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Comparison Between MCC and MZCM Combustion Models

Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais-Paulo Ricardo da Penha, Rogério Jorge Amorim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0133
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper evaluates the ability of two combustion models to predict a small HSDI diesel engine operation after changing its operational parameters. Both Multi-Zone Combustion Model (MZCM) and Mixing Controlled Combustion (MCC) are inherently coupled to the fuel injection process allowing great freedom of simulation for multistage injection engines but also requiring consistent calibration of the model parameters. In the present work, two operating conditions of a reference research engine are modelled and tuned in the AVL Boost® software using both MCC and MZCM to model the combustion process. The operational conditions evaluated are defined by changes in EGR rate, fuel injection start and distribution, boost pressure, and injection pressure. The predictive ability of each model is assessed by comparing the output results accuracy and the number of parameters changes needed to tune the model for a given change of operation. The novelty of this work resides in the comparison of the two models, as built in the software, in a practical simulation process. Both models have a similar amount of base parameters to be…
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Reduction of a diesel engine NO emissions using the exhaust gas recirculation technique

Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte - UniBH-Alex de Oliveira, Alexandre Pinheiro Bernardes, Flávio Ferreira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0067
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper analyses the effects of the application of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technique in a stationary, single cylinder engine aiming to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The engine was operated with diesel oil containing 8% biodiesel (B8) for different load and EGR rates. The engine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) operating without the EGR system were compared with the operation with EGR rates of 15% and 25%. The results revealed that the increase in the EGR rate increased the exhaust gas temperature, the engine specific fuel consumption and the CO and CO2 emissions, but with reduction of up to 72% of NO emissions, when using 25% of EGR rate.
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Chemical kinetic mechanisms for HCCI combustion of wet ethanol with exhaust gas recirculation

Chemical Engineering Department – UFSM-Jean L. S. Fagundez, Nina P. G. Salau
Mechanical Engineering Department – UFSM-Filipe A. Herzer, Mario E. S. Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0293
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This work compares the accuracy of in-cylinder pressure and apparent heat release rate (AHRR) diagrams to the experimental data and the use of different chemical kinetics models applied to the GT-Power® software. The engine computational model is based on a naturally aspirated diesel engine with three cylinders, one of them modified to operate with hydrous ethanol with port fuel injection and HCCI combustion achieved with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of the Diesel cylinders. Operating points chosen to perform the comparison to experimental tests were 1800 rpm, 300 kPa of indicated mean effective pressure and fuels with 10% and 20% of water-in-ethanol by volume. The kinetic mechanisms for ethanol oxidation evaluated were the detailed NUI Galway and a Skeletal model based on it. With either model, cylinder pressure diagrams were not very different from the experimental values. The detailed mechanism was, on average, 9 times slower to process each case than the Skeletal mechanism. The quality of data obtained with the Skeletal mechanism and its lower computational cost makes it a good solution for a…
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Effect of exhaust gas composition on EGR deposit formation

Ibaraki University-Satoshi Sakaida, Shogo Kimiyama, Takumi Sakai, Kotaro Tanaka, Mitsuru Konno
The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Te-Koichi Kinoshita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2358
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Serious problems occur in an exhaust gas recirculation system due to an adhesive hard deposit. It is important to clarify the mechanism of the hard deposit formation to suppress it. In this study, the effect of exhaust gas composition on hard deposit formation was investigated. The amount of the hard deposit formed under various operating conditions while keeping the total hydrocarbon concentration constant was different. The component analyses of the exhaust gas and the hard deposit clarified that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the exhaust gas strongly affected the hard deposit formation.
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In-cylinder flow design based on the representative scales of turbulence and premixed combustion

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuko Mito, Taisuke Shiraishi, Atsushi Teraji
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2210
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Dilution combustion with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been applied for the improvement of thermal efficiency. In order to stabilize the high diluted combustion, it is important to form an appropriate turbulence in the combustion cylinder. Turbulent intensity needs to be strengthened to increase the combustion speed, while too strong turbulence causes ignition instability. In this study, the factor of combustion instability under high diluted conditions was analyzed by using single cylinder engine test, optical engine test and 3D CFD simulation. Finally, methodology of in-cylinder flow design is attempted to build without any function by taking into account the representative scales of turbulence and premixed combustion.
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A study on the control of HCCI combustion under EGR conditions by pulsed flame jet using rapid compression expansion machine

Kyushu University, Japan-Shunichiro Hayashi, Yuya Ito, Kazuya Shimizu, Osamu Moriue
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2166
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
HCCI combustion has a disadvantage in controlling ignition timing. In this study, we applied Pulsed Flame Jet (PFJ) to HCCI under Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) conditions. PFJ is the jet of burning gas issuing from a small cavity facing a combustion chamber. It is expected to advance autoignition. On the other hand, EGR leads to the retard of autoignition. Thus combining PFJ and HCCI may lead to the optimization of ignition timing. The experiments were performed with a rapid compression expansion machine. With PFJ, the indicated work under EGR conditions was improved by optimizing the timing of spark discharge of PFJ.
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Use of Predictive Engine and Emission Model for Diesel Engine Model Based Calibration

