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Methods to Control Adhesive Curing Induced Distortion in Hybrid Joining of Dissimilar Metals

Deere and Company, USA-Sankaran Subramaniam, Bradley Iverson, Doug Nimrick
John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Indrajit Malvade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1053
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In lightweight structures with dissimilar metal designs, structural adhesive joining is a potential joining method. Adhesives help in reducing galvanic corrosion by minimizing physical contact between two dissimilar metals. Along with adhesives, fasteners are often used as a secondary joining method to hold the assembly together during adhesive curing. Therefore, a hybrid joint which is a combination of adhesives and mechanical fasteners is potential joining method to join dissimilar metals. However, when two dissimilar metals such as aluminum to steel are joined with hybrid joint by adhesive curing at elevated temperature, the distortion of assembly is observed when cooled at room temperature. This is due to the mismatch between coefficients of thermal expansion of aluminum vs steel. The adhesive may also experience residual stress and fracture. In this study, adhesive curing induced distortion is studied using 1.1 meter long specimens of aluminum to steel hybrid joint assembly. The base materials consist of 4.8 mm thick aluminum 6061 T6 joined to 1 mm thick UHSS with 30 mm adhesive overlap. One-part heat cured structural epoxy adhesive…
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Quantification of Clamp Loss and Subsequent Loosening of Automotive Hub-Knuckle Joints under Time-Varying Proving Ground Loading

FCA US LLC-Sandip Datta, Parag NITTUR
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0181
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Threaded fasteners or bolted joints are used extensively in automotive components. There are standard procedures to evaluate joint performance under block cycles or road loads. The deciding load case for such joint design is the slippage analysis of the joint. There are studies done to evaluate the theoretical and experimental behavior of these joints. There are different ways of understanding the interaction between the bolt and the nut under different loading scenarios. However, none has provided a satisfactory method of quantifying the bolt loosening or loss of clamp under cyclic loading where initially no slippage is observed. Under varying loads, initial relaxation of the joint is followed by a loss of clamping load to below the critical value. Below a critical value, complete loss of clamping load happens very rapidly and results in a loose joint. The loss of clamping load below the critical value happens at a transition stage when both elastic deformations of the bolt as well as external moments contribute to rapid loosening. This study provides an overall understanding of geometric parameters…
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Item level serialization and traceability of aerospace fasteners based on individual inherent surface patterns

Arconic Fastening Systems-Luke Leonard Haylock, Jens Harde, Juergen Roesing, Nils Murray, Torsten Timpe
fraunhofer-Tobias Schmid-Schirling, Norbert Saum lng, Daniel Carl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0012
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Item level serialization traceability, defined as the ability to track and trace products, items or components through the supply chain from product manufacturing all the way to the end of life service, has significant value in the aerospace industry. Many items become susceptible to counterfeiting when their origin and authenticity cannot be verified and Item level serialization and traceability fosters supply chain integrity. Data Matrix and radio-frequency identification (RFID) are two common methods that enable detailed information about the manufacturer. However, these methods are not generally compatible with fasteners due to the small size of the fasteners and the cost of these methods. Fasteners are the most commonly used parts on an aircraft and rely on lot level traceability associated with packaging to provide a level of supply chain risk management. However, the association of individual fasteners to parental lots is often lost once the fasteners are removed from packaging. We demonstrate a completely new approach to develop item level serialization traceability for aerospace fasteners. It is demonstrated that this label-free traceability can be realized…
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Non- Destructive method for measuring Fastener Preload via Electromagnetic acoustic resonance

Arconic Fastening Systems-Luke Leonard Haylock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0011
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
We describe a novel, non-destructive fastener preload measurement technique based on electromagnetic acoustic resonance, an emerging ultrasonic spectroscopy technique for nondestructive and noncontact materials characterization, relying on the use of electromagnetic-acoustic transducers and the synchronous envelope detection circuitry for processing the received reverberation signals excited by continuous wave excitation method achieved through narrow band radio-frequency (RF) sweeps. The transduction occurs through the Lorenz force mechanism and, for ferrous metals, the dynamic response of magnetostriction and the magnetic force as well. High signal to noise ratio is achieved by receiving the overlapping coherent echoes at resonant frequencies. The spectral response can be interpreted and the propagation velocities can be correlated to stress applied by fasteners to the area medially surrounding the fasteners. The acoustoelastic effect involves a change in the velocity of acoustic waves when a material is under mechanical stress. This is state of stress in the structure immediately surrounding fasteners is commonly referred to as preload and is a considered a reaction to the tightening action of the fastener. The acoustoelastic effect of material…
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In-Process Hole and Fastener Inspection Using a High-Accuracy Laser Sensor

Electroimpact Inc.-Zachary Luker, Erin Stansbury
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0015
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact has produced a new in-process inspection system for use on drilling and fastening systems. The system uses a high-accuracy, non-contact, laser system to measure the flushness of installed fasteners. The system is also capable of measuring part normality and providing feedback to the machine for correction. One drawback to many automatic inspection systems is measurement error. Many sources of measurement error exist in a production environment, including drilling chips, lubrication, and fastener head markings. Electroimpact’s latest system can create a visualization of the measured fastener for the operator to interpret. This allows the operator to determine the cause of a failed measurement, thus reducing machine downtime due to false negatives. Electroimpact created a custom C# WPF application that queries the point-cloud data and analyzes the raw data. A custom “circle Hough transform” scoring algorithm is used to find the center of the nosepiece (pressure foot). A best fit plane is calculated from the point cloud data to find the panel surface. This plane is then used to output panel normality in the A and…
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new

Rivets, Carbon Steel, Procurement Specification for

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS7225B
  • Current
Published 2020-01-03 by SAE International in United States

This procurement specification covers aircraft quality solid rivets and tubular end rivets made from a carbon steel of the type identified under the Unified Numbering System as UNS G10100.

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Influence of cutting fluid on reliability of threaded fastener joints

Atlas Copco Industrial Technique AB, Sickla Industrial 19, 1-Erik Persson
System and Component Design, Department of Machine Design, K-Mayank Kumar, Sergei Glavatskih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2300
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study reports on the effect of cutting fluids on friction behavior of the threaded fasteners. Underhead and thread friction are measured during tightening process of the hex-head threaded fasteners coated with different zinc-based coatings: electroplated zinc, zinc flake, and electroplated zinc nickel, commonly used in the automotive industry. The tests and data analysis are conducted considering ISO 16047 as a baseline. Test conditions are set close to the actual production conditions found in the motor vehicle industry. Water-based and ester-based cutting fluids are selected to unveil their impact on the reliability of the threaded fastener joints. It is shown that a change in the underhead interface conditions from dry to lubricated drastically reduces friction for the electroplated zinc and zinc nickel coatings.
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Annotation ability available
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STUD - STRAIGHT, NECKED, .3750-16UNS X .3750-24UNF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS126881B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
This content contains downloadable datasets
This content contains a 2D/3D configurator
Annotation ability available
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STUD - STRAIGHT, WAISTED, .4375-14 X .4375-20UNF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS127193B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
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STUD - STRAIGHT, DRILLED, .3125-18UNS X .3125-24UNF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS128687B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
This content contains downloadable datasets
This content contains a 2D/3D configurator
Annotation ability available