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A Novel Prediction Algorithm for Heavy Vehicles System Rollover Risk Based on Failure Probability Analysis and SVM Empirical Model

China Automotive Technology and Reseach Center Co.,Ltd-Zhenfeng Wang, Fei Li, Xinyu Wang
Harbin Institute of Technology-Zheng Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0701
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The study of heavy vehicles rollover prediction, especially in algorithm-based heavy vehicles active safety control for improving road handling, is a challenging task for the heavy vehicle industry. Due to the high fatality rate caused by vehicle rollover, how to precisely and effectively predict the rollover of heavy vehicles became a hot topic in both academia and industry. Because of the strong non-linear characteristics of Human-Vehicle-Road interaction and the uncertainty of modeling, the traditional deterministic method cannot predict the rollover hazard of heavy vehicles accurately. To deal with the above issues, this paper applies a probability method of uncertainty to the design of a dynamic rollover prediction algorithm for heavy vehicles and proposes a novel algorithm for predicting the rollover hazard based on the combined empirical model of reliability index and failure probability. Moreover, the paper establishes a classification model of heavy vehicles based on the support vector machine (SVM) and uses the Monte Carlo method to calculate the failure probability of rollover limit state of heavy vehicles. The fishhook, double lane change, and slalom…
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Model-Based Calibration of an Automotive Climate Control System

BMW AG-Gerrit Lassahn, Kang Qiu
TU Munich-Patrick Jahn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1253
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In modern cars the control of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is oftentimes realized by means of a cascade of gain scheduling controllers. The calibration of this control cascade is a complicated and strenuous, hence expensive process. To establish a model based calibration process, a fast executing and accurate model of the HVAC system is required. This paper describes a novel approach for the modelling of an automotive HVAC system. The model consists of a black box model trained with experimental data from a self-developed measurement setup. It is capable to predict the temperature and mass flow of the air entering the vehicle cabin at the different outlets. The measurement setup is based on a combination of temperature and velocity sensors. A measurement fault analysis is conducted to validate the accuracy of the measurement system. As the data collection is done under fluctuating ambient conditions, an extensive analysis of the impact of different ambient conditions on the HVAC unit is performed and incorporated into correction models that account for the different ambient conditions. Different…
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Evaluation Methodologies in the Development of Dynamically Reconfigurable Systems in the Automotive Industry

BMW Group-Florian Oszwald, Ruben Bertelo
Karlsruhe Institute Of Technology-Juergen Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1363
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Classical decentralized architectures based on large networks of microprocessor-based Electronic Control Units (ECU), namely those used in self-driving cars and other highly-automated applications used in the automotive industry, are becoming more and more complex. These new, high computational power demand applications are constrained by limits on energy consumption, weight, and size of the embedded components. The adoption of new embedded centralized electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures based on dynamically reconfigurable hardware represents a new possibility to tackle these challenges. However, they also raise concerns and questions about their safety. Hence, an appropriate evaluation must be performed to guarantee that safety requirements resulting from an Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) according to the standard ISO 26262 are met.In this paper, a methodology for the evaluation of dynamically reconfigurable systems based on centralized architectures is presented. The aim is to evaluate the reliability and probability of failure while exploring the design space without compromise the overall system performance.The methodology is divided into three stages. In the first stage, the system is decomposed, and its sub-systems are isolated before applying…
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Engine mount design & failure analysis in commercial vehicle and a correlation between virtual & physical validation.

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Mahendra Parwal
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Arushi Dev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0491
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle life and performance is affected by many factors when in use. The most influential being the vibrations generated especially when the vehicle is in motion. These vibrations are directly experienced by the driver, whose performance goes down, if under continuous influence of these vibrations. This increases the fatigue and greatly reduces the return on investment done by the customer. There are two major sources of vibrations, the engine and the road on which the vehicle moves. To prevent such issues engine mounts are used in vehicles, which may seem simple but perform a critical role, of providing comfort to the driver. Therefore it becomes important that thoroughly designed and examined mounts are being used in the vehicle. This paper focuses on the parameters and methodology to be followed for design and validation of an engine mount used in heavy duty vehicles. Case study has been presented to show the failure cases in an engine mount, especially the separation of rubber and metal bonding. Importance of surface pre-treatments to have better bonding has been discussed…
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A Methodology for Automotive Steel Wheel Life Assessment

Fraunhofer ITWM-Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein
MW Italia-Davide Rovarino, Luca Actis Comino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1240
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A methodology for an efficient failure prediction of automotive steel wheels during fatigue experimental tests is proposed. The strategy joins the CDTire simulative package effectiveness to a specific wheel finite element model in order to deeply monitor the stress distribution among the component to predict damage. The numerical model acts as a Software-in-the-loop and it is calibrated with experimental data. The developed tool, called VirtualWheel, can be applied for the optimisation of design reducing prototyping and experimental test costs in the development phase. In the first section, the failure criterion is selected. In the second one, the conversion of hardware test-rig into virtual model is described in detail by focusing on critical aspects of finite element modelling. In conclusion, failure prediction is compared with experimental test results.
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Frequency Domain Analysis of 2-Wheeler Systems

