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Fatal injuries (1357) Injuries (706) Crashes (478) Vehicle drivers (346) Vehicle occupants (285) Roads and highways (195) Safety belts (178) Frontal collisions (141) Airbag systems (135) Occupant protection (124) Research and development (119) Side impact crashes (117) Head injuries (113) Impact tests (111) Rollover accidents (103) Statistical analysis (92) Technical review (91) Trucks (90) Restraint systems (86) Children (68) Test procedures (66) Crashworthiness (64) Accident reconstruction (63) Torso (62) Head (60) Education and training (57) Body regions (51) Accident types (49) Injury causation (49) Crash statistics (48) Computer simulation (45) Light trucks (45) Nervous system (45) Anthropometric test devices (44) Two or three wheeled vehicles (44) Adults (41) Helmets (40) Biomechanics (39) Heavy trucks (38) Evacuation and escape (37) Child restraint systems (35) Pedestrian injuries (34) Regulations (34) Simulation and modeling (34) Aircraft (33) Fluids and secretions (33) Legislation (33) Seats and seating (33) Commercial vehicles (32) Active safety systems (30)

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Evans, Leonard (19) Viano, David C. (19) Got, C. (15) Malliaris, A. C. (14) Digges, Kennerly (13) Patel, A. (13) Huelke, Donald F. (12) Mackay, G. M. (12) Huelke, D. F. (11) Padmanaban, Jeya (11) Thomas, C. (11) Tarriere, C. (10) Tingvall, Claes (10) Evans, L. (9) Fell, J. C. (9) Hartemann, F. (9) Langwieder, K. (9) Matsui, Yasuhiro (9) Eppinger, Rolf H. (8) Thomas, Pete (8) Digges, Kennerly H. (7) Kajzer, Janusz (7) Lie, Anders (7) Oikawa, Shoko (7) Tarrière, C. (7) Van Auken, R. Michael (7) Warner, Charles Y. (7) Foret-Bruno, J. Y. (6) Gloyns, P. F. (6) Green, R. N. (6) Kahane, Charles J. (6) Lund, Adrian K. (6) Mizuno, Koji (6) Nowak, E. S. (6) O'Day, James (6) Partyka, Susan C. (6) Patrick, L. M. (6) Thomas, Christian (6) Augenstein, Jeffrey S. (5) Bass, C. R. (5) Blower, Daniel (5) Faverjon, G. (5) Gabler, Hampton C. (5) Hayes, H. R. M. (5) Henry, C. (5) Hollowell, William T. (5) Kallieris, D. (5) Katayama, Tsuyoshi (5) Kumaresh, Girikumar (5) Langwieder, Klaus (5)

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International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (220) American Association for Automotive Medicine, Annual Meeting (199) International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts (87) SAE International Congress and Exposition (51) International Congress & Exposition (43) SAE World Congress & Exhibition (37) International Conference on Traffic Safety (31) International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (24) JSAE Spring Conference (22) 12th World Congress of the International Association for Accident and Traffic Medicine and 7th Nordic Congress on Traffic Medicine (1992) (18) JSAE Autumn Conference (13) Passenger Car Meeting & Exposition (13) SAE 2006 World Congress & Exhibition (13) 2004 FISITA World Automotive Congress (12) SAE 2012 World Congress & Exhibition (11) SAE 2013 World Congress & Exhibition (11) SAE 2004 World Congress & Exhibition (10) 2006 FISITA World Automotive Congress (8) ISATA 1993 (8) SAE 2003 World Congress & Exhibition (8) SAE 2005 World Congress & Exhibition (8) SAE 2010 World Congress & Exhibition (8) SAE Government Industry Meeting and Exposition (8) 27th Stapp Car Crash Conference with IRCOBI and Child Injury and Restraint Conference with IRCOBI (1983) (7) SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition (7) SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition (7) WCX World Congress Experience (7) SAE 2000 World Congress (6) SAE 2001 World Congress (6) SAE 2002 World Congress & Exhibition (6) SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition (6) 1969 International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition (5) 1977 International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition (5) 41st Stapp Car Crash Conference (5) International Body Engineering Conference & Exposition (5) SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition (5) Stapp Car Crash Conference (5) Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2017 (5) 25th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1981) (4) Advances In Aviation Safety Conference & Exposition (4) Convergence International Congress & Exposition On Transportation Electronics (4) International Truck & Bus Meeting & Exposition (4) ISATA 1997 (4) ISATA 1998 (4) Proceedings of International Symposium on Road Traffic Accidents (4) SAE International Truck and Bus Meeting and Exposition (4) Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2013 (4) Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2015 (4) WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience (4) 13th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1969) (3)

