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Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application: CFD/FEA Coupled Approach

Cummins Inc.-Mukesh Kumar, Vitthal Khandagale, Prashant Kelkar, Rohit Saha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0900
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the methodology used to select application based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, noise and structural strength. The process uses 1D one-way CFD-FEA coupling approach in highly non-uniform actual flow field inside application. As part of different fan evaluation, full rail coach Underhood simulations were carried out using steady state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. For each fan option fan power, air flow rate and surface acoustic power is evaluated. Pressure profiles on fan blades are studied to assess effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power is calculated using Broadband noise source model in Fluent. Finite Element Analysis simulation is done in Ansys. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades are imported from 3D CFD are used in finite element analysis (FEA) simulations. Analyses are carried out blade linear and non-linear properties. Equivalent fully reversed stress is calculated based on Goodman program. It can be concluded from simulation study that, CFD-FEA coupled approach can be used to predict and optimize…
 

Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power on a Cooling Fan Using the Mesh Morpher Optimizer

Advanced Safety & Energy Inc.-Mike Kheirallah
Ford Motor Company-Abdallah Hamieh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0833
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A cooling fan is an essential device of the engine cooling system which is used to remove the heat generated inside the engine from the system. An essential element for successful fan designs is to evaluate the pressure over the fan blade since it can generate annoying noises that influence performance of the fan blades. Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power for a cooling fan model is an important task for estimating the weak regions over the surface and for proposing a design guidance which can help improve the acoustic performance of the fan model. The implementation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with support of mesh morphing, along with the development of optimization techniques, can provide a quick evaluation of the acoustic performance of the fan model and improve the design. CFD techniques and optimization methodology will be applied to improve the acoustic surface power distribution over a cooling fan surface. The noise control must be undertaken by considering proper design factors and features. Different aeroacoustic optimization techniques are used to examine and reduce the…
 

Thin Ceiling Circulator to Enhance Thermal Comfort and Cabin Space

DENSO Corporation-Toshinori Ochiai, Shuzo Oda, Masaharu Sakai, Syunsuke Ishiguro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0913
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In emerging countries with hot climates, many vehicles are not fitted with a Rear Air Conditioner. Despite this, there is still a need to improve the thermal comfort of rear seat occupants in these markets. A solution to address this need is a Ceiling Circulator. The Ceiling Circulator is a product which improves the thermal comfort of occupants by circulating the air within the cabin. A Conventional Circulator design uses a cross flow fan, these fans have a large cross section and are difficult to package, sacrificing cabin space. Therefore, it is a problem to balance the requirements for rear seat thermal comfort and the constraints of limited ceiling cabin space. Our approach was to separate the air outlet & blower so as to achieve a significant reduction in cross section while maintaining the same comfort of a conventional product by maintaining delivered airflow volume. The technical challenge to improve the air outlet is to increase the "Air Volume Gain Factor" which is a ratio of the volume of air delivered by the blower /…
 

Identification and Optimisation of Power Consumed by Engine Cooling Fan with a Bi-Metallic Controlled Viscous Clutch Drive in a Commercial Truck

Automobile-Nalavadath Kiran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0146
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the present scenario detailed work is happening in the field of auxiliary power loss reduction to increase the total power output from an engine. One of the main contributors is the Engine Cooling system Fan which requires drive from engine Crank shaft to reject the heat in radiator and Charge air cooler. Auxiliary loss reduction due to this can be achieved by proper thermal management of Engine Cooling system to increase energy efficiency. The power consumed by engine Cooling fan in a vehicle during its run is difficult to measure. It is nearly 7 - 9% for a 180hp engine in Commercial truck application. This loss can be reduced if we rightly balance the subsystems of engine cooling and reduce the fan duty. Now most of the Commercial vehicle engine cooling system fan drives are changed from fixed to viscous clutch. Further scope is identified in optimizing the viscous fan clutch if its characteristics changes from ON-OFF to modulating.A testing methodology is defined to measure the Fan power on engine dynamometer and further to…
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Fan Guard for Off-Road Machines

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1308_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-10 by SAE International in United States
This practice applies to guarding of engine cooling fans used on Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines defined in SAE J1116. It does not include guarding for belts, pulleys, or other rotating equipment used on these machines.
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Battery Current Control Algorithms in an Electric Two Wheeler

