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Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

NASA Glenn Research Center-Ashlie Flegel, Michael King
Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby, William Wright
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1965
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry corresponds to the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA inhouse code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan. A distribution of particle sizes is introduced upstream. Predicted collection efficiency results are presented on various surfaces. The redistribution of particle sizes and mass…
 

An Experimental Study to Evaluate Hydro-/Ice-Phobic Coatings for Icing Mitigation over Rotating Aero-engine Fan Blades

Iowa State University-Linchuan Tian, Yang Liu, Linkai Li, Hui Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1980
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice accretion on aero-engines, especially on the fan blades, is the most hazardous icing incident due to the potential performance degradation of jet-engines. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to examine the performance of ice-phobic coatings for jet-engine fan icing mitigation. The experimental study was performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a scaled engine fan model operated under wet glaze and dry rime ice conditions. To evaluate the effects of anti-icing coatings and to acquire the important details of ice accretion and shedding process on fan blade surfaces, a “phase-locked” imaging technique was applied with a high-resolution imaging system. The power input required to drive the engine fan model rotating at a constant pre-scribed speed was also measured during the ice accretion experiment. It was found that, super-hydrophobic surface (SHS) coated blades was found to have much less ice accretion area, in comparison with the uncoated fan blades, under both glaze icing and rime icing conditions. Meanwhile, under the glaze icing condition, SHS reduced the…
 

Particle Size Measurements from the 2018 Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine Test in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

Droplet Measurement Technologies-Darrel Baumgardner
HX5 Sierra, LLC-Timothy Bencic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1928
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The particle size measurements from the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine Test in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory conducted in 2018 will be presented. The work will focus on describing the experimental description, the processing and analysis methods, and final results for select cases acquired during ice crystal cloud conditions. The measurements presented will include data acquired from the Artium Technologies, Inc. High Speed Imaging instruments, the Droplet Measurement Technologies, Inc. Back-scatter Cloud Probes with Polarization Detection, and the NASA Light Extinction Probes positioned at several locations both upstream of the fan, in the direct-connect duct, and downstream of the fan, in the engine bypass.
 

Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application Using CFD and FEA Analysis

Cummins Inc.-Mukesh Kumar, Vitthal Khandagale, Prashant Kelkar, Rohit Saha
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the methodology used to select an application-based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, and noise. The selected fan is then evaluated for structural strength.To evaluate different fans, complete rail coach under-hood simulations were carried out using steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. These simulations considered an actual, highly non-uniform flow field. For each fan option, fan power, air flow rate, and surface acoustic power was evaluated. Pressure profiles on the fan blades were studied to assess the effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power was calculated using broadband noise source (BNS) model in ANSYS Fluent®. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades imported from 3D CFD were used in finite element analysis (FEA) in ANSYS. Analyses were carried out for blade linear and non-linear properties. Equivalent fully reversed (EFR) stress was calculated based on an internal code that uses Goodman theory.It can be concluded from simulation study that the fluid structural coupled approach can be used to predict and optimize…
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Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power on a Cooling Fan Using the Mesh Morpher Optimizer

Advanced Safety & Energy Inc.-Mike Kheirallah
Ford Motor Company-Abdallah Hamieh
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A cooling fan is an essential device of the engine cooling system which is used to remove the heat generated inside the engine from the system. An essential element for successful fan designs is to evaluate the pressure over the fan blade since it can generate annoying noices, which have a negative impact on the fan’s performance and on the environment. Reducing the acoustic surface power will assist in building improved designs that comply with standards and regulations in achieving a more quiet environment. The usage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), with support of mesh morphing, can provide simulation study for optimizing the shape of a fan blade to reduce the aeroacoustic effects. The investigation process will assist in examining and analyzing the acoustic performance of the prototype, impact of different parameters, and make a solid judgement about the model performance for improvement and optimization.This paper proposes a new strategy in evaluating the pressure distribution over a fan blade. CFD techniques and optimization methodology were applied to improve the acoustic surface power distribution over a…
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An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

