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Arc Fault Detection Methods in DC MEA Distribution Systems

  • University of Strathclyde - Jeffy Thomas, Rory Telford, Puran Rakhra, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1934
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The replacement of non-propulsive loads with electrical equivalents on more-electric aircraft (MEA) will require higher-capacity electrical power distribution systems, integrated with advanced power electronic conversion and protection technologies, arranged to form highly-resilient network architectures. Direct current (DC) distribution is a promising solution that is being explored by aircraft system integrators as it enables the paralleling of non-synchronised engine off-take generators and reduces the number of energy conversion stages required to supply electronically actuated loads However, significant challenges in reliably detecting arc fault conditions within high-power DC systems still exist and need to be addressed to ensure high levels of safety and reliability. Arc faults present a significant fire risk to aircraft and their presence can result in critical system damage and even potentially fatal conditions. Arc faults are typically intermittent in nature and may arise due to the vibration of loose terminal connections, or as degraded wires contact metal structures. Series arc faults in DC systems are particularly aggressive as there is no natural zero-crossing in the current profile, and so can remain exposed for prolonged periods of time if not rapidly detected and isolated. They are also particularly challenging to detect as the reduction in fault current eliminates the use of conventional overcurrent and current differential methods for detection. This paper will provide an overview of series arc faults in DC systems, presenting both simulation and hardware results to illustrate key trends and characteristics. It will also offer a comprehensive review of arc fault detection and diagnosis techniques that have been proposed for a wide range of aerospace and other applications. The paper provides a particular focus on electrical detection methods which utilise feature extraction techniques. These are further categorised in to time-domain, frequency domain and the time-frequency domain. The paper concludes with a discussion on the potential challenge of certifying non-deterministic arc fault detection methods for aircraft applications and discusses the merit and feasibility of achieving a purely deterministic arc fault detection system for future DC aircraft power systems.

Taking It to the Streets: Designing Streetlamp Optical Components

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29740
Published 2018-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States
The task of creating a streetlamp optical system has changed over the last 20 years and due to this change, so has optical design software. Let’s compare the task of designing optical street lamp components 20 years ago with the process today.

Analysis of Single-Vehicle Accidents in Japan Involving Elderly Drivers

  • National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab. - Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0002
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The Japanese population is aging rapidly, raising the number of traffic accidents involving elderly drivers. In Japan, single-vehicle accidents are a serious problem because they often result in fatalities. We analyzed these accidents by vehicle type, age group, and driving area. To examine the risk of accidents of the elderly drivers, their driving frequency needs to be considered, which is less. Moreover, it is difficult to know the actual distance driven by them. Therefore, in this article, based on the assumption that the number of rear-end collisions is a proxy for the traffic volume, we used the number of such collisions as a control for the driving frequency. It was found that in single-vehicle accidents, elderly drivers were at higher risk than other age groups, especially when driving light motor vehicles (K-type vehicles) in non-urban areas. A possible explanation is the higher frequency with which the elderly drive K-type vehicles in areas where there are few other vehicles on the road.

Considerations for ISO 26262 ASIL Hazard Classification

  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2980_201804
  • Current
Published 2018-04-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice presents a method and example results for determining the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) for automotive motion control electrical and electronic (E/E) systems. The ASIL determination activity is required by ISO 26262-3:2011 [1], and it is intended that the process and results herein are consistent with ISO 26262:2011 [1]. The technical focus of this document is on vehicle motion control systems. It is limited to passenger cars weighing up to 3.5 metric tons. Furthermore, the scope of this recommended practice is limited to collision-related hazards associated with motion control systems. The recommended practice focused on motion control systems since the hazards they can create generally have higher ASIL ratings, as compared to the hazards non-motion control systems can create. Because of this, the Functional Safety Committee decided to give motion control systems a higher priority and focus exclusively on them in the SAE J2980 recommended practice. ISO 26262:2011 [1] has a wider scope than SAE J2980, covering other functions and accidents (not just motion control or collisions as in SAE J2980).

Controlling LED Based Adaptive Front-Lighting System Using Machine Learning

  • Tata Elxsi, Ltd. - Sivaprasad Nandyala, Sriharsha Santhapur, Kshitij Kumar, Mithun Manalikandy
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Accidents in nights have a major share in all automotive accidents. Even though, the average distance driven in dark is 75% less as compared to the average distance driven during the day, the fatalities in nights due to road accidents are 300% of the day time. Again, the statistical studies from the National Safety Council disclose the fact that 55% of all road accidents in nights occur at the curved roads due to insufficient illumination and poor judgment of curves. The paper proposes a control algorithm with machine learning that controls LED matrix headlamp to provide precise beam pattern shaping and beam intensity (i.e. high and low beam). The system is designed to give the driver improved visibility under varying driving conditions. Adaptive Front Lighting System is an intelligent system, designed in MATLAB\Simulink environment that optimizes the illumination of roads during the night, on the basis of inputs from different sensors in the vehicle.

Roadside Boundaries and Objects for the Development of Vehicle Road Keeping Assistance System

  • Indiana University, Purdue University - Dan Shen, Qiang Yi, Jun Lin, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien
  • Toyota Motor North America Inc. - Rini Sherony
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Road departure is a leading cause of fatal crashes in the US and half of all the crashes are related to road departure [1]. Road departure warning (RDW) and road keeping assistance (RKA) are the new active safety areas to be explored. Most of the currently available road-departure detection technologies rely on the detection of lane markings, which are either missing or unclear in many roads. Therefore, in additional to the these lane markings, next-generation road departure detection should rely on the detection of other road edge and boundary objects. Common road edge and boundary indicators include lane marking, grass, curb, metal guardrail, concrete divider, traffic barrels and cones. This paper investigates the distribution of major types of road edges and road boundaries in the United States in order to enhance and evaluate the capabilities and effectiveness of RDW and RKA. The paper describes the road location sample used for the analysis, presents the percentage of various types roadside objects in terms of number of appearance locations, percentage miles (%miles), and percentage car-miles (%car-miles = %miles*car_density). The percentage of roads that do not have any lane marking and do not have clear lane marking is also described. The representative shapes of each type of roadside objects are studied. The result is applicable for the development and evaluation of road departure warning and road keeping assistance systems.

