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Material Characterization of Extruded Aluminum Axial Tubes as Energy-Absorbing Structural Members

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ohio University, USA-Eboreime Ohioma, Frank Kraft, Sean Jenson
USA-Muhammad Ali
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0004
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The increasing use of aluminum alloy extrusion in automotive vehicle chassis as structural members has necessitated the need to investigate their crushing behaviors. This article experimentally examines in detail, for the first time with respect to strength, ductility, and microstructure, AA6063-T7 (overaged) condition and the standard T6 temper and their capacity to meet crashworthiness requirements. Both tempers were assessed based on their mechanical properties (strength, ductility, true stress/strain behavior to necking, plastic anisotropy, strain rate sensitivity, and post-instability ductility to fracture) and microstructure, which were determined using basic tensile testing methods and metallographic approach. The implications of these properties/microstructures were further assessed experimentally by investigating the crushing behavior and energy absorption capacities of two extruded geometric profiles: a general rectangular profile and a novel cross-shaped profile investigated in a previous study. Typical modes of collapse were observed for rectangular tubes. In the case of the cross-shaped tubes, geometric modifications in the form of horizontal grooves along the sidewalls were introduced to promote controlled, stable, and repeatable folding patterns during the collapse in addition to serving…
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Aluminum Alloy 2024, Bar, Rod, Shapes, Tube, and Wire, Extruded

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMSQQA200/3A
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers the specific requirements for aluminum alloy 2024 bar, rod, shapes, tube, and wire produced by extrusion.
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Aluminum Alloy, Bar, Rod, Shapes, Structural Shapes, Tube, and Wire, Extruded: General Specification for

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMSQQA200C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers the general requirements for aluminum alloy bar, rod, shapes, structural shapes, tube, and wire extruded. Specific requirements for these products in a particular alloy are covered by the applicable detailed specification (See 6.3).
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Aluminum Alloy, Extrusion 3.7Cu - 1.15Li - 0.5Zn - 0.45Ag - 0.4Mg - 0.3Mn - 0.1Zr (2055-T84) Solution Heat Treated, Stress Relieved by Stretching 2% to 5% and Aged

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4257
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, and profiles.
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Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Aromatic Fuel Resistant 65 - 75

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3215N
  • Current
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a nitrile (NBR) rubber in the form of sheet, strip, tubing, extrusions, and molded shapes.
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Reducing Risk with Geometric Transition Extrusion

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35498
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In an effort to design smaller, more intricate and complicated medical devices without running afoul of increasingly stringent national and international regulations, many designers are looking to geometric transition extrusions manufactured of high consistency rubber (HCR) silicone. This process reduces total cost of ownership for the original equipment manufacturer while improving part quality and greatly enhancing the types of devices being sought by healthcare providers.

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Aluminum Alloy Extrusions 7.9Zn - 1.6Cu - 2.2Mg - 0.16Cr (7249-T76511) Solution Heat Treated, Stress-Relieved, Straightened, and Overaged

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4293A
  • Current
Published 2019-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aluminum alloy procured in the form of extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles (shapes) and tubing up to 1.499 inches (38.07 mm), inclusive in nominal diameter or least thickness (bars, rods, wire, profiles) or nominal wall thickness (tubing) (see 8.6).
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Aluminum Alloy, Extrusions 1.0Mg - 0.60Si - 0.30Cu - 0.20Cr (6061-T6511 or T6510) Solution Heat Treated, Stress Relieved by Stretching, Straightened, and Precipitation Heat Treated

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4173G
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles, and tubing.
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Analogy of Thermal Properties of Polyamide 6 Reinforced with Glass Fiber and Glass Beads through FDM Process

Sri Krishna College of Engg and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Hari Nishok Rangasamy Suguna Thangaraj, Aravind Kumar Vasudevan, Dharshan Karthick Shanmugan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The essential target of this examination is to compare the morphological and thermal properties of two different polyamide composite blends with inventive thermal properties. The polyamide-6 (PA6) reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt. % glass fiber (GF) and PA6 reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt. % glass beads (GB) are the two different polyamide composite blends extruded in form of wire by twin screw extrusion process. The experimental study illustrates to print the specimens by means of Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM) based Three-Dimensional (3D) printer. The responses like morphology, Thermal Conductivity (TC) and Heat Distortion Temperature (HDT) of composites were observed. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis equal distribution of higher 30wt% GF and GB in the PA6 matrix was observed. The results compare the increasing thermal properties of the 3D printed specimen like TC and HDT with the enhancement of beads content during the investigation. The GB are crystalline material which improves the thermal properties of the PA6 matrix and the GF are dimensionally stable material that can provide high modulus…
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Manufacturing Process for Aluminum Alloys

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35274
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

An advanced manufacturing process was developed to produce nano-structured rods and tubes directly from high-performance aluminum alloy powder in a single step. Using a Solid Phase Processing approach, researchers eliminated several steps that are required during conventional extrusion processing of aluminum alloy powders and achieved a significant increase in product ductility (how far a material can stretch before it breaks).