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Fatal injuries (60) Crashes (60) Injuries (60) Safety (60) Human Factors and Ergonomics (18) Crash research (16) Protective systems (13) Vehicle occupants (12) Design Engineering and Styling (10) Restraint systems (8) Accident types (7) Injury causation (7) Safety belts (7) Analysis methodologies (6) Safety testing and procedures (6) Vehicle drivers (6) Occupant protection (5) Age groups (4) Pedestrian injuries (4) Vehicles and Performance (4) Adults (3) Electrical, Electronics, and Avionics (3) Head injuries (3) Interiors, Cabins, and Cockpits (3) Seats and seating (3) Side impact crashes (3) Simulation and modeling (3) Vehicles (3) Active safety systems (2) Biomechanics (2) Collision avoidance systems (2) Crash statistics (2) Environment (2) Finite element analysis (2) Impact tests (2) Pedestrian safety (2) Reaction and response times (2) Risk assessments (2) Tests and Testing (2) Trucks (2) Accident reconstruction (1) Aged (1) Anatomy (1) Autonomous vehicles (1) Bodies and Structures (1) Body structures (1) Braking systems (1) Carbon monoxide (1) Cardiovascular system (1) Chassis (1)


Matsui, Yasuhiro (5) Oikawa, Shoko (5) Padmanaban, Jeya (5) Ando, Kenichi (2) Blumbergs, P. C. (2) Burnett, Roger (2) Evans, Leonard (2) Ferrer, Adria (2) McLean, A. J. (2) Ryan, G. A. (2) Shi, Yibing (2) Simpson, D. A. (2) Viano, David C. (2) Anderson, Robert W.G. (1) Bahouth, George (1) Baker, S. P. (1) Bass, C. R. (1) Beul, Christian (1) Bjornstig, U. (1) Bohlman, H. H. (1) Boscak, Alexis (1) Brown, Timothy (1) Buck, Jessica (1) Bush, B. (1) Cesari, D. (1) Chesneau, A. M. (1) Chrysler, Susan (1) Clegg, N. G. (1) Colas, C. (1) Combest, John (1) Compton, Charles P. (1) Cowley, R. A. (1) Crandall, J. R. (1) Dalmotas, D. (1) Dandapani, Ajit (1) Darvish, K. (1) Dischinger, P. C. (1) Doi, Tsutomu (1) Duclos, P. (1) Edwards, Jack (1) Ellis, E. H. (1) Eriksson, A. (1) Evans, J. C. (1) Fiorentino, Anita (1) Fischer, R. (1) Fiser, S. (1) Fogarty, W. J. (1) Fornells, Alba (1) Frobenius, H. (1) Fujimura, Takeshi (1)


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Ford Motor Company (4) JP Research, Inc. (3) Adelaide Univ. (2) Applus + Idiada Spain (2) Johns Hopkins Univ. (2) National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory, Japan (2) Allegheny County Coroner's Office (1) Antioquia Universidad (1) Australian Commonwealth Department of Health (1) Australian Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science (1) Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (1) Biomech, Inc. (1) Biomedical Science Dept. General Motors Research Laboratories Warren, MI (1) Case Western Reserve University (1) Centers for Disease Control (1) Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaid (1) Chrysler Group LLC (1) Collision Research & Analysis, Inc. (1) Collision Research and Analysis, Inc. (1) Collision Safety Engineering, LC. (1) Ellis Research and Testing Laboratories (1) FCA US LLC (1) Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (1) Folksam Research, Chalmers University of Technology (1) General Motors Corp. (1) General Motors Research and Environmental Staff (1) Highway Safety Research Institute (1) Hopital de St. Anne (1) Ibaraki Christian University (1) IFRE University of Zilina (1) Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Heidelberg Heidelberg, West Germany (1) Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science (1) Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (1) Invensity GmbH (1) INVENSITY Inc. (1) Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd. (1) Johns Hopkins Hospital (1) JP Research Inc (1) JP Research Inc. (1) Maryland Chief Medical Examiner Office (1) Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems (1) Maryland State Medical Examiner's Office (1) N/A (1) National Advanced Driving Simulator (1) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1) National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab. (1) National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (1) New York State Univ. (1) Nissan (1) Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (1)