ISUZU Technical Center of America-Yifan Wei, Lakshmidhar R. Uppalapati, Bruce Vernham
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2227
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The GHG and emissions regulations are becoming more and more stringent every year. To fulfill legislation requirements and potential future challenges, increasing number of technologies and actuators have been developed and implemented into powertrain systems. This trend poses new challenges on engine development process by harmonizing early stage technology implementation, hardware selection and performance evaluation with late stage calibration and validation works. Frontloading feedbacks to design and development team enable better decision making, hardware selection and calibration optimization. Seamless powertrain simulation toolchains can realize such frontloading tasks to reduce development cost and provide late stage information at early development period.However, frontloading virtualized development remains a large challenge for model developers with limited data during early phase of development. For various usages of simulations and models, especially robust calibration usage purpose, the models need to have high level of accuracy, reasonable simulation runtime and predictability over wide range of operating conditions at the same time; meanwhile there is limited quantity of test data available to generate data driven and statistical models and to perform optimizations. Therefore,…
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Fuel Flexibility Study of a Compression Ignition Engine at High Loads

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology-Abdullah S. AlRamadan, Moez Ben Houidi, Gustav Nyrenstedt, Bengt Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2193
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Engine experiments were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine at relatively high loads to investigate the regions where the combustion characteristics are unchanged regardless of the fuel octane number. Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) and three different commercial fuels with RON values ranging from 0 to 100 were tested in this study. A sweep of net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPNet) of 5 to 20 bar, absolute intake pressure of 1.5 to 2.8 bar, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of 0 to 40%, and fuel injection pressure of 700 to 1400 bar were performed to investigate the combustion characteristics, ignition delay time, combustion duration, efficiency, and emissions. At the highest load point (IMEPNet = 20 bar), all the fuels burn as in conventional diesel combustion. Despite the wide range of octane numbers, all fuels had similar ignition delay time, combustion duration, indicated efficiency, and emissions at 10 to 20 bar IMEPNet. It follows that CI mode is the only realistic option at high load and pressure points. All fuels showed similar combustion duration and emission levels behavior…
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Regulated Emissions and Detailed Particle Characterisation for Diesel and RME Biodiesel Fuel Combustion with Varying EGR in a Heavy-Duty Engine

DTU Nanolab, Fysikvej 307, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark-Kirsten I. Kling, Jens Kling, Martin Tuner
Division of Combustion Engines, Lund University, Box 118, 22-Maja Novakovica, Sam Shamun, Per Tunestal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2291
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates particulate matter (PM) and regulated emissions from renewable rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) biodiesel in pure and blended forms and contrasts that to conventional diesel fuel. Environmental and health concerns are the major motivation for combustion engines research, especially finding sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and reducing diesel PM emissions. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), including RME, are renewable fuels commonly used from low level blends with diesel to full substitution. They strongly reduce the net carbon dioxide emissions. It is largely unknown how the emissions and characteristics of PM get altered by the combined effect of adding biodiesel to diesel and implementing modern engine concepts that reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Therefore, the exhaust from a single-cylinder Scania D13 heavy-duty (HD) diesel engine fuelled with petroleum-based MK1 diesel, RME, and a 20% RME blend (B20), was sampled while the inlet oxygen concentration was stepped from ambient to very low by varying EGR. Regulated gaseous emissions, mass of total black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA), particle…
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Research of Fuel Components to Enhance Engine Thermal Efficiency Part II: Consideration of Engine Combustion Characteristics

JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation-Ken Obata, Taketora Naiki, Manabu Watanabe
Toyota Motor Corporation-Nozomi Yokoo, Yoshinori Miyamoto, Koichi Nakata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2256
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To correspond to the social requirements such as climate change, air pollution, and energy security, enhancing the engine thermal efficiency is strongly required in these days. As for the specific engine technologies to improve the engine thermal efficiency, Atkinson cycle, cooled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), and low friction technologies have been developed [1–4]. In regard to combustion technology, lean boosted concept has a potential to reduce CO2 emission because lean boosted concept is expected to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Although expanding lean combustion limit is important for both increasing the engine thermal efficiency and reducing NOx emission, there is a limitation to realize stable lean combustion with SI (Spark Ignition) gasoline engine. In this study, fuel effects on the combustion characteristics from the viewpoint of chemical reaction capability are focused on. In consequence, it is demonstrated that the some molecules with high laminar burning velocity expand the lean combustion limit and enhance the engine thermal efficiency. In other words, those candidate molecules show the potential to realize compatible characteristics both lean combustion stability and…
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