Ather Energy-Shivaram Venkateswaran, Lokesh Soni
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Various current control algorithms are presented in this paper to prevent vehicle cut-off and increase the range of an electric 2 wheeler based on SoC, battery temperature and motor temperature. At lower SoCs if the current demand is very high there is a possibility of cell voltage hitting the lower threshold voltage leading to cut-off. An algorithm is proposed where current (maximum allowed) derating is done based on reducing SoC, battery voltage and real time throttle demand.Lithium ion cells operating temperature has an upper cap. Rate of increase of battery temperature mainly depends on current demand by motor while the initial battery temperature also depends on ambient temperature. To prevent the battery temperature from reaching the upper threshold a battery temperature based current (maximum allowed) derating algorithm is used.As one algorithm affects the other, this leads to Multi Input Single Output (MISO) system configuration. Both the algorithms along with motor fan control based on motor temperature are clubbed. Model developed in Matlab/Simulink is implemented on real vehicle and data is compared/analyzed.
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Electrical Operated Fan for Cooling System on Agricultural Tractors

Tractors and Farm Equipment Limited-Rathish Maller Babu, Manikandan S, Nageshwara Rao P
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines involve various parasitic losses on vehicle level like that of Cooling Fans, Hydraulic pumps, Air compressors and Alternators. Because of which the available output power for applications is limited.The replacement of an existing mechanical Fan, which is driven by the engine crankshaft, by an electrically operated Fan reduces the engine frictional losses (Fan drag) resulting in a power gain. Fuel saved because of nil fan drag is available as a useful power for application.Mechanical fans operate on a fixed drive ratio with engine speeds and is directly proportional. Electrical fans can operate on constant speeds and is independent of engine speeds. There is a benefit of higher air-flow on max torque speeds which is not possible with a mechanical driven fan. There is no compromise in engine cooling performance, since the fan can now be placed suitably in the best airflow zone by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.Unlike Mechanical fans which are unidirectional, electrical fans can operate both clockwise/counter-clockwise with the reverse polarity in the electrical circuit. This feature acts as a…
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Design of Super Silent Enclosure for Diesel Genset Using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) Technique

The Automotive Research Association of India-Harshal Bankar, Prasad Yadav, Milind Kandalkar, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine generators are commonly used as a power source for various industrial and residential applications. While designing diesel generator (DG) enclosures requirements of noise control, ventilation and physical protection needs to be addressed. Indian legislation requirement demands DG enclosure insertion loss (IL) to be minimum 25 dB. However for certain critical applications like hospitals, residential apartments customer demands quiet DG sets than the statutory limits. IL targets for such application ranges between 35-40 dB. The objective of this paper is to develop methodology to design ‘Super Silent’ enclosure with IL of 35 dB by Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach for small capacity DG set. Major challenge was to achieve IL of 35 dB with single enclosure and making use of SEA technique for small size enclosure wherein modal densities is very less. Major airborne noise sources like engine, radiator fan and exhaust were modelled by capturing noise source test data. Structure-borne sources like panel vibrations were also modelled via vibration measurements. Noise control treatments (NCT) were sculpted using BIOT parameters. The predicted sound levels…
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Low-Temperature Coolant Circuit Nomenclature and Applications

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3136_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States
The document provides clarity related to multiple temperature coolant circuits used in on- and off-highway, gasoline, and light- to heavy-duty diesel engine cooling systems. Out of scope are the terms and definitions of thermal flow control valves used in either low- or high-temperature coolant circuits. This subject is covered in SAE J3142.
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Modeling of Ducted-Fan and Motor in an Electric Aircraft and a Preliminary Integrated Design

Tsinghua University, China-Yuzhi Jin, Yuping Qian, Yangjun Zhang, Weilin Zhuge
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-02-0007
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
Electric ducted-fans with high power density are widely used in hybrid aircraft, electric aircraft, and VTOL vehicles. For the state-of-the-art electric ducted-fan, motor cooling restricts the power density increase. A motor design model based on the fan hub-to-tip ratio proposed in this article reveals that the thermal coupling effect between fan aerodynamic design and motor cooling design has great potential to increase the power density of the motor in an electric propulsion system. A smaller hub-to-tip ratio is preferred as long as the power balance and cooling balance are satisfied. Parametric study on a current 6 kW electric ducted-fan system shows that the highest motor power density could be increased by 246% based on the current technology. Finally, a preliminary design was obtained and experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the model.
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