Characteristics and Casualty Analysis of Two- Wheeler Accidents in China, Data Source: The China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS)

  • CATARC - Qiang Chen, Bing Dai
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The two-wheeler is a vehicle that runs on two wheels, which is classified as motorcycle, electric-bicycle, and bicycle in this research. China has the largest number of two-wheelers and relevant accidents in the world. The two-wheeler riders have a high level of vulnerability, creating a significant necessity to better understand the characteristics according to the road-user group. The objective of this paper is to study the characteristics and analyze the causes of two-wheeler accidents in China using the CIDAS (China In-Depth Accident Study) Database. 2012 cases of two-wheeler accidents with riders injured or dead were collected from the CIDAS Database from 5 cities (Changchun, Beijing, Weihai, Ningbo and Foshan) in China over a period of 5 years (2011.07-2016.06). Several key parameters such as accident characteristics, accident scenarios (containing collision point distribution, accident type, clock direction distribution and head WAD distribution) were analyzed using measurement and mathematical statistical methods. Results show that the motorcycle accident was the most frequent two-wheeler accident type in China, which accounted for 52.7% of the total two-wheeler accidents. The two-wheeler riders’ injury information were also queried from the CIDAS Database for detailed study regarding injuries and their sources. The results of the analysis allow for an overall assessment of the two-wheeler riders safety level in China, thus providing a useful support to decision makers working to improve the protection of two-wheeler riders from fatal accidents by a series of countermeasures.

Driver Response Time to Midblock Crossing Pedestrians

  • University of Guelph - Ryan Toxopeus
  • Kodsi Engineering - Shady Attalla, Sam Kodsi
  • Show More
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle-pedestrian collisions account for 15% of fatal crashes in the USA, and there has been a twelve percent increase in fatal crashes in the USA from 2006 to 2015. Although research exists on the response time of drivers responding to pedestrian path intrusions, data on the response time of through drivers to jaywalking pedestrians crossing from the far side of the road has not been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify Driver Response Time (DRT) to a pedestrian that intrudes perpendicularly into the path of a vehicle from the far curb (adjacent to oncoming traffic). 50 (NFemale = 25; NMale = 25) licensed volunteer drivers took part in a study at the University of Guelph Driving Research in Virtual Environments (DRiVE) lab using an Oktal complete vehicle driving simulator. After a brief practice drive to acclimatize to the virtual environment, participants completed the approximately 10 minute experiment drive during which the pedestrian hazard was presented. Only eight percent of drivers collided with the pedestrian with a mean time-to-impact of 4.35 seconds. There were no gender differences in terms of DRT or crash rate.

Suspension Health Monitoring and Failure Prognosis Through Onboard SoC and Cloud Based Reporting

  • KPIT Technologies, Ltd. - Naveen Manuel, Jainendra Mishra
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Failures of automotive mechanical systems such as suspension systems, or “springs” while a vehicle is in operation is most often serious, and can sometimes incur financial loses or even fatal consequences. Spring failures result from either chronic overloading, poor driver behavior, severe duty cycle, or a combination of the aforementioned conditions. These conditions result in extraordinary fatigue, ultimately reducing the spring’s overall expected useful life. There has been a significant reduction in the cost of onboard computing making it economically viable to measure, record, and store various parameters that affect the spring life. An economical measurement system was designed that could plot the Load vs. Displacement graph (L/D) by simply measuring the spring’s displacement from its nominal (static) position. Previous methodologies have used expensive load cells; in our demonstration we prove that measurements can be taken much more economically using an array of Hall Effect type sensors. The L/D plots are stored and compared and a performance deterioration curve is plotted and an acute failure timeline is predicted, information of which is constantly relayed to the cloud. Alarm flags are raised at the manufacturer’s/supplier’s front-end by an intuitive app and further actions may be planned. An onboard display can be used to inform driver about its haul-mass, optimum speed bracket to be maintained and even inform about regular checkup deadlines. Hence, when implemented, the technology can be useful for failure prognosis by OEMs, tier ones, service agencies and Insurance Agencies.

Introduction to Traffic Signal Data Loggers and their Application to Accident Reconstruction

  • Focus Forensics - Jay Przybyla, Thomas Rush, Kelly Palframan, Daniel Melcher
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Each year in the United States, approximately 1 million collisions occur at signalized intersections, representing over 15% of all collisions and almost 9% of traffic fatalities. Engineers seeking to understand the roadway, vehicular, and driver factors related to these collisions are often asked to investigate and assess the traffic signal timing, right of way issues, and the signal indications displayed to involved drivers during the period of time leading up to and including the impact events. Until relatively recently, investigators were limited by the absence of any recording devices within the systems used for traffic signal phasing and timing. Accident reconstruction methods have long relied on the generalized signal phasing and timings programmed for that intersection by the responsible jurisdiction, combined with the vehicle dynamics calculated for the collision sequence in conjunction with witness testimony regarding signal indications and phase changes. Recent technological advancements in signal timing data collection, recording, and logging can provide engineers and investigators with a new, time-specific, incident-relatable and more robust method of analyzing signalized intersection collisions. This paper presents the current state of the art for traffic signalization: Signal Timing Data Loggers. This paper also presents how to obtain, analyze, and interpret the data logger data and possible applications of such data to accident reconstruction.