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Experimental High Temperature Analysis of a Low-Pressure Diesel Spray for DPF Regeneration

Continental Automotive Systems US Inc-Nic Van Vuuren
Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Lucio Postrioti, Gabriele Brizi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0035
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the current automotive scenario, particulate filter technology is mandatory in order to attain emission limits in terms of particulate matter for diesel engines. Despite the fact that the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is often considered a mature technology, significant issues can result from the use of the engine fuel injectors to introduce into the exhaust pipe the fuel needed to ignite the particulate matter accumulated in the filter during its regeneration. The most important issue is lubricant oil dilution with fuel as a consequence of significant spray impact on the cylinder liner. As an alternative, the fuel required to start DPF regeneration can be introduced in the exhaust pipe by an auxiliary low-pressure injector spraying in the hot exhaust gas stream. In these conditions, the spray evolution and its possible interaction with the surrounding gas stream are relevant in order to better identify the overall layout of the system, so as to have the fuel vaporized at the DPF inlet section.In the present paper, a detailed spray analysis of a low pressure diesel spray…
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Experimental Study of Acoustic and Thermal Performance of Sound Absorbers with Microperforated Aluminum Foil

General Motors-Gang Glenn Yin, Alan Parrett, Timothy J. Roggenkamp
General Motors De Mexico S de R L de CV-Felipe G. Salazar Prieto
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Aluminum foil applied to the surface of sound absorbing materials has broad application in the automotive industry. A foil layer offers thermal insulation for components close to exhaust pipes, turbo chargers, and other heat sources in the engine compartment and underbody. It can also add physical protection for acoustic parts in water-splash or stone-impingement areas of the vehicle exterior. It is known that adding impermeable plain foil will impact the sound absorption negatively, so Microperforated Aluminum Foil (MPAF) is widely used to counteract this effect. Acoustic characteristics of MPAF can be modeled analytically, but deviation of perforation size and shape, variation of hole density, material compression, and adhesive applied to the back of the foil for the molding process can impact the acoustic and thermal insulation performance. Because we cannot rely on analytical tools to generate accurate performance of these materials in a production environment, this paper will focus on the acoustic and thermal experimental characterization of these materials. Studies were conducted on flat test samples which have commonly used MPAF applied to the top…
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Experimental Analysis of SCR Spray Evolution and Sizing in High-Temperature and Flash Boiling Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Continental Automotive Systems US Inc., USA-Nic van
Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Italy-Gabriele Brizi, Lucio Postrioti
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0006
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
In the last years, new stringent emission legislation in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) has been leading to a massive development of advanced after-treatment systems for diesel engines. Among them, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has proved to be an effective approach for NOx reduction in a wide range of engine operating conditions. In SCR systems, the interaction between diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) and hot exhaust gas is crucial to promote the chemical reactions through which ammonia is produced. Hence, a proper matching between the exhaust pipe architecture and the DEF spray is mandatory for obtaining an adequate SCR efficiency, especially in close-coupled configurations and moderate exhaust gas temperature conditions. To this end, significant benefits could be derived via appropriate SCR injector thermal management, as the spray structure is significantly influenced by the DEF temperature upstream of the injector nozzle. In this article, the results of a spray analysis campaign carried out on a prototype DEF dosing system are presented. The goal of this research is to investigate the influence of both air and DEF…
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Development of Intelligent Power Unit for 2018 Model Year Accord Hybrid

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Jun Machida, Naoyoshi Madoka, Shogo Hayase
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A compact intelligent power unit capable of being installed under the rear seating was developed for the 2018 model year Accord Hybrid that is to be equipped with the SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) system. The space under the rear seat features multiple constraints on dimensions. In the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupant leg room and to position the fuel tank; in the vertical direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupants comfort and a minimum ground clearance; and in the lateral direction, it is necessary to avoid the position of the body side frames and the penetrating section of the exhaust pipe. The technologies described below were applied in order to reduce the size of components, making it possible to position the IPU amid these constraint conditions. The number of series-connected cells in each lithium-ion battery module was increased from 18 to 36, making it possible to reduce the number of modules from four to two, reducing the size of the battery pack against…
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Development and Experimental Validation of a Control Oriented Model of a Catalytic DPF

Università di Salerno-Federica D'Aniello, Bruno Rossomando, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
1The wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the most common after-treatment system used to meet the particulate emissions regulations for automotive engines. Today’s technology shows the best balance between filtration efficiency and back-pressure in the engine exhaust pipe. During the accumulation phase the pressure drop across the filter increases, thus requiring periodic regeneration of the DPF through after and post fuel injection strategies. This paper deals with the development of a control oriented model of a catalytic silicon carbide (SiC) wall flow DPFs with CuFe2O4 loading for automotive Diesel engines. The model is intended to be used for the real-time management of the regeneration process, depending on back-pressure and thermal state. In order to ensure suitable computational demand and to realize emissions control and fuel economy objectives, the 0-D model has been developed with the aim of investigating the essential behavior of the system, such as the chemical kinetic of filtered soot oxidation, the thermal and backpressure dynamics along accumulation and regeneration processes. Parameters identification and model validation have been performed vs. experimental data…
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Spray Characterization of the Urea-Water Solution (UWS) Injected in a Hot Air Stream Analogous to SCR System Operating Conditions

