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Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Behavior of a Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene

FCA US LLC-Mingchao Guo, Congyue Wang, Jian Tao, Johnson Joseph, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0190
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One approach of reducing vehicle weight is using composite materials. Fiber reinforced polypropylene is one of the most popular composite materials. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, static and fatigue properties of a 30% fiber reinforced polypropylene have been physically studied. This paper describes details of test coupon design, fabrication and test setup of both quasi static and fatigue tests. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C), mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered and the result of the tests discussed.
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Design and Fabrication of Carbon Fibre/Epoxy-Aluminum Hybrid Suspension Control Arms for Formula SAE Race Car

ARAI FID PUNE-Pramod hande
Vellore Inst. of Technology-Mayank Gupta, Akash Porwal, Harshvardhan rao Budi, Dr. Padmanabhan Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0230
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Suspension system of a vehicle plays an important role to carefully control motion of the wheel throughout the travel. The vertical and the lateral dynamics (ride and handling) is affected by the unsprung-to-sprung mass ratio. Lower value of this mass ratio leads to enhanced performance of the car. To optimize the unsprung mass of the car, design of control arm plate is optimized with Aluminum material and Carbon fibre reinforced composite control arms framework are used to achieve high stiffness to weight ratio. These leads to increase in overall power to weight ratio of the car which helps to deliver maximum performance to the wheels. Through analysis of real-life working conditions of the entire steering knuckle assembly in ACP pre- post ANSYS 18.1 with the defined boundary conditions, equivalent stress and total deformations are obtained. Based on the results, geometrical topology of the control arms plates is further optimized. After several tensile tests on different bond length and bond gap,the outer surface of control arm tube were bonded to inner surface of control arm plate…
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A Comparison of Decomposition Constructs for Supporting Modularity in Simulink

FCA Canada Inc., McMaster University-Monika Jaskolka
McMaster University-Vera Pantelic, Alan Wassyng, Mark Lawford
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1290
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Model-Based Development (MBD) paradigm is widely used for embedded controls development, with MathWorks’ Simulink modelling environment being extensively used in the automotive industry. As production-scale Simulink models are typically large and complex, there exists a need to decompose them properly in order to facilitate their maintainability, understandability, and evolution. MathWorks recommends the use of three constructs for model “componentization” or decomposition: the Subsystem, Library, and Model Reference. However, a recently added construct, the Simulink Function, can also be used for this purpose, while also supporting information hiding due to the construct’s ability to be scoped and encapsulate data. This paper provides an in-depth comparison of these Simulink constructs to fully understand the differences in their reusability, sharing of program state, encapsulation, and code generation, with the goal of facilitating model evolution. An automotive powertrain example is provided to highlight the differences between approaches. Conventions for structuring models are also presented.
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Research on Simulation and Verification Platform of Vehicle-way Cooperative Algorithm Based on C-V2X

Anhui Jianghuai Automobile CO., LTD-Li Wei Bing, Wu Qiong
Chinese Academy of Sciences-Liang Hua Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1292
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The V2X system covers three broad categories scenario of security, efficiency, and service, and each type of scenario can be refined into a number of specific application scenarios. It is difficult to verify the V2X system protocol stack and the application scenario algorithm during the period of the actual vehicle verification, in which it is difficult to cover the real-vehicle application working conditions of the comprehensive V2X system, especially the complex traffic condition. In order to verify the reliability and stability of the V2X system under various application conditions, a vehicle-way cooperative algorithm development framework and its simulation and verification platform are proposed. The development and verification process of the vehicle-mounted system based on the V model is taken into account by the algorithm development framework and the simulation platform, and the cross-application between the traffic simulation and the network simulation is constructed based on the SUMO and the NS3. First, the platform utilizes Simulink to set up the V2X sub-segment application scenario algorithm, secondly it makes use of SUMO to construct the traffic scenario,…
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Lightweight design of automotive front end material-structure based on frontal collision

Nanjing Univ of Science & Technology-JIANGFAN ZHANG
Naveco Ltd-Xiaojun Zou, Liu-kai Yuan, Hualin Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0204
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The front end structure is an important role in protecting the vehicle and passengers from harm during the collision. Increasing its protective capacity can be achieved by increasing the thickness or replacing high-strength materials. Most of the current research is analyzed separately from these two aspects. This paper proposes a multi-objective optimization method based on agent model, which combines material and thickness selection. First, the optimized components are determined based on the 100% frontal collision simulation results. Secondly, six thicknesses and four materials of the front part of the vehicle body are selected as design variables to construct a material-structure integrated multi-objective optimization model. Taking the total mass and energy absorption of the research object as the optimization target, the B-pillar acceleration and the maximum intrusion of the dash panel are used as constraints, using the radial basis (RBF) proxy model and the second generation non-dominated genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) for lightweight design, the Pareto solution set is obtained, This optimization method can select the best material and component thickness combination scheme. Finally, by comparing the…
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Joint Calibration of Dual LiDARs and Camera using a Circular Chessboard

