Manufacturing Technique for metal-LFT structural parts

University of Siegen-Daniel Heidrich, Tobias Kloska, Xiangfan Fang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0235
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid structural parts combining aluminum or steel sheets with long glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) offer a great opportunity to reduce component weight for automotive applications. But due to high manufacturing cost, metal-LFT hybrid components are still scarcely used in automotive large-scale production. Thus in this work a novel cost- and time efficient manufacturing process for simultaneous metal sheet forming and compression molding of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics to manufacture automotive lightweight components is presented. In this manufacturing process, which is referred to as “Hybrid forming”, the molten LFT is used as a forming medium in the manner of well-known hydroforming processes. After forming the metal sheet by the molten LFT in combination with the rigid die, the LFT solidifies and forms a local reinforcement structure in the hybrid component. Since the metal sheet can be pre-coated with a bonding agent prior to the forming process, a firmly bonded connection between metal and LFT can be achieved. For proof of concept a longitudinal control arm in a multi-link rear axle is chosen. By utilizing Hybrid…