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Ammonium Nitrate Formation and Decomposition on an Extruded Vanadium-Based SCR Catalyst

Cummins Emission Solutions-Nathan Ottinger, Yuanzhou Xi, Christopher Keturakis, Z. Gerald Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1320
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the formation and decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) on a state-of-the-art extruded vanadium-based SCR catalyst (V-SCR) under simulated exhaust conditions has been evaluated. Results show that AN readily forms and accumulates at temperatures below 200°C when exposed to NH3 and NO2. The rate of AN accumulation increases with decreasing temperature. A new low temperature NH3 release peak (not present following NH3 storage conditions with NH3 only) becomes apparent after AN accumulation at 100 and 125°C. This new NH3 release, with a peak release temperature of approximately 180°C, is evaluated in detail to better determine its origin. BET surface area, and thermal gravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and reactor-based experiments are all used to characterize AN formed on the V-SCR catalyst in comparison to pure AN. Experiments on pure AN crystals reveal that the new low temperature NH3 peak is attributable to the release of NH3 from AN that is not related to AN volatilization, since this does not occur until above T > 200°C.This study expands the present understanding of AN formation…
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Fatigue Evaluation of Flow Drill Screw Joints Using the Equilibrium-Based Structural Stress Method

Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus-Jeong Hong, Gery Wilkowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0189
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the increasing demands for light-weight design in the automotive industry, the use of thinner and lighter materials such as aluminum alloys for automotive parts has led to significant weight reduction. The joining of these materials has required development of new technologies in joining/fastening rather than welding. Flow drill screwing is one of the latest technologies created to fasten sheet metal panels.This paper discusses results of an evaluation of fatigue characteristics of flow drill screw (FDS) joints based on experimental data and observations from the literature. It was observed that the important fatigue-related geometric parameters of FDS joints were the gap between sheets and the extruded (or bulged) zone during screwing. Major failure modes were observed such as sheet failures where cracks grow from the inner surface of the sheet and around the extruded zone.In this paper, the fatigue evaluation procedure for FDS joints using the mesh-insensitive equilibrium-based structural stress (ESS) method was used. The ESS-based simplified modeling procedure was used for the fatigue-evaluation procedure for FDS joints. The effectiveness and applicability of the…
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Multi-Material Topology Optimization Considering Manufacturing Constraints

General Motors of Canada Company-Manish Pamwar, Balbir Sangha
Queen's University-Vishrut Shah, Kiarash Kashanian, Il Yong Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0628
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The field of topology optimization (TO) has been evolving rapidly, notably due to the emergence of multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) algorithms. These developments follow the establishment of TO tools within industry, which has been accelerated and promoted through the introduction of various manufacturing constraints within algorithms. The integration of manufacturing constraints within MMTO is critical for promoting industry usage and adoption of these new software algorithms, as current usage of MMTO is dissuaded by the typically complex design solutions.The presented MMTO implementation is an extension of classical single-material topology optimization (SMTO). The TO problem is expanded to consider both material existence and selection, solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) is utilized for material interpolation. The method of moving asymptotes (MMA) has been integrated into MMTO as the optimization algorithm as it can handle large-scale problems with many design variables.A design variable mapping system has been incorporated into MMTO, which determines element groups based on symmetry or extrusion manufacturing constraints. The design variables of the group elements are constrained to equivalent values, resulting in either extruded…
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Motorcycle Chassis Design Utilizing Multi-Material Topology Optimization