Universitat Politècnica de València-Raul Payri, Gabriela Bracho, Jaime Gimeno, Armando Moreno
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system has great potential in reducing NOx emissions. The urea-water solution (UWS) is the preferred method on vehicles for obtaining the ammonia, the required reductant for SCR. The UWS spray is necessary to transform exhaust gas into nitrogen and water and plays an important role in the performance of this system.The UWS needs to be properly mixed with the exhaust gas coming from the engine before entering the SCR, therefore the solution must be injected in the exhaust pipe in a way that it completely vaporizes in order to reduce deposit formation and guaranteeing a proper functioning and durability of the NOx reduction system. Achieving complete vaporization of the UWS spray is not an easy task, mainly due to reduced package space. Another challenge for converting UWS to ammonia is the latent energy in the exhaust. In order to understand the behavior of the spray under operating conditions it is necessary to study the influence of numerous parameters that affect the development of the spray atomization and vaporization.The present article…
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Agglomeration and Nucleation of Non-Volatile Particles in a Particle Grouping Exhaust Pipe of a Euro VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Arun Prasath K, Hanna Bernemyr, Anders Erlandsson
Scania CV AB-Ola Stenlaas
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The possibility of non-volatile particle agglomeration in engine exhaust was experimentally examined in a Euro VI heavy duty engine using a variable cross section agglomeration pipe, insulated and double walled for minimal thermophoresis. The agglomeration pipe was located between the turbocharger and the exhaust treatment devices. Sampling was made across the pipe and along the centre-line of the agglomeration pipe. The performance of the agglomeration pipe was compared with an equivalent insulated straight pipe. The non-volatile total particle number and size distribution were investigated. Particle number measurements were conducted according to the guidelines from the Particle Measurement Programme. The Engine was fuelled with commercially available low sulphur S10 diesel. Experiments conducted in heavy duty engine relevant operating points were done to sweep the effect of (i) Mass flow rate in the exhaust (ii) Temperature in the exhaust and (iii) Engine speed and thus exhaust pressure pulsation frequencies in the exhaust. The test matrix included eleven operating points at steady-state. The results show that, using the agglomeration pipe, neither significant non-volatile particle reduction nor noticeable change…
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Water Load Determination Approach in Two Wheeler Exhaust System

Bosch Limited-Ranjana Kumari Meena
Robert Bosch GmbH-Andrea Krusch, Konrad Meister, Christopher Holzknecht
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Future emission norms in India (BS6) necessitates the 2 wheeler industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Engine operation at stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) would result in a good performance, durability and least emissions. To keep the AFR close to stoichiometric condition, an Oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust system, which detects if air-fuel mixture is rich (λ<1) or lean (λ>1) and provides feedback to fuel injection system for suitable fuel control.O2 sensor has a ceramic element, which needs to be heated to a working temperature for its functioning. The ceramic element would break (thermal shock) if water in liquid form comes in contact with it when the element is hot. To counter this, oxygen sensor is either fully heated only when all the water in the exhaust system is evaporated, which results in delayed closed loop control, or is capable to withstand higher amount of water in the exhaust system by for example being applied with thermal shock protection and a protective tube. It’s a challenge to control the HC emissions during first…
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Experimental Testing of a Low Temperature Regenerating Catalytic DPF at the Exhaust of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

University of Salerno-Bruno Rossomando, Ivan Arsie, Eugenio Meloni, Vincenzo Palma, Cesare Pianese
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the most common after-treatment system used to meet the particulate emission limits imposed by government regulations. Today’s technology shows the best balance between filtration efficiency and back-pressure in the engine exhaust pipe. Conventional filters consist in alternately plugged parallel square channels, so that the exhaust gases flow through the porous inner walls leading to particles trapping. During the accumulation phase the pressure drop across the filter increases, thus requiring periodic regeneration of the DPF through after and post fuel injection strategies.This paper deals with the experimental testing of a catalytic silicon carbide (SiC) wall flow DPFs with CuFe2O4 loading. The filter was built following an optimized procedure based on a preliminary controlled chemical erosion of the SiC porous structure. Such method allows increasing the initial average pore diameter of the bare filters and consequently the deposition of higher catalyst load without affecting the pressure drop.The experimental tests were performed at the exhaust of a EURO V light-duty Diesel engine, operating at different speed/load conditions. The results exhibit…
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Modelling of a Coupled Catalyst and Particulate Filter for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

Coventry University-Remus Cirstea, Essam F. Abo-Serie, Christophe Bastien, Hua Guo
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
There has been extensive research in the development of Gasoline Direct Injection ‘GDI’ engine exhaust systems with the aim of reducing engine-out emissions and meeting legislation requirements. Depending on the room available for packaging the exhaust system, the engine may be equipped with a single catalyst or two catalysts one close to the engine and another one located further downstream. With the strict particulate matter emission regulations of GDI engine, the engine has to be equipped with a Gasoline Particulate Filter ‘GPF’ in addition to the Closed Coupled Catalyst ‘CCC’. The common practice is to have the GPF further downstream the catalyst. In this paper, an assessment method is carried for a new design of a hot end exhaust system. The new design brings the GPF closer to ‘CCC’ to be packed in the same enclosure. The gas flow velocity and pressure distributions inside the exhaust system are identified using CFD for a uniform exhaust gas flow inlet conditions. The system also has been investigated considering a typical inlet exhaust gas flow conditions from a…
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