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Optimization of automated airframe assembly process on example of A350 S19 splice joint

Airbus SAS-Elodie Bonhomme, Pedro Montero-Sanjuan
SPbPU-Sergey Lupuleac, Julia Shinder, Maria Churilova, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Valeriia Khashba
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1882
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents the numerical approach to simulation and optimization of A350 S19 splice assembly process. The main goal is to reduce the number of installed temporary fasteners while preventing the gap between parts from opening during drilling stage. The numerical approach includes computation of residual gaps between parts, optimization of fastener pattern and validation of obtained solution on input data generated on the base of available measurements. The problem is solved with ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software. The described methodology is applied to the optimization of the robotized assembly process for A350 S19 section.

Intelligent Real Time Inspection of Rivet Quality supported by Human-Robot-Collaboration

PIKON Deutschland AG-Benjamin Duppe, Albert Schulz
ZeMA gGmbH-Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Tobias Masiak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1886
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft production is facing various technical challenges, such as large product dimensions, complex joining processes and the organization of assembly tasks. Meeting the requirements that come with large dimensions, low tolerances and small batch sizes, in combination with complex joining processes, automation and labour-intensive inspection task, is often difficult to achieve in an economically viable way. ZeMA believes that a semi-automated approach is the most effective for optimizing aircraft section assembly. An effective optimization of aircraft production can be achieved with a semi-automated riveting process for solid rivets using Human-Robot-Collaboration in combination with an intuitive Human-Machine-Interaction operating concept. While using dynamic task sharing between human and robot based on their skills, and considering ergonomics, the determined ideal solution involves placing a robot inside the section barrel. The robot’s workspace is expanded by mounting it on top of a lifting unit so that it can properly position the anvil. In the meantime, the human performs the more complex tasks of inserting the solid rivets and operating the riveting hammer from the outside of the section barrel.…

Simulation of aircraft assembly via ASRP software

Airbus-Elodie Bonhomme
SPbPU-Nadezhda Zaitseva, Tatiana Pogarskaia, Olga Minevich, Julia Shinder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1887
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software is a special tool for modelling assembly process for large scale airframe parts. On the base of variation simulation, ASRP provides a convenient way to analyze, verify and optimize the arrangement of temporary fasteners. During the airframe assembly process certain criteria on the residual gap between parts must be fulfilled. The numerical approach realized in ASRP allows one to evaluate the quality of contact on every stage of the assembly process and solve verification and optimization problems for temporary fastener patterns. The paper is devoted to description of several specialized approaches that combine statistical analysis of measured data and numerical simulation using high-performance computing for optimization of fastener patterns, calculation of forces in fasteners needed to close initial gaps and identification of hazardous areas in junction regions.

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Shanghai University of Engineering Science, China-Xiaogang Gao, Anbin Wang, Xiaohan Gu, Wei Li
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-02-0009
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail. The track lateral pinned-pinned frequency at 540 Hz contributes to the propagation of rail corrugation. (3) With wheel-rail contact friction coefficient of 0.3, simulation results of track lateral pinned-pinned frequency…
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Joining Gun Bonds Metal and Plastic in Seconds

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34612
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The connection of plastics and metals poses a challenge due to the different physical properties of the two materials. All conventional joining options, such as bonds using adhesives or rivets, have their disadvantages — adhesives need time to harden, which delays further processing, and plastics can be easily damaged during riveting. Furthermore, both adhesive bonding and riveting require additional materials that increase production costs.


High Strength Elevated Temperature Bolting Practice

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP700C
  • Current
Published 2019-05-03 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides general information on the design and installation of threaded fasteners in high strength and high temperature applications in propulsion systems. Some of the more common definitions of fastener terminology are also provided.


Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

Daido Steel Co., Ltd.-Tomohiro Ando
Ikeuchi Seiko Co., Ltd.-Hitoshi Kodama
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt. To improve delayed fracture resistance along with high strength, the chemical composition and heat treatment conditions were optimized as follows: 1) High strength: Increase of C and Si contents and higher austenitizing temperature before quenching. 2) Delayed fracture resistance equal to current bolts: Fine carbide spheroidization by high temperature tempering and formation of hydrogen traps by adding Mo. 3) Suppression of strength reduction due to high temperature tempering for compatibility of strength and delayed fracture resistance: Improvement of tempering softening resistance with the addition of Cr and high Mo content. Based on the results of tensile tests…
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Loosening Lifetime and Residual Clamping Force Prediction Method on Bolted Joints and Evaluation Criterion of Clamping Force Level for Prevention of Loosening Failure

Tokyo Metropolitan University-Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe, Satoshi Kobayashi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To secure the reliability of bolted joints, high clamping force (axial tension) is required to prevent fatigue breakage or loosening failure, and so on. In this paper, at first, we observe the behavior of the initial clamping force decrease tendency (loosening phenomenon) obtained by tightening the bolt used in the actual machine (large forklift) during operation. Based on our previous research, there is a strong linear relationship on log-log paper of loosening phenomenon between decrease tendency of clamping force and distance travelled (or passage of time). By utilizing its properties, we show estimation method of residual clamping force such as "How much the clamping force is remaining after the tens of thousands of hours (kilometers)?" Also, a method for estimating loosening lifetime with respect to residual clamping force level is shown. Finally, we examine evaluation criteria such as "Is the residual clamping force sufficient for prevention of loosening failure?" The limit surface pressure is examined as the upper limit clamping force. As the lower limit clamping force, the allowable value of the external transverse force…
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Development of Detection Method for Clamped Part Stiffness in Bolted Joint

Oita University-Takefumi Otsu
Shibaura Institute of Technology-Shinji Hashimura, Nobumasa Shinohara, Itsuki Nishioka
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
If a bolted joint is subjected to axial vibration, the internal force the bolt receives is determined based on the load factor that is a function expressed by bolt stiffness and clamped part stiffness. The stiffness of the bolt and clamped part are generally calculated based on VDI2230, but if the structure of the clamped parts is complicated or made of multiple materials, we have to calculate the clamped part stiffness using FE analysis. FE analysis is very useful for calculations of clamped part stiffness. However it is not easy to conduct FE analysis for all parts and structures. A new method to detect clamped part stiffness of bolted joints was developed in this study. The proposed method is based on a clamp force detection method that we had already proposed. In the method, a protruding bolt thread portion is first pulled while holding down the nut’s upper surface and the displacement at the pulling point is measured. The gradient of pulling force in relation to the displacement changes when the pulling force reaches the…
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iLokTM Nut - An Innovative Fastener that Solves a 30 Year Old Problem for Rear Axle Hub Assemblies

Duraforce Fastener Systems LLC.-Pierre Dionne
Neumayer Tekfor Automotive Brasil Ltda-Paulo Sigoli, Marcelo do Carmo Silva
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Truck and bus manufacturers have been constantly facing an issue to disassemble the rear axle shaft from the hub when transporting the truck from the factory to the dealership. In addition to that, the dealerships have the very same problem every time they have to replace the brake pads in some truck models, which leads to excessive service time, extra costs and aftermarket complaints. The current problematic fastening system is composed by a lock nut, a flat washer and a coned slotted bushing. The concept of this 30 year old design involves the coned slotted bushing being pressed against a tapered hole on the shaft’s flange. After tightening the lock nut, the bushing clamps towards the stud and it gets stuck in between the shaft and the stud generating the problem described above. This paper shows the R&D process that Tekfor used to come up with the 1-piece fastener named iLokTM nut that replaces the problematic 3-piece fastening system. The methodology involved (a) Innovation process; (b) CAD modeling; (c) Finite Element Analysis; (d) Forging simulations;…
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