Clemson University-Shervin Shoai Naini, Junkui (Allen) Huang, Richard Miller, John R. Wagner
US Army TARDEC-Denise Rizzo, Katherine Sebeck, Scott Shurin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger. A complete lumped parameter numerical modelling was implemented to estimate the thermal behavior of the corresponding electric motor cooling system. Experimental and numerical results compare the temperature, heat flux, and cooling power measurements. For 250VA thermal load applied, the hybrid heat rejection strategy could save up to 33% of the power consumption while the operating…
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Thin Ceiling Circulator to Enhance Thermal Comfort and Cabin Space

DENSO Corporation-Toshinori Ochiai, Shuzo Oda, Masaharu Sakai, Syunsuke Ishiguro
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In hot climate regions, there is demand for improved thermal comfort for rear occupants in vehicles not equipped with a rear air conditioner. One solution to this challenge is a circulator mounted on the ceiling. The circulator is a product designed to enhance thermal comfort for occupants by circulating the air in the cabin. The conventional circulator design, which employs a cross flow fan with a large cross section, juts into the cabin space, because it is difficult to package. Consequently, the challenge for the circulator is to provide thermal comfort for rear occupants while taking up the minimum cabin space under the ceiling.To solve this challenge, that is, to enable a substantially thinner structure, while retaining the same level of air flow delivered as before for the same thermal comfort as the conventional circulator, we divided the structure into an air outlet and an air blower. For the air outlet, it is technically necessary to improve the air flow volume gain factor (= volume of air delivered/volume of air blown out) acting in inducing…
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A New Approach to Model the Fan in Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

BMW AG-Saad Ahmed, Markus Full
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg-Hermann Rottengruber
Published 2019-02-25 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulations constitute an important step in the early development phase of a vehicle. They help in predicting the temperature profiles of critical components over a drive cycle and identify components which are exceeding temperature design limits. Parts with the highest temperatures in a vehicle with an internal combustion engine are concentrated in the engine bay area. As packaging constraints grow tighter, the components in the engine bay are packed closer together. This makes the thermal protection in the engine bay even more crucial. The fan influences the airflow into the engine bay and plays an important role in deciding flow distribution in this region. This makes modelling of the fan an important aspect of VTM simulations. The challenge associated with modelling the fan is the accurate simulation of the rotation imparted by the fan to the incoming flow. Currently, two modelling approaches are prevalent in the industry. They are moving reference frame (MRF) and rigid body motion (RBM). This paper explains the workings and drawbacks of these models in terms of…
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Laboratory Testing of Light-Duty Vehicle Electric Cooling Fan Assemblies for Airflow Performance

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2867_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE recommended practice is intended for use in testing and evaluating the performance of light-duty automotive electric engine cooling fan assemblies. These Electric Cooling Fan (ECF) assemblies are purchased by light-duty truck and passenger car OEMs from suppliers. They are purchased as complete assemblies, consisting mainly of the fan(s), motor(s), and shroud (see Figure 1); this Recommended Practice will only consider such complete assemblies. Some purchased assemblies using brush-type motors may also include digital control devices such as power resistors or pulse width modulation (PWM) electronics or local interconnect network (LIN) for speed control. In the case of brushless motor technology, the controller is an integral part of the motor where it also performs the commutation process electronically. The performance measurement would include fan output in terms of airflow and pressure, and fan input electric power in terms of voltage and current. This information could then be used to calculate the efficiency of the assembly, including aerodynamic efficiency of the fan and shroud, and electrical efficiency of the motor. The electric power consumption could…
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Fan Guard for Off-Road Machines

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1308_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-10 by SAE International in United States
This practice applies to guarding of engine cooling fans used on Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines defined in SAE J1116. It does not include guarding for belts, pulleys, or other rotating equipment used on these machines.
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