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Design and Fabrication of Carbon Fibre/Epoxy-Aluminum Hybrid Suspension Control Arms for Formula SAE Race Cars

ARAI FID PUNE-Pramod Hande
Vellore Institute of Technology-Mayank Gupta, Akash Porwal, Harshvardhan Rao Budi, Padmanabhan Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0230
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Suspension system of a vehicle plays an important role to carefully control motion of the wheel throughout the travel. The vertical and the lateral dynamics (ride and handling) is affected by the unsprung-to-sprung mass ratio. Lower value of this mass ratio leads to enhanced performance of the car. To optimize the unsprung mass of the car, design of control arm plate is optimized with Aluminum material and Carbon fibre reinforced composite control arms framework are used to achieve high stiffness to weight ratio. These leads to increase in overall power to weight ratio of the car which helps to deliver maximum performance to the wheels. Through analysis of real-life working conditions of the entire steering knuckle assembly in ACP pre- post ANSYS 18.1 with the defined boundary conditions, equivalent stress and total deformations are obtained. Based on the results, geometrical topology of the control arms plates is further optimized. After several tensile tests on different bond length and bond gap, the outer surface of control arm tube was bonded to the inner surface of control…
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A Comparison of Componentization Constructs for Supporting Modularity in Simulink

FCA Canada Inc., McMaster University-Monika Jaskolka
McMaster University-Vera Pantelic, Alan Wassyng, Mark Lawford
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1290
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Model-Based Development (MBD) paradigm is widely used for embedded controls development, with the MathWorks Simulink modelling environment being extensively used in the automotive industry. As production-scale Simulink models are typically large and complex, there exists a need to decompose them properly in order to facilitate their maintainability, understandability, and evolution. MathWorks recommends the use of three constructs for model “componentization” or decomposition: the Subsystem, Library, and Model Reference. However, a recently added construct introduced in Simulink R2014b, the Simulink Function, can also be used for this purpose, while also supporting information hiding due to the construct’s ability to be scoped and encapsulate data. This paper provides an in-depth comparison of these Simulink constructs to fully understand the differences in their reusability, sharing of program state, encapsulation, and code generation, with the goal of facilitating model evolution. An automotive powertrain example is provided to highlight the differences between approaches. Conventions for structuring models are also presented.
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Research on Simulation and Verification Platform of Vehicle-Way Cooperative Algorithm Based on C-V2X

Anhui Jianghuai Automobile CO., LTD-Li Wei Bing, Wu Qiong
Chinese Academy of Sciences-Liang Hua Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1292
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The V2X system covers three broad categories scenario of security, efficiency, and service, and each type of scenario can be refined into a number of specific application scenarios. It is difficult to verify the V2X system protocol stack and the application scenario algorithm during the period of the actual vehicle verification, in which it is difficult to cover the real-vehicle application working conditions of the comprehensive V2X system, especially the complex traffic condition. In order to verify the reliability and stability of the V2X system under various application conditions, a vehicle-way cooperative algorithm development framework and its simulation and verification platform are proposed. The development and verification process of the vehicle-mounted system based on the V model is taken into account by the algorithm development framework and the simulation platform, and the cross-application between the traffic simulation and the network simulation is constructed based on the SUMO and the NS3. First, the platform utilizes Simulink to set up the V2X sub-segment application scenario algorithm, secondly it makes use of SUMO to construct the traffic scenario,…
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Lightweight Design of Automotive Front End Material-Structure Based on Frontal Collision

Nanjing University of Science & Technology-JIANGFAN ZHANG
Naveco, Ltd.-Xiaojun Zou, Liu-kai Yuan, Hualin Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0204
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The front end structure is an important role in protecting the vehicle and passengers from harm during the collision. Increasing its protective capacity can be achieved by increasing the thickness or replacing high-strength materials. Most of the current research is analyzed separately from these two aspects. This paper proposes a multi-objective optimization method based on weighting factor analysis, which combines material and thickness selection. Firstly, the optimized components are determined based on the 100% frontal collision simulation results. Secondly, six thicknesses and two materials of the front part of the vehicle body are selected as design variables to construct an orthogonal test design. In this paper, a weight-based multi-factor optimization method is used to numerically analyze the response results obtained by orthogonal experiments. Analyze the impact of each factor on the optimization goal to select the most reliable optimization. This optimization method can select the best material and component thickness combination scheme. The results show that the mass of the selected parts are reduced by 16.5%; the total energy absorption is increased by 5.2%; the…
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Joint Calibration of Dual LiDARs and Camera Using a Circular Chessboard

