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Ammonia Measurement Investigation Using Quantum Cascade Laser and Two Different Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Methods

Caterpillar UK Ltd-Richard Barrett, Jim Baxter
Loughborough university-Nilton Li, Ashraf El-Hamalawi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0365
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Most diesel engine exhausts have been fitted with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reduction) in order to reduce NOX (Oxides of Nitrogen) by using NH3 (ammonia). However, both NOX and NH3 have been classified as compounds hazardous for the environment and human health. If the reaction between NOX and NH3 is unbalanced during treatment, it can lead to either NOX or NH3 being released into the environment. Accurate measurement is thus necessary. QCL (Quantum Cascade Laser) and FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) are two methods that have been used to measure NH3 and NOX directly in diesel engine exhausts. However, only a few studies have compared those two methods of NH3 measurement, mainly from diesel engine exhausts. The aim of this paper is to compare the QCL and 2 different FTIR specifications for NH3 measurement directly from diesel engine exhausts under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Researchers have found that as NH3 is reactive, it is absorbed inside the exhaust pipe if the probe location is some distance away from the SCR. The results reported here contradict this and show…
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Real-world Emission Analysis Methods Using Sensor-based Emission Measurement System

Ibaraki University-Kotaro Tanaka
NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.-Takeshi Tange
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0381
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Every year, due to exhaust gas regulations that are getting stricter, the average air pollution is going to be solved, but the local roadside pollution is still pressing issue. In order to solve this local roadside pollution problem, it is necessary to evaluate and/or predict “where” and “how much” pollutants such as NOx are emitted. In recent years, Real Driving Emission regulations using PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) have been introduced mainly in Europe. However, PEMS has a configuration close to 100 kg, and its weight affects the driving conditions of vehicles running on actual roads. In this study, we focused on the analysis of real world emissions using SEMS (Sensor-based / Simple Emission Measurement System). Whereas PEMS is a method of sampling and analyzing exhaust gas, SEMS directly attaches NOx sensor and PM sensor to the exhaust pipe and measures the concentration. Although SEMS has a limited number of items that can be measured compared to PEMS, other analyzes are possible by devising the analysis method. This paper focuses on the analysis method of…
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The effects of intake pressure on in-cylinder gas velocities in an optically accessible single-cylinder research engine

ETH Zurich-Karri Keskinen, George Giannakopoulos, Konstantinos Boulouchos
TU Darmstadt-Cooper Welch, Marius Schmidt, Andreas Dreizler, Benjamin Boehm
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0792
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow in the intake pipe and cylinder in an optically accessible single-cylinder research engine were taken to better understand the effects of intake pressure variations on the flow field. At a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm, the optical research engine at Technische Universität Darmstadt was operated at six different intake pressure loads from 0.4 to 0.95 bar under motored operation. The average velocity fields show that the tumble center position is located closer to the piston and velocity magnitudes decrease with increasing pressure load. A closer investigation of the intake flow near the valves reveals sharp temporal gradients and differences in maximum and minimum velocity with varying intake pressure load which are attributed to intake pressure fluctuations. Despite measures to eliminate acoustic oscillations in the intake system, the pressure fluctuations are believed to be caused by the intake valve opening as air from the exhaust pipe in the exhaust stroke flows back into the intake pipe, exciting acoustic modes in the fluid volume. This phenomenon is much stronger…
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Relevance of Exhaust Aftertreatment System Degradation for EU7 Gasoline Engine Applications

FEV Europe GmbH-Michael Görgen, Jim Cox, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Stefan Sterlepper, Johannes Claßen, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0382
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust aftertreatment systems must function sufficiently over the full useful life of a vehicle. In Europe this is currently defined as 160.000 km. With the introduction of Euro 7 it is expected that the required mileage will be extended to 240.000 km. This will then be consistent with the US legislation.In order to quantify the emission impact of exhaust system degradation, an Euro 7 exhaust aftertreatment system is aged by different accelerated approaches: application of the Standard Bench Cycle, the ZDAKW cycle, a novel ash loading method and borderline aging. The results depict the impact of oil ash on the oxygen storage capacity. For tailpipe emissions, the maximum peak temperatures are the dominant aging factor. The cold start performance is effected by both, thermal degradation and ash accumulation.An evaluation of this emission increase requires appropriate benchmarks. For this purpose, an analysis of the emission impacts of ambient temperatures, driving modes and particulate filter regenerations follows. The comparison shows the severe impact of very low ambient conditions. Considering the high statistical relevance of catalyst degradation however,…
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Exhaust Gas Sensor with High Water Splash Resistant Layer for Lower Emission

DENSO CORPORATION-Shota Imada, Takumi Ushikubo
Toyota Motor Corporation-Hiroki Nishijima, Yoshiharu Miyake, Go Hayashita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0565
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent regulations call for the reduction of emissions at engine startup to purify exhaust gas and reduce the amount of CO2 emitted. Air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors detect the composition of exhaust gas and provide feedback to control the fuel injection quantity in order to ensure the optimal functioning of the catalytic converter. Reducing the time needed to obtain feedback control and enabling the restriction-free installation of A/F sensors can help meet regulations. Conventional sensors do not activate feedback control immediately after engine startup as the combination of high temperatures and splashes of condensed water in the exhaust pipe can cause thermal shock to the sensor element. Moreover, sensors need to be installed near the engine to increase the catalyst reaction efficiency. This increases the possibility of water splash from the condensed water in the catalyst. Therefore, to achieve both a quick feedback control and restriction-free installation, the development of a high water splash resistance exhaust gas sensor is necessary. As a means to improve water splash resistance, we focused on the water repellent function…
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Development of fast idle catalyst light-off strategy for Gasoline Compression Ignition engine – Part 1