General Motors of Canada Company-Manish Pamwar, Balbir Sangha
Queen's University-Kiarash Kashanian, Vishrut Shah, Il Yong Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0509
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Evolving fuel efficiency and emissions standards, along with consumer demand for performance, are strong pressures for light-weighting of performance oriented motorcycles. The field of topology optimization (TO), with the extension of multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) provide manufacturers with advanced structural light-weighting methodology. TO methodology has been adopted in many industries, including automotive where light-weighting assists in meeting efficiency regulations. The development of process specific manufacturing constraints within MMTO is a critical step in increasing adoption within industries dealing with manufacturing cost restrictions. This capability can decrease design complexity, lowering manufacturing costs of optimization solutions.A conventional all-aluminum perimeter style motorcycle chassis is analyzed to develop baseline compliance (total strain energy) metrics. An MMTO design space is created and optimized with steel and aluminum, such that results match the baseline design weight. This formulation demonstrates increased structural efficiency through stiffer structures at equivalent weight. Results are generated with standard MMTO, symmetry, and extrusion constraints to demonstrate utility of these manufacturing constraints. Material ratios are used to enforce lower cost material distribution selections.The usage of MMTO with manufacturing…
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Aluminum Alloy, Extruded Rod, Bar and Profiles (7055-T74511) 8.0Zn - 2.3Cu - 2.0Mg - 0.16Zr Solution Heat Treated, Stress-Relieved, and Overaged

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4324B
  • Current
Published 2020-02-10 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, and profiles (shapes) produced with a cross sectional area of 24 square inches (155 square centimeters) maximum and a circumscribing circle (see 8.3) diameter (circle size) of 10.5 inches (267 mm) maximum, with a nominal thickness up to 3.000 inch (76.20 mm), inclusive (see 8.6).
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Ring - Back-Up, Boss Connection, AMS3678/1 Material

A-6C2 Seals Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS9058D
  • Current
Published 2020-01-03 by SAE International in United States
This standard establishes the dimensional and visual quality requirements, lot requirements, and packaging and labeling requirements for back-up rings machined from AMS3678/1 polytetrafluoroethylene materials for use in AS5202 ports. It shall be used for procurement purposes.
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Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Hot Oil Resistant, Low Swell 75 - 85

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3229K
  • Current
Published 2020-01-03 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a nitrile (NBR) rubber in the form of sheet, strip, tubing, extrusions, and molded shapes.
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Options for Reducing Friction When Using Silicone Elastomers

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35769
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Silicone has a long and proven history of use with medical devices and can provide many benefits, from flexibility to cushioning. When working with some medical devices, however, silicones can present challenges due to an inherent surface tack. The surface of cured silicone elastomers is sometimes characterized by a high coefficient of friction (CoF), some degree of tackiness, and a tendency for blocking (sticking to itself by virtue of chemical affinity). These characteristics may need to be addressed in applications that require a molded or extruded silicone component to move or slide with minimal friction. Blocking is particularly evident in slit valves, for example, where the two sides of the silicone part touch each other and “heal,” or close the slit.

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Material Characterization of Extruded Aluminum Axial Tubes as Energy-Absorbing Structural Members

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ohio University, USA-Muhammad Ali, Eboreime Ohioma, Frank Kraft, Sean Jenson
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0004
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The increasing use of aluminum alloy extrusion in automotive vehicle chassis as structural members has necessitated the need to investigate their crushing behaviors. This article experimentally examines in detail, for the first time with respect to strength, ductility, and microstructure, AA6063-T7 (overaged) condition and the standard T6 temper and their capacity to meet crashworthiness requirements. Both tempers were assessed based on their mechanical properties (strength, ductility, true stress/strain behavior to necking, plastic anisotropy, strain rate sensitivity, and post-instability ductility to fracture) and microstructure, which were determined using basic tensile testing methods and metallographic approach. The implications of these properties/microstructures were further assessed experimentally by investigating the crushing behavior and energy absorption capacities of two extruded geometric profiles: a general rectangular profile and a novel cross-shaped profile investigated in a previous study. Typical modes of collapse were observed for rectangular tubes. In the case of the cross-shaped tubes, geometric modifications in the form of horizontal grooves along the sidewalls were introduced to promote controlled, stable, and repeatable folding patterns during the collapse in addition to serving…
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Aluminum Alloy 2024, Bar, Rod, Shapes, Tube, and Wire, Extruded

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMSQQA200/3A
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers the specific requirements for aluminum alloy 2024 bar, rod, shapes, tube, and wire produced by extrusion.
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