American Association for Automotive Medicine, Annual Meeting (14) International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts (8) SAE 2013 World Congress & Exhibition (3) SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition (3) SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition (3) SAE World Congress & Exhibition (3) 56th Stapp Car Crash Conference (2) 59th Stapp Car Crash Conference (2) International Congress & Exposition (2) SAE International Congress and Exposition (2) Stapp Car Crash Conference (2) STAPP Car Crash Conference (2) WCX World Congress Experience (2) WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience (2) 22nd FISITA Congress (1) 43rd Stapp Car Crash Conference (1) 51st Stapp Car Crash Conference (1) 57th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1) 60TH Stapp Car Crash Conference (1) Advances in Occupant Restraint Technologies AAAM/IRCOBI - 1994 (1) SAE 2001 World Congress (1) SAE 2005 World Congress & Exhibition (1) SAE 2006 World Congress & Exhibition (1) Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2017 (1)

Truck and Sport Utility Vehicle Front End Stiffness Corridors

  • Toyota Motor North America - Jason Hallman, Jessica Buck, Suk Jae Ham
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-0518
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
A substantial number of side impact fatalities involve a truck or sport-utility vehicle (SUV) as the striking vehicle. While the body style of the SUV fleet has transitioned from primarily body-on-frame to unibody (UB) construction, few studies have examined if this results in different vehicle stiffness. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to characterize front stiffness response of contemporary SUVs and trucks. Vehicle front impact test data were obtained from data published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA]. For all tests, force data were obtained from barrier load cells and stroke data were derived from accelerometers. Data from 53 truck and SUV tests were aggregated by class to obtain mean ± SD stiffness corridors: (1) compact UB SUV, (2) small UB SUV, (3) mid-size UB SUV, (4) frame SUV, and (5) frame truck. Across unibody SUV classes, stiffness varied from 1.3 – 1.5 kN/mm. Mean stiffness of frame SUV and truck was up to 69% higher than unibody SUV (2.2 vs. 1.3 kN/mm). Front bumper fascia was investigated as possible root…

A comprehensive real world accident analysis on C2C intersection side impacts: focus on angle of impact, change in delta-V and impact location.

  • Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. - Chinmoy Pal
  • RNTBCI - Sangolla Narahari, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1328
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States

This paper presents the results of study on sensitivity of serious injury outcome for drivers involved in nearside car to car (C2C) collisions, especially at intersection. In total, 865 intersection C2C crashes (NASS-CDS CY 2004-2014) are analysed in detail to determine the injury level outcome based on different crash factors, such as delta-v, age, gender, striking vehicle types, impact locations (F,Y,P,Z,B-regions based on CDC codes), amount of compartment intrusion and impact angle. A higher number of serious to fatal injuries (57%) occurred in the Y-region when compared to other impact locations. Additionally, a higher number of serious to fatal injuries (60%) occurred when the direction of impact is 10 o'clock. A Multi-variate logistic regression test is performed to predict the MAIS3+ injuries using lateral delta-v, age (<60/>60 years), belt usage (yes/no), number of events (single/multi), intrusion (<30cm/>30cm), and direction of impact (9/10 o'clock). It is found that direction of impact is significant (p<0.05) parameter and 10 o clock impact has more influence than 9 o'clock impact. A sensitivity analysis of serious injuries is performed with respect to lateral delta-v based on logistic regression equation. The probability of serious injury increases more than 2 times when the angle of impact changes from 9 to 10 o'clock. However, the increase in probability of serious injury when the lateral delta-v changes from change 25 to 30 kph (equivalent to 50 to 60kph impact velocity of struck vehicle) is less than that of the change due to angle of impact. The above physical phenomena real world accident results were also verified with barrier to car FE simulations. After the introduction of existing IIHS and SINCAP crash performance tests, modern vehicles are becoming safer. However, this study reveals that there is a room for further improvement to reduce serious injuries of occupants in side impact crashes. It can be achieved by proper selection and combination of important parameters (such as, impact angle, delta-v and location of impact) should be considered for future crash tests configurations.