Engine Fuel & Emissions Engineering Inc.-Vallinayagam Raman
Saudi Aramco-Yoann Viollet, Junseok Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0316
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The present investigation pertains to the development of fast idle catalyst light-off strategy for a light duty gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine. The engine cold start fast idle operation poses a problem of increased criteria emissions if the catalyst is not activated during the warm up period. Therefore, a control strategy is proposed here to minimize the criteria pollutants during the fast idle phase via enabling fast catalyst light off in a GCI engine and relying on the spark ignition of a globally stoichiometric fuel air mixture. The engine has unique design features such as certain geometry configuration between spark plug and fuel injector arrangement, and the location of spark plug in a high compression ratio (CR) diesel-like combustion chamber. The experiments were performed in a single cylinder GCI engine at cold start fast idle conditions using certification gasoline fuel (RON 91). Split fuel injection and extremely retarded spark timing strategy are applied to generate high enthalpy flow in the exhaust pipe with reduced hydrocarbon and other emissions, improved combustion stability, and fuel economy. Based…
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Sensor Integrated Substrate for Future Exhaust System of Two Wheelers

Vitesco Technologies Japan. K.K., Vitesco Technologies Emite-KOSAKU ITO, SVEN SEIFERT, FRANCOIS JAYAT, THOMAS CARTUS
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0617
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
By upcoming new global two wheelers emission legislation, it is expected that it will become more and more challenging to control exhaust emissions. Therefore, not only optimized catalyst specifications to meet OBDII or RDE, but also new components will be required for future applications in two-wheeler exhaust systems. In such applications, beneath applying new components, it is necessary to ensure mountability while maintaining vehicle design but improving function of the exhaust system at the same time. As exhaust system layout of two wheelers is generally strongly limited by many factors, such as steeply bended exhaust pipes and catalysts which are hard to resize, one of the most challenging tasks is the positioning of sensor behind the catalyst, due to two wheelers unique exhaust design. In order to overcome the challenge, this work describes designs like the catalyst with integrated lambda sensor, which is developed to contribute to high efficient future two wheelers exhaust systems.
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Visualization and Analysis of Droplets Behavior in Aftertreatment Systems:II. Improvement of Vaporization Efficiency by Surface Texturing

Department School of Mechanical Engineering, Tokai Universit-Masayuki OCHIAI
Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka--Naoki SUGIYAMA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0612
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Diesel engines contain Nitrogen oxides (NOx) in exhaust gases, and is considered to be problematic in view of the environment. For worldwide NOx emission control, Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) dosing systems are widely used in aftertreatment systems. A mixer of the urea aqueous solution is placed between the injector and SCR catalysts and is used to provide good ammonia uniformity in SCR catalysts. It is very important to mix and evaporate the urea aqueous solution at short-distance using the optimum the mixer blade geometry. In this paper, the collision behavior of droplets into textured mixer surface materials are investigated by visualization experiment by backlight method. Then, several surface texture types were proposed as a means to improve the atomization performance of droplets by the mixer. In order to verify the performance of droplet atomization by the textures, a visualization experiment of droplet behavior was conducted using a simple experimental device including high-speed camera. Furthermore, the droplet diameter distribution before and after collision was calculated using the visualization results. Various conditions of droplet diameters were measured…
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Visualization and Analysis of Droplets Behavior in Aftertreatment Systems: I. Experimental Study by Acrylic SCR Dosing Simulator

Tokai University-Tetsuo Nohara, Naoki Sugiyama, Masayuki Ochiai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0613
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Diesel engines have been extensively used as a primary power source for truck and off-road applications. Exhaust gas emissions from the engines, in particular Nitrogen oxides (NOx) is reduced using Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) dosing systems in aftertreatment systems. The injection of urea aqueous solution spray in the exhaust pipe of the small off-road diesel engines significantly eliminate NOx emissions. However, the crystallization of urea from the evaporative aqueous solution droplets and wall deposit formation in exhaust pipes are main issues in SCR dosing systems. The issues are critical deterioration of performance in aftertreatment systems. Nevertheless, the visualization study hasn't been investigated for the inside of exhaust pipes yet. This paper describes visualization experiments of the injected droplets behavior by Acrylic SCR dosing simulator. First visualization technique was applied measuring the gas flow distribution and directions with a smoke generator. Then, the injected spray and droplets behavior are validated with actual application conditions. The details of droplets behavior with gas distributions were confirmed by multiple Highspeed video cameras and PIV (Particle image velocimetry) analysis. From…
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Investigating the impact of gasoline lubricity on the high pressure pumps operation

EMC France-MOISY Ludovic
Total Additifs & Carburants Spéciaux-DUBOIS Thomas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2213
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Ever stringent emissions regulations have led the car manufacturers to optimize the combustion occurring inside Internal Combustion Engines as well as post-treating the emissions coming from the exhaust pipe. In particular, this led in the late 90's to the introduction of high pressure injection systems inside Diesel engines. This created a tricky situation in which at the same time, the state-of-the-art Diesel engines were requiring more lubricity from the fuel (to make the high pressure pump operate in proper conditions) while the lubricity of the fuels were decreasing due to the removal of sulphur & polar compounds. To cope with this, a method for measuring the lubricity of fuels has been developed (i.e. the HFRR test) and the use of lubricity additives became usual.Lately, as it is the case for Diesel engines, the Gasoline Direct Injection engines are using higher and higher injection pressures. The state of the art GDI engines are currently using injection pressure as high as 500 bar. A lot of work is also currently ongoing on Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines…
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