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Loss of Control Car Accidents on Indian Roads - Benefit Estimation of ESC

  • Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Solutions Pvt Ltd-Girikumar Kumaresh
  • Robert Bosch GmbH-Joerg Moennich, Thomas Lich, Andreas Georgi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0009
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Globally, road safety is evaluated by the number of crashes and their consequences in terms of deaths, serious injuries and economic loss to nations. Logically, therefore, to improve safety, the factual causes of crashes should be known. In other words, road safety can only be initiated with the knowledge of the causative factors as well as that of consequences of serious and fatal road crashes. An investigation conducted by Bosch Accident Research looked at the accident database of the Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). It aimed to find out the root cause for loss of control accidents of passenger cars and how state-of-the art technologies like ESP® can help to avoid accidents taking place. As a matter of fact ESP® became standard equipment in many vehicles and its crash avoidance potential is already accepted worldwide. Therefore the question arise - how The analysis was done based on 2 500 reconstructed crashes collected in five different regions all around India. Each crash is described by about 1 000 parameters including pictures, scaled sketch and…

An Analytical Approach To Derive Free Package Space Requirement for Pedestrian Head Form

  • Tata Motors, Ltd.-Pratap Daphal, Ashish Mahapatre
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0013
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Traffic accidents data shows a significant number of pedestrian fatalities globally. According to a survey of 35 European countries, pedestrians represented an average of 25% of all road user fatalities. In Japan, pedestrian fatalities accounted for 28% of the road toll and approximately 16% in Australia. These figures compare with 13% for the USA and 40-50% for India and Thailand (1). Various pedestrian safety requirements are mandated in different markets in recent years worldwide. For pedestrian head-form, vehicle front-end styling and the free package space below bonnet plays a vital role in deciding the pedestrian head-form safety performance. Currently during initial phase of vehicle development, the free package requirements is decided based on benchmark data. However, the benchmark data does not give any insight in physics involved and is subjective in nature as it varies from vehicle to vehicle. This paper is gives an analytical approach for defining the free package space requirements for meeting the targeted pedestrian head form performance. The analytically derived Head Injury Criteria Vs package space is also compared with physical…
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DC Arc Fault Detection Methods in MEA Distribution Systems

  • University of Strathclyde-Jeffy Thomas, Rory Telford, Puran Rakhra, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1934
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Direct current (DC) for primary power distribution is a promising solution that is being explored by aircraft system integrators for MEA applications to enable the paralleling of non-synchronized engine off-take generators, and to enable the reduction of energy conversion stages required to supply electronically actuated loads. However, a significant challenge in the use of DC systems is the reliable detection of arc faults. Arcing presents a significant fire risk to aircraft and their presence can result in critical system damage and potentially fatal conditions. Series arc faults in DC systems are particularly challenging to detect as the associated reduction in system current eliminates the use of conventional overcurrent and current differential methods for fault detection. This paper provides an overview of series arc faults in DC systems and presents both simulation and hardware results to illustrate key trends, characteristics and discriminating features. It also presents a comprehensive review of arc fault detection and diagnosis techniques that have been proposed for a wide range of aerospace and other applications. The paper concludes with a discussion on…

Power Line Detection System for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33098
Published 2018-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Electrical power lines pose a serious crash hazard to helicopters and other air-based vehicles, especially small aerial vehicles such as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This is because power lines are so widespread, hard to see, and strung at roughly the same height above the ground at which these aircraft fly. In fact, according to one report by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), power lines are the cause of roughly 5 percent of helicopter accidents. This statistic applies to both civilian and military cases. Another report found power-line collisions are responsible for 31 percent of accidents among agricultural aircraft. Fatalities and injuries occurred in many of these accidents.

Taking It to the Streets: Designing Streetlamp Optical Components

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29740
Published 2018-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The task of creating a streetlamp optical system has changed over the last 20 years and due to this change, so has optical design software. Let’s compare the task of designing optical street lamp components 20 years ago with the process today.

Analysis of Single-Vehicle Accidents in Japan Involving Elderly Drivers

  • National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab.-Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0002
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The Japanese population is aging rapidly, raising the number of traffic accidents involving elderly drivers. In Japan, single-vehicle accidents are a serious problem because they often result in fatalities. We analyzed these accidents by vehicle type, age group, and driving area. To examine the risk of accidents of the elderly drivers, their driving frequency needs to be considered, which is less. Moreover, it is difficult to know the actual distance driven by them. Therefore, in this article, based on the assumption that the number of rear-end collisions is a proxy for the traffic volume, we used the number of such collisions as a control for the driving frequency. It was found that in single-vehicle accidents, elderly drivers were at higher risk than other age groups, especially when driving light motor vehicles (K-type vehicles) in non-urban areas. A possible explanation is the higher frequency with which the elderly drive K-type vehicles in areas where there are few other vehicles on the road.