Foreseeable Misuse in Automated Driving Vehicles - The Human Factor in Fatal Accidents of Complex Automation

  • INVENSITY Inc. - Barbaros Serter
  • Invensity GmbH - Christian Beul, Manuela Lang, Wiebke Schmidt
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States

Today, highly automated driving is paving the road for full autonomy. Highly automated vehicles can monitor the environment and make decisions more accurately and faster than humans to create safer driving conditions while ultimately achieving full automation to relieve the driver completely from participating in driving. As much as this transition from advanced driving assistance systems to fully automated driving will create frontiers for re-designing the in-vehicle experience for customers, it will continue to pose significant challenges for the industry as it did in the past and does so today. As we transfer more responsibility, functionality and control from human to machine, technologies become more complex, less transparent and making constant safe-guarding a challenge. With automation, potential misuse and insufficient system safety design are important factors that can cause fatal accidents, such as in TESLA autopilot incident. This paper investigates the human factor in fatal accidents from foreseeable misuse and insufficient system safety design perspectives. Fatal incidents, caused by different generations of autonomous systems are analyzed. Liability and product compliance topics of safety critical systems, procedures and controlled environment, are investigated for US regulations. Competency of automotive industry standards are evaluated within today’s automation needs, and compared against proven-in-use standards from other industries, especially from aviation. As a result, this paper unveils industry challenges in complex automated systems, caused by human factor, foreseeable misuse and insufficient system safety design to prevent fatal incidents.

Senior Drivers, Bicyclists and Pedestrian Behavior Related with Traffic Accidents and Injuries

  • Applus + Idiada Spain - Alba Fornells, Núria Parera, Adria Ferrer
  • Fiat Chrysler Automobiles - Anita Fiorentino
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States

While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems. The first step was to develop the required understanding of accident scenarios, injury mechanisms and risks and to implement these findings in the test tool and test assessment procedures. To this end, accident databases were studied and compared regarding the more critical accident scenarios involving the elderly and their injuries as well as their behavior and the transport modes that represent higher risk. This paper presents a novel statistical study of the accident database in Spain and provides an overview of the main accident situations involving elderly drivers, bicyclists or pedestrians as well as the most typical causes of injury and its severity. Moreover, the in-depth analysis of scenarios, actions and law violations carried out makes it possible to identify the travelling behavior of the elderly. Differences between ages and gender were also identified. The conclusions match with general beliefs and with literature information. Finally a general comparison with results from other countries was done.

Methodology to Derive National Estimates of Injuries and Fatalities in Road Traffic Crashes in India

  • JP Research Inc. - Jeya Padmanaban, R. Ravishankar, Ajit Dandapani
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States

The Road Accident Sampling System - India (RASSI) accident database being developed by an international consortium of manufacturers and safety researchers is currently India’s only source of in-depth crash data. The database includes information on accident, vehicle, and driver factors associated with each crash, which is collected through on-scene crash investigations conducted by trained crash investigators, from four key sample regions (Coimbatore, Pune, Ahmedabad, and Kolkata). As the RASSI database continues to grow, the next step is to ensure that the sample data can be reliably extrapolated to the whole of India. This paper is an initial attempt to develop national estimates by crash type based on a few sampling locations currently being investigated by the RASSI teams in India. RASSI data was treated as a stratified sample of Indian accidents, and the locations, where the crash data is being collected, were considered as primary sampling units. The “mark and recapture” statistical procedurefor population estimation was used to derive sampling weights by accident type and injury severity. Sampling weights were derived by comparing RASSI data with the police reported data from the sampling units for the same period. The weights were based on several factors, including crash types (single-/multiple-vehicle), injury severity, crash location (urban/rural) and type of road user (pedestrian/motorized two-wheeler/car). Data from police logs and RASSI were matched by selected strata (injury type/accident type), and the estimate of total population for that stratum was calculated using well-established statistical methods. Then, national estimates of the various single-vehicle accident types (collisions with fixed objects, rollover, pedestrian, motorcycle) and multiple-vehicle accident types (head-on, rear, side impact, and sideswipe) were derived. Driver contributing factors and consequences were also estimated. The derived estimates at an aggregate level were compared with published sources including MoRTH data to determine and improve adequacy and validity of the weights.