Tongji University-Zhenwen Deng, Lu Xiong, Dong Yin, Fengwu Shan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Environmental perception is a crucial subsystem in autonomous vehicles. In order to build safe and efficient traffic transportation, several researches have been proposed to build accurate, robust and real-time perception systems. Camera and LiDAR are widely equipped on autonomous self-driving cars and developed with many algorithms in recent years. The fusion system of camera and LiDAR provides state-of the-art methods for environmental perception due to the defects of single vehicular sensor. Extrinsic parameter calibration is able to align the coordinate systems of sensors and has been drawing enormous attention. However, differ from spatial alignment of two sensors’ data, joint calibration of multi-sensors (more than two sensors) should balance the degree of alignment between each two sensors. In this paper, we assemble a test platform which is made up of dual LiDARs and one monocular camera and use the same sensing hardware architecture as intelligent sweeper designed by our laboratory. Meanwhile, we propose the related joint calibration method using a circular chessboard. The center of circular chessboard is respectively detected in camera image to get pixel…
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Evaluations of Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts from Open-Source 3D Printers and Conventional Manufacturing

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0229
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing method that allows the productions of engineering parts almost directly from modeling software on a computer. With 3D printing technology, future manufacturing could become vastly efficient. However, the procedures used in 3D printing differ substantially among the printers and from those used in conventional manufacturing. The objective of the present work was to comprehensively evaluate the mechanical properties of engineering products fabricated by 3D printing and conventional manufacturing. Three open-source 3D printers, i.e., the Flash Forge Dreamer, the Tevo Tornado, and the Prusa, were used to fabricate the identical parts out of the same material (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). The parts were printed at various positions on the printer platforms and then tested in bending. Results indicate that there exist substantial differences in mechanical responses among the parts by different 3D printers. Specimens from the Prusa printer exhibit the best elastic properties while specimens from the Flash Forge printer exhibit the greatest post-yield responses. There further exist noticeable variations in mechanical properties among the parts that were fabricated by the…
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Construction and Simulation Analysis of Driving Cycle of Urban Electric Logistic Vehicles

Nanjing Iveco Automobile Co., Ltd.-Xiaojun Zou
Nanjing University of Science & Technology-Cheng Qian, Liangmo Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1042
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to reflect the actual power consumption of logistics electric vehicles in a city, sample real vehicle road data. After preprocessing, the short-stroke analysis method is used to divide it into working blocks of no less than 20 seconds. Based on principal component analysis, three of the 12 characteristic parameters were selected as the most expressive. K-means clustering algorithm is adopted to obtain the proportions of various short strokes, according to the proportion, select the short stroke with small deviation degree to combine, and construct the driving cycle, it has the characteristics of low average speed, high idle speed ratio and short driving distance. AVL-cruise software builds the vehicle model and runs the driving cycle of urban logistic EV. Compared with WLTC, the difference in power consumption is 34.3%, which is closer to the actual power consumption, the areas with the highest motor speed utilization are concentrated only in the idle area. Therefore, the driving cycle is consistent with the actual use conditions of low average speed and high idle speed of urban logistics…
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System Evaluation Method for Two Planetary Gears Hybrid Powertrain under Gray Relational Analysis Based on Fuzzy AHP and Entropy Weight Method

Tongji University-Jiading Gu, Zhiguo Zhao, Yi Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0430
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Millions of configurations of power-split hybrid powertrain can be generated due to variation in number of planetary-gear sets (PG), difference in number, type and installation location of shift actuators (clutches or brakes), and difference in connection positions of power components. Considering the large number of configurations, complex structures and control modes, it is vital to construct an appropriate multi-index system evaluation method, which directly affects the requirement fulfillment, the time and cost of 2-PG system configuration design. Considering one-sidedness (dynamics and economic performance), simplicity (linear combination of indicators) and subjectivity (relying on expert experience) of previous system evaluation method of 2-PG system design, a more systematic evaluation method is proposed in this paper. The proposed evaluation system consists of five aspects, involving dynamic, economy, comfort, reliability and cost, and more than 20 indexes. To reduce the influence of the different experts' subjective opinions and the one-sidedness of objective data, a comprehensive system evaluation method based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), entropy weight method (EWM) and grey relational analysis (GRA) is put forward. The consistency…
new

Sensor Uses Microwaves to Determine Real-Time Ice Accumulation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36195
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A sensor detects the precise moment when ice begins to form on a surface. Due to their high sensitivity, low power, ease of fabrication, and planar profile, microwave resonators were chosen for the device.

new

Hybrid Technique Aims to Produce Stronger, Corrosion-Resistant Nickel

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36277
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Nickel is a widely used metal in the manufacturing industry for both industrial and advanced material processes. Now, Purdue University innovators have created a hybrid technique to fabricate a new form of nickel that may help the future production of life-saving medical devices, as well as hightech devices and vehicles with strong corrosion-resistant protection.