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Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

Sharda Motor industries limited ( R&D )-Rajadurai S
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2539
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered. Heat protection of about 75% is achieved ( from 614°C to 140°C) using different insulation materials. Sheet metal thicknesses from 0.15 mm to 1 mm with different manufacturing processes are used in the wrap around, closed and open type protections. Computational simulation and…
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Design, Development and Analysis of Mullite Catalytic Converter for CI Engines

Kongu Engineering College-Selvakumar Pandiaraj, Dhamotharan Subbaiyan, Tamilvanan Ayyasamy, Sathishkumar Nagarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0017
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Emissions of Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) are the largest concerns for fossil fuel driven automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter is an important component in the selective catalytic reduction process. It oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. Different kinds of problems are associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. A catalytic converter with a new catalyst for compression ignition engine is considered in this study. The catalytic converter is designed and developed with a new catalyst. Due to better durable characteristics and poison resistant nature, non-noble metal based material limestone (mullite) is selected as a catalyst for catalytic convertor and the emission characteristics are studied on four stroke single cylinder CI engine by using mullite based catalytic converter. The results are compared without catalytic converter in the same engine. In the design stage, the back pressure analysis is performed on perforated mullite plate with ANSYS software. After arriving satisfactory results, the design is taken for development. The…
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Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

Crescent Institute of Science and Technology-Tiruvannamalai Rajendra Prasad Tamilarasan
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Raj Rajendran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0178
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings. This work focuses on the evaluation of corrosion and corrosive wear resistance of hard chrome plating (HCP), hot dip aluminized coatings (HDA), spray aluminized coatings (SA), electroless nickel…
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Design and Development of an Exhaust Muffler with Improved Transmission Loss for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

Prince Shri Venkateshwara Engg. College-Edison Rajasingh
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundararaj Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0046
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the last two decades, most of the advances in exhaust systems such as acoustic filters and mufflers had been developed to attenuate noise levels and emissions as per environment norms. The purpose of this research work is to design, analyze and test an exhaust muffler in order to determine the pressure drop and noise reduction in the exhaust system. Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations were performed using ANSYS Fluent 16.2. The muffler diameter and length were chosen where as perforations and baffles were also considered so as to have the maximum pressure drop and noise reduction. This study is aimed at investigating a reactive perforated muffler. Several designs were considered for maximum pressure drop and the best was finally selected for manufacturing. Experimental testing was carried out with the finalized muffler prototype. Further the validation was done on a muffler in which the inlet pressure was found lower than that of the simulated results but the experimental outlet pressure was found higher than the simulated results. The backpressure was found to be less due to…
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Experimental and Numerical Prediction of the Pressure Drop Reduction of Catalytic Converter under Various Mass Flow Rate of Exhaust Gas for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

Prince Shri Venkateshwara Engg. College-Edison Rajasingh
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundararaj Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0030
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, Diesel emission control strategies are stringent across the globe which caused the rise in need of diesel after treat treatment devices that are more reliable and efficient. The optimized design of the catalytic converter aids in the durability of the product as well as the improvement in efficient operation of the Indian driving cycle. By changing the convergent and divergent cone angles of the catalytic converter, the consequential decrease in pressure drop leads to efficient flow of exhaust gases.The purpose of this study is to design, test, and analyse the catalytic converter in order to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated diesel engine using both experimental and CFD techniques. In this study, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalytic Converter is investigated. For numerical analysis, ANSYS Fluent is used. Validation is done on baseline Catalytic converter pressure drop results obtained both numerically and experimentally for various speeds conditions and it is found that a reasonably good agreement exists. From the analytical calculations, Catalytic converter diameter, length and Cone angle are…
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A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Grigorios Koltsakis, Zissis Samaras
EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Viola Papetti, Jakub Rojewski, Patrik Soltic
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on. This co-simulation environment is validated against a real engine configuration which was instrumented and tested at EMPA labs. A 4-cylinder SI, turbocharged, CNG engine is investigated at different loads and revolution speeds, to…
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A Simple Approach for the Estimation of the Exhaust Noise Source at the Valves

