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Battery Current Control Algorithms in an Electric Two Wheeler

Ather Energy-Shivaram Venkateswaran, Lokesh Soni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0112
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Various current control algorithms are presented in this paper to prevent vehicle cut-off and increase the range of an electric 2wheeler based on SOC, battery temperature and motor temperature. At lower SOCs if the current demand is very high there is a possibility of cell voltage hitting the lower threshold voltage leading to cut-off. An algorithm is proposed where current (maximum allowed) derating is done based on reducing SOC, battery voltage and real time throttle demand. Lithium ion cells operating temperature has an upper cap. Rate of increase of battery temperature mainly depends on current demand by motor while the initial battery temperature also depends on ambient temperature. To prevent the battery temperature from reaching the upper threshold a battery temperature based current (maximum allowed) derating algorithm is used. As one algorithm affects the other, this leads to Multi Input Single Output (MISO) system configuration. Both the algorithms along with motor fan control based on motor temperature are clubbed. Model developed in Matlab/Simulink is implemented on real vehicle and data is compared/analysed. Keywords: State of…

Electrical Operated Fan for Cooling System on Agricultural Tractors

Tractors and Farm Equipment Limited-Rathish Maller Babu, Manikandan S, Nageshwara Rao P
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0079
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines involve various parasitic losses on vehicle level like that of Cooling Fans, Hydraulic pumps, Air compressors and Alternators. Because of which the available output power for applications is limited. The replacement of an existing mechanical Fan, which is driven by the engine crankshaft, by an electrically operated Fan reduces the engine frictional losses (Fan drag) resulting in a power gain. Fuel saved because of nil fan drag is available as a useful power for application. Mechanical fans operate on a fixed drive ratio with engine speeds and is directly proportional. Electrical fans can operate on constant speeds and is independent of engine speeds. There is a benefit of higher air-flow on max torque speeds which is not possible with a mechanical driven fan. There is no compromise in engine cooling performance, since the fan can now be placed suitably in the best airflow zone by CFD analysis. Unlike Mechanical fans which are unidirectional, electrical fans can operate both clockwise/counter-clockwise with the reverse polarity in the electrical circuit. This feature acts as a…

DFSS to Design Engine Cooling System of Small Gasoline Vehicle with Rear Engine.

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Chandrakant Parmar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0037
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to strategies thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and it’s components of a vehicle having engine and radiator with cooling fan mounted in rear of the car. In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout is mainly found in small, inexpensive cars and light commercial vehicles chosen for three reasons - packaging, traction, and ease of manufacturing. For simple packaging and efficient thermal management, a radiator is located close to the engine. The thermal management of rear mounted engine in a car is very critical as engine compartment does not get enough surrounding air for cooling. Also when radiator is mounted in the rear, the rate of heat transfer for a radiator surface area reduces due to less available source air. Poor hot-air scavenging from engine compartment in case of rear engine also impact coolant heat exchange rate. The above concerns calls for puller type fan with higher fan wattage with more duty cycle operation. This novel monitoring strategy takes care of optimum utilization of fan, protect/enhance engine compartment’s…

Modeling of Ducted-Fan and Motor in an Electric Aircraft and a Preliminary Integrated Design

Tsinghua University, China-Yuzhi Jin, Yuping Qian, Yangjun Zhang, Weilin Zhuge
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-02-0007
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
Electric ducted-fans with high power density are widely used in hybrid aircraft, electric aircraft, and VTOL vehicles. For the state-of-the-art electric ducted-fan, motor cooling restricts the power density increase. A motor design model based on the fan hub-to-tip ratio proposed in this article reveals that the thermal coupling effect between fan aerodynamic design and motor cooling design has great potential to increase the power density of the motor in an electric propulsion system. A smaller hub-to-tip ratio is preferred as long as the power balance and cooling balance are satisfied. Parametric study on a current 6 kW electric ducted-fan system shows that the highest motor power density could be increased by 246% based on the current technology. Finally, a preliminary design was obtained and experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the model.
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Energy Consumption Test and Analysis Methodology for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Engine Accessories

Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Technology Center, China-Liang Zhong
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-05-0036
Published 2018-10-03 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is a crucial parameter in long-haulage heavy-duty vehicles. Researchers tended to focus initially on engine combustion efficiency, while modern researchers turn their attention to the energy consumption of engine accessories in an attempt to enhance fuel economy. The accessories investigated in this study include the cooling fan, water pump, air compressor, power steering pump, air-conditioning (AC) compressor, and generator. Normally, accessory energy consumption analysis is based on rig data and simulation results. Here, we focus on the disparate test environments between the rig and vehicle to establish a novel constant power test method; the proposed method provides accurate accessory power data under different working conditions. A typical highway driving cycle is selected to collect accessory duty-cycle. The heavy-duty vehicle accessories’ energy consumption distribution under highway road conditions is obtained through the repeated road tests. Accessories comprise energy consumption proportions of 4.7%-6.4% of the engine in winter and 10.3%-12.6% in summer; they show different characteristics under different temperature or road conditions. The two influence factors of accessory energy consumption, constant power and duty-cycle, are…
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Simulation Strategy for Structure Borne Noise Sources: Use of Super Elements and Blocked Forces Tensors between Suppliers and OEMs to Validate Components at Early Design Stage