CAEfatigue Ltd.-Neil Bishop, Harsha Kolar
Hero MotoCorp Ltd.-Mohit Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0476
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Most automotive companies validate their vehicle designs by running vehicle on the durability proving grounds. Part fractures and collisions between two components are common failures observed during proven ground testing. Laboratory testing and FEA simulation are used to validate designs in the concept stage as it consumes less time and cost as compared to proven ground testing. The lab testing and simulation process both have their own limitations. It is difficult to incorporate effect of multi-direction input loading (x, y, z) with single direction loading in laboratory testing due to restrictions with electrodynamic shaker testing. However, in simulation, multi direction input can be easily incorporated but often actual vehicle measured test track data is not available in the early design stage.In the present work, Modern methodologies have been employed [ref 1, 2] in frequency domain to validate design in FEA simulation. First, relative random response calculation is performed for calculating the probability of collision between parts of motorcycle rear cowl. Second, multi-channel loading (x, y, z) on the front cowl is used to derive a…
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Enriching Systems Theory Based Cyber-Security and Safety Analysis Using Stakeholder Value Networks

MIT-Allen Moulton
Zenuity AB-Amardeep Sidhu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0143
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
System-theoretic process analysis for security (STPA-Sec) is a powerful safety and security analysis method that focuses on unsafe and unsecure interactions between subsystems rather than component failure and its resulting chain-of-event failure modes. The first step of STPA-Sec requires the analyst to identify the system boundary and list the system losses and hazards. Current approach to performing this first and critical step of STPA-Sec requires interviewing the stakeholders and could potentially result in a narrow focus due to stakeholder’s mental model and resulting answers to questions. In some cases, stakeholders are not available for interviews and we risk influencing the system loss identification by the mental model of the analyst. We believe these two potential issues in the STPA-Sec analysis: narrow focus and missing access to stakeholder, can be address by factoring additional system information through stakeholder analysis. To illustrate the benefit of this approach a mining system is considered. Stakeholders in the mining system are identified and then classified based on the role that they play in the expected emergent behavior of the system.…
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Research on Compensation Redundancy Control for Basic Force Boosting Failure of Electro-Booster Brake System

Jilin University-Jian Zhao, Zhicheng Chen, Bing Zhu, Jian Wu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0216
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As a new brake-by-wire solution, the electro-booster (Ebooster) brake system can work with the electronic stability program (ESP) equipped in the real vehicle to realize various excellent functions such as basic force boosting (BFB), active braking and energy recovery, which is promoting the development of smart vehicles. Among them, the BFB is the function of Ebooster's servo force to assist the driver's brake pedal force establishing high-intensity braking pressure. After the BFB function failure of the Ebooster, it was not possible to provide sufficient brake pressure for the driver's normal braking, and eventually led to traffic accidents. In this paper, a compensation redundancy control strategy based on ESP is proposed for the BFB failure of the self-designed Ebooster. Firstly, introduced the working principle of Ebooster and ESP, and a suitable pressure-building circuit was selected for the dual brake actuator system; Secondly, after the BFB failure of Ebooster, the rule-based strategy of braking awareness recognition was designed. Thirdly, a layered closed-loop compensation control strategy is designed based on the ESP to restore the pressure building capacity…

A Novel Approach to Scaling Age-, Sex-, and Body Size-Dependent Thoracic Responses using Structural Properties of Human Ribs

Injury Biomechanics Research Center, The Ohio State Universi-Yun-Seok Kang, John H. Bolte IV, Amanda M. Agnew
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Vehicle Rese-Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0013
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Thoracic injuries are frequently observed in motor vehicle crashes, and rib fractures are the most common of those injuries. Thoracic response targets have previously been developed from data obtained from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) tests in frontal loading conditions, most commonly of mid-size males. Traditional scaling methods are employed to identify differences in thoracic response for various demographic groups, but it is often unknown if these applications are appropriate, especially considering the limited number of tested PMHS from which those scaling factors originate. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a new scaling approach for generating age-, sex-, and body size-dependent thoracic responses utilizing structural properties of human ribs from direct testing of various demographics. One-hundred forty-seven human ribs (140 adult; 7 pediatric) from 132 individuals (76 male; 52 female; 4 pediatric) ranging in age from 6 to 99 years were included in this study. Ribs were tested at 2 m/s to failure in a frontal impact scenario. Force and displacement for individual ribs were used to develop new scaling factors, with a…
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Investigation of Tensile Behavior of 0.22% Carbon Steel with Notched Specimen Subjected to Corrosive Environment

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

National Institute of Technical Teachers' Training and Research Chandigarh, India-Mumtaz Rizwee, Md Fuzail Ahmad
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-02-0012
Published 2020-03-23 by SAE International in United States
Carbon steels are the most versatile load bearing material, and these materials are used in the form of structures, construction, and equipment. The role of environment on these materials under loaded conditions is unique in every application, which requires, through experimental findings, to probe into any failure, which needs, through experimental investigation for future life prediction of, new candidate materials. In the above view it was proposed to investigate the notch effect and different corrosive environment on steel under different loading condition. The methodology of the research experiments briefly included:selection of 0.22% carbon steel; preparation of tensile samples and making notches; exposure of these samples (unloaded) to different environmental conditions; creation of the different controlled corrosive environment in a closed chamber for different time periods; immediately after specified exposure periods the tensile loading experiments were carried out in universal testing machine to obtain tensile properties. In this research we revealed the effect of notch and corrosive environment on the tensile properties of 0.22% carbon steel.
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