CMT-Universitat Politècnica de València-Antonio J. Torregrosa, Pablo Olmeda
Renault SAS-Jean-luc Adam, Florent Morin, Maxime Dubarry
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust noise emission is the result of the propagation of pressure perturbations along the exhaust line, whose primary source is the instantaneous mass flow rate across the exhaust valves. In this paper, a model for the estimation of this magnitude is presented, which has two main objectives: the first one is to provide a representation of the engine as an exhaust noise source as independent as possible on the exhaust system; the second one to allow for the estimation of the exhaust mass flow in such cases where the full set of data required by a conventional gas-dynamic simulation is not available. The model presented uses a reduced set of geometrical and operation data, which can be either representative for a given engine family, or even target values for an engine still not fully defined. It is based on the estimation of in-cylinder variables at exhaust opening by means of a First-Law approach to the closed cycled, starting from rather general data on the energy balance of the engine. Then, conventional gas-dynamic equations are solved,…
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Experimental and Computational Investigation of Particle Filtration Mechanisms in Partially Damaged DPFs

University of Thessaly-Onoufrios Haralampous, Marios Mastrokalos, Fotini Tzorbatzoglou, Chris Dritselis
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Understanding the filtration mechanisms in partially damaged Diesel Particulate Filters is very important for the design of exhaust systems with efficient On-Board Diagnosis functionality, especially as new threshold limits have been recently applied for particulate mass leakage. Two common types of DPF failure are included in this study, namely rear plug removal and internal failure due to uncontrolled regeneration with excessive deposit loading. Initially, the two respective filters were loaded on the engine bench with particle measurement upstream and downstream, and then they were disassembled and sectioned to study the deposit distribution. The analysis of the second filter revealed several modes of failure that should be expected under real-life conditions such as material accumulation in the inlet channels, substrate melting, and crosswise and diagonal crack development. Moreover, a computational model with the necessary adjustments is used to simulate the loading experiments and interpret the underlying filtration mechanisms. The processed results reveal small effects of temperature and mass flow rate on the filtration efficiency and a comparatively stronger impact of the total deposit loading. The local…
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JCB prepared to meet EU Stage V emissions

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2019

Dan Gilkes
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP08_09
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

JCB is preparing to offer Stage V compliant engines across its equipment lines, with updates to its own engine range and changes to supplier models. Group director of engines Alan Tolley said that the company has preferred to tackle emissions within the combustion system, rather than simply adding aftertreatment to the exhaust system; however, for Stage V, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) will become necessary.

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On the Measurement and Simulation of Flow-Acoustic Sound Propagation in Turbochargers

FEV Europe GmbH-Ralf Stienen
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Hendrik Ruppert, Felix Falke, Stefan Pischinger, Marco Günther
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines are increasingly being equipped with turbochargers to increase performance and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Being part of exhaust and intake systems, the turbocharger strongly influences the orifice noise emission. Although 1D-CFD simulations are commonly used for the development of intake and exhaust systems, validated acoustic turbocharger models are not yet state-of-the-art. Consequently, the aim of the paper is the investigation of the turbocharger’s influence on the orifice noise and the development of an accurate 1D-CFD model.The passive acoustic transmission loss was measured for a wide operating range of four turbochargers, including wastegate and VTG-system variations. Low frequency attenuation is dominated by impedance discontinuities, increasing considerably with mass flow and pressure ratio. High frequency transmission loss is generated by destructive interferences in the stator, which depend on the stator mass flow distribution and the turbocharger size.A new generic turbocharger model was developed to model both low frequency impedance discontinuities and high-frequency interferences by linking an idealized stator geometry with potential sources and turbocharger performance maps. In this way, high acoustic and thermodynamic…
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