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On-Engine Performance Evaluation of New-Concept Turbocharger Compressor Housing Design

Imperial College London-Ricardo F. Martinez-Botas
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Takao Yokoyama, Yutaka Fujita, Motoki Ebisu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1012
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Following the market demands in finding the niche balance between engine performance and legislation requirement, a new compressor scroll has been designed for small to medium size passenger cars. The design adopts a slight deviation from the conventional method, thus resulting in broader surge margin and better efficiency at off-design region. This paper presents the design of the new compressor scroll and its performance validation. The new compressor scroll is coupled to a standard wheel and tested on the cold gas stand followed by the on-engine testing. The testing program focused on back-to-back comparison with the standard compressor scroll, as well as identifying on-engine operational regime with better brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and transient performance. A specially instrumented 1.6L gasoline engine was used for this study. The engine control unit configurations are kept constant for both the compressor testing. The intake and exhaust manifold has been customized to fit the turbochargers and kept identical between the standard and new compressor scroll installations. The turbocharger with new compressor scroll design is found to work at…
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Pre-design Investigation of Resonant Frequency Effects on Gas Exchange Efficiencies of a One-kW Natural-Gas Linear Engine Alternator

West Virginia University-Nima Zamani Meymian, Mahdi Darzi, Derek Johnson, Parviz Famouri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0488
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Performance of a natural gas two-stroke engine incorporated in a 1-kW free-piston oscillating Linear Engine Alternator (LEA) – a household electricity generator - was investigated to compare the effects of the resonant frequency of the machine on gas exchange efficiencies of the engine for pre-design phase purposes. To increase the robustness, power density, and thermal efficiencies, the crank mechanism in free-piston LEA is omitted and all moving parts of the generator operate at a fixed resonant frequency. Flexure springs are the main source of the LEA’s stiffness and the mass-spring dynamics dominates the engine’s speed. The trade-off between the engine’s performance, mass-spring system limits, and power and efficiency targets versus the LEA speed is very crucial and demands a careful investigation specifically at the concept design stages to find the optimum design parameters and operating conditions. For numerical modeling, a 3-D model of the engine’s in-cylinder volume was generated including intake and exhaust manifolds. To avoid the simulation of a full cycle reacting flows, a semi-empirical method was employed to obtain the initial and boundary…
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The new 4-cylinder 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine from SAIC motor

SAIC Motor Technical Center-Zheng Xu, YinSheng Ping, Chuanhui Cheng, Xiaomao Zhang, Haiting Yin, WeiJun Li, DongBo Cai, ShaoMing Wang, YanJun Wang, Yang Yang, Yingzhen Wang, YaJun Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0836
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
SAIC Motor Corporation Limited (SAIC Motor) has developed a new 1.5 L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine to meet the market demand and increasingly stringent requirement of CAFÉ and tail-pipe emission regulations. A series of advanced technologies for improving engine fuel economy、engine-out emission and low-end torque performance have been employed, such as: central gasoline direct injection, integrated exhaust manifold, high tumble combustion system, Miller Cycle, cooled external EGR, 35MPa fuel injection system, multi-hole injector with variable hole size design, efficient turbo charging with EWG, etc. As a result, the engine is able to achieve over 39% brake thermal efficiency (BTE), as well as substantial fuel consumption reduction in vehicle driving cycle. It also delivers 275 Nm torque staring from 1750RPM, with fast low-end torque response. By integrating the 35 MPa high pressure fuel injection system and optimized multi-hole fuel spray, the engine-out particulate numbers (PN) emission is reduced by more than 70% over a previous base engine with 20Mpa fuel injection system. And the vehicle equipped with this new engine is capable of meeting…
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Optimal Control of Mass-transport Time-delay Model in a Low-pressure EGR

GIPSA-lab-Emmanuel Witrant
Grenoble INP-Didier Georges
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0251
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the control-oriented model and control design of the burned gas ratio(BGR) transport phenomenon, witnessed in the intake path of an internal combustion engine, due to the redirection of burned gases to the intake path by the low-pressure EGR. Based on a nonlinear AMESim model of the engine, the BGR in the intake manifold is modeled as a state-space output time-delay model, or alternatively as an ODE-PDE coupled system, that take into account the time delay between the moment at which the combusted gases leave the exhaust manifold and that at which they are readmitted in the intake manifold. In addition to their mass transport delay, the BGRs in the intake path are also subject to inequality constraints because they are positive percentages lying between 0 and 100. The objective of the control problem is to track a reference output profile of the BGR in the intake manifold, taking into account the transport delay and the state(output) and input constraints of the system. In this aim, two indirect optimal control approaches are implemented…
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Multiple 3D-DIC Systems for Measuring the Displacements and Strains of an Engine Exhaust Manifold

FCA US LLC-Wensheng Zhang, Jim Chen, Owais Iqbal, Kanwerdip Singh
Oakland University-Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang, Gary Barber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0540
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a unique multi-camera three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) system was designed and applied to an engine dynamometer cell to measure the displacement and strain of the exhaust manifold while an engine was running in a durability test. In the engine dynamometer cell, the ambient temperature varies from 25°C to 80°C~100°C cyclically and the exhaust manifold experiences high temperatures up to 900°C with high frequency vibrations. In order to obtain reliable data under such conditions, two 3D-DIC systems were designed and set up in the engine dynamometer. One is a high-speed 3D-DIC system, consisting of cameras with a sampling rate of 1250 frames per second. It was used to measure the local displacement of the bolted joint in the exhaust manifold. The high-speed measurement system is able to record the behavior of the bolt during the thermal cycles. The other system is a high-resolution 3D-DIC system, consisting of two cameras with a resolution of five-mega-pixels. It was used to acquire the displacement and strain fields of the entire exhaust manifold. A Linear Variable…
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Failure Prediction and Design Optimization of Exhaust Manifold based on CFD & FEM Analysis

AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc.-Ho Teng
Jiangling Motors Co., Ltd.-Xuwei Luo, Pingping Zou, Xiaochun Zeng, Xiaojun Yuan, Bin Li, Yingtao Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1166
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A thermo-mechanical fatigue analysis was conducted based on a coupled Finite Element Analysis (FEA) - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method on the crack failure of the exhaust manifold for an inline 4-cylinder turbo-charged diesel engine under the durability test. In the this analysis, the temperature-dependent material properties were obtained from measurements and the model was calibrated with comparison of the predicted exhaust manifold temperatures with the on-engine measurements under the same engine load condition. Temperature and stress/strain distributions in the exhaust manifold were predicted with the calibrated model. Analysis results showed that the cracks took place at locations with high plastic deformations, suggesting that the cause of the failure be thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). Using the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) as the indicator for thermal mechanical fatigue, three exhaust manifold design revisions were carried out by CAE analysis. And the best one was chosen for prototype. Later tests showed that this new design passed the engine durability test successfully.
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Scavenging Phenomena Based Post-oxidation in Exhaust Manifold of a Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine

Chiba University-Madan Kumar, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Naohiro Hasegawa, Yasuo Moriyoshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2197
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this research, a novel methodology for the post-oxidation in a turbocharged spark ignition (SI) engine is proposed and investigated that can improve the emissions along with the reduction in turbo-lag. In this research, both simulation and experimental activities are performed.The 1-D simulation model was used for the identification of efficient scavenging. Thereafter, experimental validation tests for modeling and post oxidation were conducted on a 4-cylinder turbocharged SI engine. From the results, it was revealed that efficient scavenging and post-oxidation can be obtained at lower speed and higher load. The enthalpy in exhaust manifold increased due to the post-oxidation reaction which in turn increased the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases and hence emissions reduced. Also, due to the increased enthalpy at turbine upstream, the turbocharger speed increased and as a consequence, reduction in the turbo-lag was observed. It was also noted that the post-oxidation is limited at higher load and overlap in an inline 4-cylinder engine due to the strong scavenging which increased the cooling effect in in-cylinder and exhaust manifold due to…
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Experimental Investigations on CO2 Recovery from Engine Exhaust Using Adsorption Technology

ARC,SMEC,Vellore Institute of Technology-Saravanan S, Chidambaram Ramesh Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2577
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is an energy-consuming process compared to the catalytic converters. The best way to reduce CO2 is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industrial applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. In comparison to other CO2 separation methods, adsorption technique consumes less work and energy. Moreover, the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust manifold. The selected engine was a single-cylinder Briggs and Stratton petrol engine. The experiments were conducted in two…
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Engine Cylinder Head Thermal-Mechanical Fatigue Evaluation Technology and Platform Application

SAE International Journal of Engines

Jiangling Motor Company Limited, China-Xuwei Luo
Jiangling Motor Company, China-Xiaochun Zeng
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0008
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
An in-cylinder combustion analysis and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coolant flow analysis were performed using AVL FIRE software, which provided the heat transfer boundary conditions (HTBCs) to the temperature field calculation of the cylinder head. Based on the measured material performance parameters such as stress-strain curve under different temperatures and E-N curve, creep, and oxidation data material performance, the cylinder head-gasket-cylinder block finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. According to the temperature field calculation results, the maximum temperature of the cylinder head is 200°C that is within the limit of ALU material. The temperature of the water is more than 21.1°C below the critical burnout point temperature. The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) and thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) analysis of the cylinder head were performed by FEMFAT software. The HCF safety coefficient and TMF life cycle of the cylinder head were calculated, which provided an important guidance for cylinder head structure design of a gasoline engine and diesel engine. The present article establishes a complete simulation and analysis process of cylinder head TMF. The fatigue assessment technology…
Open Access

Monotonic and Cyclic Creep of Cast Materials for Exhaust Manifolds

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden-Christian Öberg, Stefan Jonsson
Scania, Sweden-Baohua Zhu
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0012
Published 2019-05-13 by SAE International in United States
Cast materials are creep tested between 600 and 900°C using three methods: (i) tensile testing at different strain rates, (ii) stress relaxation during thermal cycling and (iii) traditional creep tests at constant load. Comparisons are made between fast and slow methods and between monotonic and cyclic deformation modes. The tested materials, SiMo51, SiMo1000, Ni-resist D5S and HK30, are used for exhaust manifolds in heavy-duty diesel engines. The fast and cheap methods, (i) and (ii), were used on all materials, while the tedious and costly method, (iii), was used on SiMo51 only. The creep rates from monotonic tensile tests and stress relaxations during thermal cycling agree well. There is no difference between monotonic and cyclic creep rates, and cyclic rates are practically unchanged with the number of thermal cycles. No or small differences in creep rates are observed when comparing tension and compression, although three of the materials include large graphite nodules. At 700°C, a Norton plot for SiMo51 shows coinciding results for tensile test and compressive stress relaxations, whereas the minimum creep rates from constant…