Association of Impact Velocity with Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities to Pedestrians in Commercial Truck-Pedestrian Accidents

  • National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory - Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
  • Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd. - Kazuhiro Sorimachi, Akira Imanishi, Takeshi Fujimura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2016-22-0007
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States

This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class. The results also revealed that a 10 km/h reduction in impact velocities could mitigate the severity of pedestrian injuries at impact velocities ≥30 km/h for all five analyzed vehicle types. Therefore, serious injuries and fatalities to pedestrians could be decreased by the development and deployment of collision mitigation systems (CMSs) to all vehicles, including to commercial trucks, because CMSs can detect pedestrians in even severe conditions, such as when the drive’s view is obstructed, and can reduce the impact velocity. The present results indicate that CMS design specifications should differ between vehicle types because of the strong dependence of serious-injury and fatality risks on vehicle type.

Driver Behavior in Forward Collision and Lane Departure Scenarios

  • National Advanced Driving Simulator - John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz
  • Texas A&M Transportation Institute - Susan Chrysler
  • Show More
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States

In 2010, 32,855 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile crashes, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane departure crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane departure crashes accounted for approximately 9%. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of driver behavior modeling. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior, as well as warning systems that can issue useful alerts to the driver. Several scenario events were designed to fill gaps in previous crash research. For example, previous studies at NADS focused on crash events in which the driver was severely distracted immediately before the event. The events in this study included a sample of undistracted drivers. Additionally, this study included data collection on an unforced lane departure event, in addition to the forward collision scenarios. This paper summarizes the experimental design and results, including comparisons between these data and legacy data involving distracted forward collision events. This is the second study in a series of three funded by the Toyota Collaborative Safety Research Center.

Seatback Strength as a Predictor of Serious Injury Risk to Belted Drivers and Rear Seat Occupants in Rear-Impact Crashes

  • JP Research, Inc. - Jeya Padmanaban
  • Ford Motor Company - Roger Burnett
  • Show More
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States

This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from seventeen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle model groupings (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the severe injury rate for belted drivers in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%. Results also indicate there is no statistically significant relationship between seatback strength and the risk of serious/fatal injury to belted drivers or rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Factors that have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of serious/fatal injury include: occupant age, gender, roadway speed limit and a vehicle mass term representing vehicle incompatibility (striking vehicle mass / total mass in the collision). Additionally, there is no difference between vehicles with SIRS and vehicles with conventional belts in reducing serious/fatal injury to belted drivers in rear-impact crashes.

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Volvo’s Pedestrian Detection System Based on Selected Real-Life Fatal Pedestrian Accidents

  • IFRE University of Zilina - Peter Vertal
  • TU Graz VSI - Hermann Steffan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States

The objective of this work is to test the potential benefit of active pedestrian protection systems. The tests are based on real fatal accidents with passenger cars that were not equipped with active safety systems. Tests have been conducted in order to evaluate what the real benefit of the active safety system would be, and not to gain only a methodological prediction. The testing procedure was the first independent testing in the world which was based on real fatal pedestrian accidents. The aim of the tests is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Volvo pedestrian detection system.

How weather conditions affected to the operation of the system?

In what speeds the system can prevent or reduce the risk of an accident?

What type of pedestrian motion can system recognize?

What period of time prior to the collision situation the system is warning the driver?

How is the deceleration of the vehicle during autonomous braking?

Fleet Fatality Risk and its Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass Change in Frontal Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes, Using a Combined Empirical and Theoretical Model

  • FCA US LLC - Yibing Shi, Guy S. Nusholtz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2015-22-0011
Published 2015-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States

The objective of this study is to analytically model the fatality risk in frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes of the current vehicle fleet, and its sensitivity to vehicle mass change. A model is built upon an empirical risk ratio-mass ratio relationship from field data and a theoretical mass ratio-velocity change ratio relationship dictated by conservation of momentum. The fatality risk of each vehicle is averaged over the closing velocity distribution to arrive at the mean fatality risks. The risks of the two vehicles are summed and averaged over all possible crash partners to find the societal mean fatality risk associated with a subject vehicle of a given mass from a fleet specified by a mass distribution function.