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Unsettled Technology Domains in Robotics for Automation in Aerospace Manufacturing

Muelaner Engineering, Ltd.-Jody Muelaner
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019010
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Cost reduction and increasing production rate are driving automation of aerospace manufacturing. Articulated serial robots may replace bespoke gantry automation or human operations. Improved accuracy is key to enabling operations such as machining, additive manufacturing, composite fabrication, drilling, automated program development and inspection. New accuracy standards are needed to enable process- relevant comparisons between robot systems. Accuracy can be improved through calibration of kinematic and joint stiffness parameters, joint output encoders, adaptive control that compensates for thermal expansion and feed- forward control that compensates for hysteresis and external loads. The impact of datuming could also be significantly reduced through modelling and optimization. High dynamic end-effectors compensate high-frequency disturbances using inertial sensors and reaction masses. Global measurement feedback is a high-accuracy turn-key solution, but it is costly and has limited capability to compensate dynamic errors. Local measurement feedback is a mature, affordable and highly accurate technology where the robot is required to position or align relative to some local feature. Locally clamped machine tools are an alternative approach that can utilize the flexibility of industrial robots…
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Design and Analysis of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Automobile Hood

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Akhil Kumar Guduru, V N B Prasad Sodisetty, Vidya Prudhvi Sai Katari
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The need for eco-friendly materials is recently increasing in the automobile and aerospace sectors. Material selection for automobile components is influenced by various factors such as cost, weight and strength. Natural fibers offers various advantages over conventional materials such as environmental friendly, easily available, recyclable and higher specific strength. Among the natural fibers Sisal and Kenaf fibers are selected for present study due to their good mechanical properties and availability. Kenaf fibers have great potential to be used as construction and automotive materials due to their long fibers which are derived from the bast. Sisal fibers do not absorb moisture and possess good impact, sound absorbing properties and high fire resistance properties. Epoxy LY556 is selected as matrix material to bind the combination of these two natural fibers due to its high temperature resistance and adherence to reinforcements. Alkaline treatment was carried out to remove the moisture from the natural fibers. Fabrication of epoxy/Kenaf fibre/Sisal Fibre composite materials of different stacking sequence was carried out by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) method. These composites…
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Design Analysis and Simulations of Components of an All-Terrain Vehicle

BITS Pilani-Pranjal Shukla, Konark Joshi, Utkarsh Rastogi, Ajith Reddy Moola
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
A single seater All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is conceptualized in this paper which covers the extent of designing and simulations ranging from static structural, fatigue analysis, explicit dynamics etc. Solidworks and Ansys Workbench have been used as the tools for the simulation. Our aim was to design and fabricate a vehicle which is light weight (<200Kgs), easily maneuverable in harsh driving conditions and also scores high in affordability and maintenance.This report also contains the design consideration of the chassis, steering, suspension, braking, powertrain. Simulation results of components like hubs, knuckles, A-Arms, chassis are done with special focus on modelling based on real time forces and behaviors. MATLAB Simulink models are used and explained for the suspension model.The vehicle was fabricated in-house using various fabrication methods of TIG Welding, Vertical CNC machines etc. The strength tests for the specimens of welding were checked for the safety of the chassis. The vehicle was tested on tracks for braking, steering and acceleration and further modifications were made in the design to incorporate the iterations.
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Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviour of Al 7075 Composite Reinforced with TiC and Al2O3 Particles

Vellore Institute of Technology-Subham Jaiswal, Govindasamy Rajamurugan, Prabu Krishnasamy, Yashwardhan Shaswat, Mishra Kaushik
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Various research regarding new types of fabrication and modifications of Aluminium alloy to improve the existing properties are going on. The wide range application of aluminium alloy is in aerospace and Automobile Industries. The demand for this material improved by mechanical properties with little to zero increment in weight. The current work is based on the fabrication of hybrid aluminium metal matrix composites with the addition of TiC (Titanium Carbide) and Al2O3 (Aluminium Oxide) reinforcement particle using stir casting technique. Three types of hybrid composite samples were prepared based on the weight percentage 5% Al2O3+0% TiC (sample-1), 8% Al2O3 + 12% TiC (sample-2), 20% Al2O3+15% TiC (sample-3). The objective of the study is to analyze the mechanical and corrosion properties of the hybrid composite with the influence of the reinforcement and varying the weight fraction of the particles. Overall, It is observed that a gradual increase in the hardness value in sample-1(83 BHN), Sample-2 (88 BHN) and sample-3 (96 BHN). This trend can be explained by the particulate strengthening of TiC over the soft ductile…
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Investigation of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of AA8011 Reinforced with Zirconium Oxide and Aluminium Oxide Hybrid Composites Processed through Multi-Direction Forging

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Aruchamy, Shanthosh Gopal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The Cardinal goal of this research work is to fabricate hybrid composites of AA8011 with reinforcement particles of Zr2O3 and Al2O3 which was taken in equal (5wt%) weight percentage. The hybrid composites were cast in a square shape (50x50x50 mm size) under the optimal stir casted process parametric condition, further, it was taken for the forging process. The prepared specimens were induced for uni-direction (x), bi-direction (x and y) and multi-direction (x,y, and z) forging route and the response of microhardness of 53, 68, 81 and 96 VHN were obtained respectively due to microstructural phase changes with an even distribution of particles in the matrix. Thus, the tribological properties of prepared specimens were tested using pin-on-disc Tribometer at room temperature under dry sliding condition of load 5,10,15,20 N and by adjusting the sliding speed as 266 and 531 rpm respectively. The outcomes uncovered all the specimens that the wear rate increments with an increase in load and coefficient of friction show an increase at most extreme load conditions. Wear rate increments with increment in the…
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Characterization of Areca and Tamarind Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Composites for Structural Applications

Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College-Binoj Joseph Selvi, Manikandan Natarajan, Bhanu Prakash Palampalle
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Recently, owing to the noteworthy properties like biodegradable, low cost, readily available, easy processing, less toxic and eco-friendly nature natural fibers reinforced composites are used in different engineering applications. Nevertheless, the traditionally used synthetic E-glass fiber composite shows inverse features than that of reported natural fiber composites. Hence, in the current investigation discarded areca and tamarind fibers was collected, extracted and characterized for its overall performance and to implement it as a better alternative for artificial fiber composites. Composite coupons were made with different magnitudes of fiber/matrix and inspected for their potentiality by exploring its mechanical and thermal assets as per standard techniques. The developed areca and tamarind hybrid composite results shown better part than their individual composites and also in par with the prevailing synthetic fiber products. Hence, the tested results shown that the fabricated hybrid composites exhibits better specific properties and ensures its potentiality for aerospace and automotive applications.
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Torsional Stiffness Analysis of a Tubular Space-frame Chassis

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Venkata Naga Bhavani Prasad Sodisetty, Anurag Pandey, Devansh Balachandran Iyer, Navneet Kumar
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Torsional Stiffness is required in an automotive whenever there is a biased lateral load on the vehicle as it happens during a turn. A torsionally stiff chassis would provide better stability and uniform load transfer in an automobile. The current trends in research aim at increasing the torsional stiffness and optimizing mass for the same and thus increasing the stiffness to mass ratio. This is validated with the help of various FEA softwares . The different cases involved in real world scenario are simulated and then the stiffness is optimized accordingly. This FEA analysis is further validated using experimental analysis. An experimental jig is fabricated and setup for every condition. Static conditions are used for both FEA and experimental analysis. A list of error reducing measures has been put in place and unavoidable errors have been taken into account. The deviation of the experimental stiffness has been plotted along with the results in FEA and the possible reasons have been taken into account. The variations present in the fabricated chassis lead to the deviation from…
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Fabrication and Machinability Study of Al2219 Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with SiN/MoS2 Nanoparticles

Sri Sairam Engineering College-Vetri Velmurugan Kannan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan, Akshay Seth, Navya Sood, Aditya Babu
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Composites materials are substituting constituents for traditional materials due to their remarkable properties, and the addition of nanoparticles gives a new development in the material domain. The nanoparticles influence on fabrication and machinability investigation study is essential as the composites to be used in applications like automotive and aerospace. The current study investigates the machinability characteristics of Al2219 based metal composites reinforced with nanoparticles of SiN/MoS2. Al2219- reinforcements (SiN and MoS2) composites are fabricated by the method of stir casting. Four different compositions (Al2219/SiN (2 wt% and 4 wt%), , Al2219/2 wt.% SiN/ 2 wt.% MoS2, Al2219/2 wt.% MoS2) are fabricated by varying the different weight percentages of nanoparticles reinforcements. An attempt is made to study the investigation analysis of force, surface roughness, and tool wear using CNC machine lathe to consider the effect of cutting speed, cutting depth, and samples. The machinability test is carried out, and the performance is compared. Addition of 2 wt% of SiN in Al2219 is to increase the hardness of nearly about 21%, 14%, 40% compared to that of…
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Investigations on Dimensional Analysis of Fused Filament Fabrication of Wax Filament by Taguchi Design

Vellore Institute of Technology-Aditya Chandrakant Yadav, Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Kumar Raja, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Experimental investigations were carried out on the machinable wax filament using the fused deposition modelling (FDM) rapid prototyping process. The printer used for conducting the experiments was Flash Forge guider 2. The filament material used for this study was machinable wax filament of 1.75 mm diameter. Experimental trials were carried out as per Taguchi L9 orthogonal array to determine the optimum process parameter combination. The dimensional analysis of test samples were carried out in terms of change in volume of samples which is result of combine effect of deviations in all the dimensions of test sample. Four factors each at three levels was used to obtain the optimum printing parameters for better dimensional accuracy and proper printing. The four important printing parameters were taken as factor and set to analyse the significant factor affecting on printing. The complexity in printing of wax filament is taken in to consideration during the experimental study. The main effect plot for S/N ratio was plotted and ANOVA was carried out to determine the significant factor that was affecting the…
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Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321 by Using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

Geethanjali College of Engg. and Tech.-Sudarshan Rikka, Devaiah Malkapuram
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. The joining of the similar and dissimilar metals is carried out by GTAW process and by employing two different types of filler rods SS321 and ERNiCrMo-3, Mechanical properties such as Ultimate Tensile Strength, Young’s Modulus ae found as per ASTM testing standards, Percentage of Elongation also found to know the joint efficiency and Microhardness survey across the weld joint to estimate the hardness variations at different locations such as Weld zone of the metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), and Base metal.
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