Tongji University-Zhenwen deng, Lu Xiong, Dong Yin, Fengwu Shan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Environment perception is a crucial subsystem in autonomous vehicles. In order to build safety and efficient traffic transportation, several researches have been proposed to build accurate, robust and real-time perception systems. Camera and LiDAR are widely mounted on self-driving cars and developed with many algorithms in recent years. The fusion system of camera and LiDAR provides state-of the-art methods for environmental perception due to the defects of single vehicular sensor. Extrinsic parameter calibration is able to align the coordinate systems of sensors and has been drawing enormous attention. However, differ from spatial alignment of two sensors’ data, joint calibration of multi-sensors (more than three devices) should balance the degree of alignment between each one. In this paper, we assemble a test platform which is made up of dual LiDARs and monocular camera and is the same as the sensing hardware architecture of intelligent sweeper designed by our laboratory. Meanwhile, we propose the related joint calibration method using a circular chessboard. The center of circular chessboard is respectively detected in camera image to get pixel coordinates…
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Evaluations of Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts from Open-Source 3D Printers and Conventional Manufacturing

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0229
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Manufacturing has always been synonymous with large factories, expansive machine tools, and sophisticated production lines. However, a new technology could revolutionize the sector: the three-dimensional printing (3D printing). 3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing method that allows the productions of engineering parts almost directly from modeling software on a computer. With 3D printing technology, future manufacturing could become vastly more efficient. However, the procedure used in 3D printing differs substantially among the printers and from those used in conventional manufacturing. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the mechanical properties of engineering products fabricated by 3D printing and conventional manufacturing. Three open-source 3D printers, i.e., the Flash Forge Dreamer, the Tevo Tornado, and the Prusa, were used to fabricate the identical parts out of the same material (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene - ABS). The parts were printed at various positions on the platforms of the printers and then tested in bending. Results indicate that there exist substantial differences in mechanical responses among the parts by different 3D printers. Specimens from the Prusa printer exhibit…
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Construction and simulation analysis of driving conditions of urban electric logistics vehicles

Nanjing Univ of Science & Technology-cheng qian, Liangmo Wang
Nanjing iveco automobile co. LTD-Xiaojun Zou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1042
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to reflect the real power consumption of a urban logistics electric vehicle, The real road data was collected by GPS device, and the sampling frequency was determined to be 1Hz. After preprocessing, the driving data reflecting the actual road vehicles are obtained, The short stroke analysis method was used to divide it into working blocks with a duration of no less than 20s. Three of the most representative 12 characteristic parameters are selected based on the principal component analysis method. In the end, k-means clustering algorithm is adopted to obtain the proportion of the number of various segments, according to which the segments with small deviation degree in each segment are selected for combination to construct the driving cycle of the urban logistics electric vehicle, Compared with NEDC, it has the characteristics of low average speed, high idling rate and short total driving distance. The avl-cruise software was used to build the vehicle model and load the driving cycle of urban logistics electric vehicles. Compared with the NEDC, the power consumption was lower,…
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Automated 3-D Printing Machine Bed Clearing Mechanism

Kettering Univ-Dalton Whitten, Jason Dietrich, Matt Donar, Colin Donar
Kettering Univ.-Raghu Echempati
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1301
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The work presented in this paper is based on the senior capstone class project undertaken by the student authors at Kettering University. The main aim of the project was to design an automated bed clearing mechanism for the Anet brand A8 3-D printer. The concept behind the idea was to allow everyone with this brand of printer to be able to print multiple prints without human interaction. The idea started out as a universal bed clearing mechanism, for most brands of 3-D printers. Upon researching into the many different styles and designs of printers, it was apparent that the designs differ too much from each other in order to create a universal product. The student team decided to aim for the most common style of 3-D printer, which the team also had a model to test the design. Due to the size of our team (number of members), they were split in to two sub-teams in order to explore two separate designs and develop the design and testing on both of the designs. Their designs…
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System Evaluation Method for Two Planetary Gears Multi-mode Hybrid Powertrain under Gray Relational Analysis Based on Fuzzy AHP and Entropy Weight Method

School of Automotive,Tongji University-Jiading GU, Zhiguo Zhao, Yi chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0430
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Millions of configurations of power-split hybrid powertrain can be generated due to the variation in number of planetary-gear sets (PG), the difference in number, type and installation location of shift actuators (clutches or brakes), and the difference in connection positions of power components. Considering the huge number of configurations, complex structures and control modes, it is vital to construct an appropriate multi-index system evaluation method, which directly affects the requirement fulfillment and the time and cost of 2-PG system configuration design. Considering one-sidedness (dynamic and economic performance), simplicity (linear combination of indicators) and subjectivity (relying on expert experience) of previous system evaluation method of 2-PG hybrid system design, a more systematic evaluation method is proposed in this paper. The proposed evaluation system consists of five categories, involving dynamic, economy, comfort, reliability and cost, and more than 20 indicators. To reduce the influence of the different experts' subjective opinions and the one-sidedness of objective data, a comprehensive system evaluation method based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), entropy weight method (EWM) and grey relational analysis (GRA)…