Considerations for ISO 26262 ASIL Hazard Classification

  • Functional Safety Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2980_201804
  • Current
Published 2018-04-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice presents a method and example results for determining the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) for automotive motion control electrical and electronic (E/E) systems. The ASIL determination activity is required by ISO 26262-3:2011 [1], and it is intended that the process and results herein are consistent with ISO 26262:2011 [1]. The technical focus of this document is on vehicle motion control systems. It is limited to passenger cars weighing up to 3.5 metric tons. Furthermore, the scope of this recommended practice is limited to collision-related hazards associated with motion control systems. The recommended practice focused on motion control systems since the hazards they can create generally have higher ASIL ratings, as compared to the hazards non-motion control systems can create. Because of this, the Functional Safety Committee decided to give motion control systems a higher priority and focus exclusively on them in the SAE J2980 recommended practice. ISO 26262:2011 [1] has a wider scope than SAE J2980, covering other functions and accidents (not just motion control or collisions as in SAE J2980).

Controlling LED Based Adaptive Front-Lighting System Using Machine Learning

  • Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Sivaprasad Nandyala, Sriharsha Santhapur, Kshitij Kumar, Mithun Manalikandy
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Accidents in nights have a major share in all automotive accidents. Even though, the average distance driven in dark is 75% less as compared to the average distance driven during the day, the fatalities in nights due to road accidents are 300% of the day time. Again, the statistical studies from the National Safety Council disclose the fact that 55% of all road accidents in nights occur at the curved roads due to insufficient illumination and poor judgment of curves. The paper proposes a control algorithm with machine learning that controls LED matrix headlamp to provide precise beam pattern shaping and beam intensity (i.e. high and low beam). The system is designed to give the driver improved visibility under varying driving conditions. Adaptive Front Lighting System is an intelligent system, designed in MATLAB\Simulink environment that optimizes the illumination of roads during the night, on the basis of inputs from different sensors in the vehicle.

Roadside Boundaries and Objects for the Development of Vehicle Road Keeping Assistance System

  • Indiana University, Purdue University-Dan Shen, Qiang Yi, Jun Lin, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien
  • Toyota Motor North America Inc.-Rini Sherony
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Road departure is a leading cause of fatal crashes in the US and half of all the crashes are related to road departure [1]. Road departure warning (RDW) and road keeping assistance (RKA) are the new active safety areas to be explored. Most of the currently available road-departure detection technologies rely on the detection of lane markings, which are either missing or unclear in many roads. Therefore, in additional to the these lane markings, next-generation road departure detection should rely on the detection of other road edge and boundary objects. Common road edge and boundary indicators include lane marking, grass, curb, metal guardrail, concrete divider, traffic barrels and cones. This paper investigates the distribution of major types of road edges and road boundaries in the United States in order to enhance and evaluate the capabilities and effectiveness of RDW and RKA. The paper describes the road location sample used for the analysis, presents the percentage of various types roadside objects in terms of number of appearance locations, percentage miles (%miles), and percentage car-miles (%car-miles = %miles*car_density). The…

Characteristics and Casualty Analysis of Two- Wheeler Accidents in China, Data Source: The China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS)

  • CATARC-Qiang Chen, Bing Dai
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The two-wheeler is a vehicle that runs on two wheels, which is classified as motorcycle, electric-bicycle, and bicycle in this research. China has the largest number of two-wheelers and relevant accidents in the world. The two-wheeler riders have a high level of vulnerability, creating a significant necessity to better understand the characteristics according to the road-user group. The objective of this paper is to study the characteristics and analyze the causes of two-wheeler accidents in China using the CIDAS (China In-Depth Accident Study) Database. 2012 cases of two-wheeler accidents with riders injured or dead were collected from the CIDAS Database from 5 cities (Changchun, Beijing, Weihai, Ningbo and Foshan) in China over a period of 5 years (2011.07-2016.06). Several key parameters such as accident characteristics, accident scenarios (containing collision point distribution, accident type, clock direction distribution and head WAD distribution) were analyzed using measurement and mathematical statistical methods. Results show that the motorcycle accident was the most frequent two-wheeler accident type in China, which accounted for 52.7% of the total two-wheeler accidents. The two-wheeler riders’ injury…