Renault-Céline ROUSSET, Guillaume Baudet
Valeo Systemes Thermiques-Laurent Legot
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper is a case study from the TESSA project (French funded research program “Transfert des Efforts des Sources Solidiennes Actives”). The general frame of the work was to assess a collaborative design process between a car manufacturer and a major supplier using FE modelling and condensation of structure borne noise sources as an alternative to classic specification method for structure borne sources.Super elements from different FE commercial softwares have been used to assess the reliability of the method, the compatibility of the softwares and, most important, the relevance of applying a blocked force tensor to the component super element to predict the interior contribution of a component which is the originality of this work.The case study is an internal combustion engine cooling module (fan + shroud + exchangers) from VALEO including all assembly details (clips, decoupling elements) modelled under ABAQUS and its integration in a RENAULT Espace under NASTRAN. The force tensor is the rotating forces generated by the fan unbalance and propagating through the sub-component of the cooling pack to the car-body. The…
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Automotive HVAC Noise Reduction

Valeo Thermal Systems-Saâd Bennouna, Thibaud Matharan, Olivier Cheriaux
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning system (HVAC) is a compact and complex system designed to provide thermal comfort inside the car cabin. The system is composed of various components: fan, flaps, thermal exchangers, filters and specific turned ducts allowing thermal conditioning and airflow distribution to car cabin areas. Nowadays, as thermal engine noises are reduced and electrified car sales are increasing, the HVAC could be a major noise source inside the car cabin that could induce significant discomfort to passengers. HVAC noise issues are well known and solved. Many of them are related to the fans’ electrical motor, such as ticking and harmonic noises. The remaining noises are mainly aeroacoustic linked to the fan and interactions between HVAC components and airflow. HVAC behavior also consists of transfer paths and acoustic transparency responsible of emerging noises.As an automotive system supplier, Valeo aims to provide acoustic comfort inside the car cabin by reducing HVAC noises during its operation. To do so, considering current HVAC designs, experimental investigations are conducted based on two strategies: passive absorbers on…
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Simulations Based Approach for Powertrain Noise Reduction in Tractors

TAFE Motors & Tractors ltd.-Ishwinder Pal Singh Sethi, Anand Shivajirao Patil
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
Noise emanating from tractors is a potential health risk for operators, especially during prolonged working hours. As regulations governing noise radiation are made stringent, a first time right simulations based approach is needed to refine various noise sources of tractors. In present case study, powertrain noise optimization of an open station tractor has been carried out. Various noise sources of engine like; structure, intake, exhaust, timing gears and blower fan have been studied. NVH testing has been conducted for noise source ranking and establishing correlation with baseline simulations. Optimization has been performed on engine and it’s aggregates for achieving overall noise reduction of 3 dB(A) at tractor operator ear level, using; multibody dynamics, CFD simulations, linear acoustics and Rayleigh integral approach.
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Efficient Prediction of Flow-Induced Sound Sources and Emission from a HVAC Blower

SIMetris GmbH-Jens Grabinger
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg-Stefan Becker, Florian Zenger
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
A shortcoming of widely-used integral methods for prediction of flow-induced sound emission of rotating systems is that the rotation of the impeller can be included in the calculation, but not reflections of sound from the housing, rotor blades and attached ducts. This paper introduces a finite element method that correctly maps both the sound sources rotating with the impeller and the reflections of the sound from the rigid surfaces of the components of the blower. For the prediction of flow-induced sound a hybrid approach is employed using separate CFD and acoustic simulations. It is based on a decomposition of flow (incompressible part) and acoustic (compressible part) quantities and is applicable to high-Reynolds-number and low-Mach-number flows. It features only a scalar unknown (i.e. the acoustic velocity potential), thus reducing the computational effort significantly. In order to compute the sound propagation in the rotating and stationary reference systems simultaneously, a domain decomposition is performed on the numerical model. The rotation of the impeller is introduced through a moving mesh, where the blades act as rigid surfaces. For…
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Fan Hub Bolt Circles and Pilot Holes

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J635_201806
  • Current
Published 2018-06-02 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice applies to engine cooling fans up to 2000 mm in diameter with a mounting interface consisting of a pilot hole and a circular bolt pattern. Most of these fans are belt, gear, clutch, hydraulically, or electrically driven.
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