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Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

A R A I-Madhan Kumar, Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2560
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. The predictive combustion model (DI-PULSE) has been developed for the calibration of an engine under multiple injections and the detailed injection rates with EGR rates. Split injection with higher fuel quantity injected in the 1st pulse, helped to significantly reduce PM emissions. This reduction is due to the restraint in the premixed phase of…
 

Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

TMTL-Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2566
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature. By using the same hardware we are thus able to achieve higher power rating for same engine and also meet CPCB 2 emission norms comfortably.
 

Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Omprakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan, Vishal kumar, Vasundhara Arde, Sanjay Aurora, Remesan Chirakkal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2549
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure. Various combustion parameters such as Combustion Bowl Geometry, selection of Turbocharger, Swirl, FIP, Nozzle configuration, EGR flow rate, EGR operation strategy, optimizing injection pressures, start of injection, end of…
 

Emission and noise optimization of CRDe engine with pilot injection strategies

Mahindra Research Valley-Pranav Kumar Sinha, Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0019
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
he combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norms. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise. Calibration was employed to meet the emission and noise targets of the points achieving effective noise - Soot trade off and HC- PM trade-off.
 

Experimental investigation on EGR technique and fuel antioxidant additive in CI engine fuelled with plastic oil blend for emission reduction

Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science-Sathish Kumar Rajamanickam
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Balaji Gnanasikamani, Suresh Kumar Kasinathan, Cheralathan Marimuthu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0079
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Experimental investigation on EGR technique and fuel antioxidant (p-Phenylenediamine) additive in plastic oil + diesel blend as test fuel in diesel engine is reported in this paper. The plastic oil is produced by waste plastics by the pyrolysis method. This plastic oil gives twin advantage of plastic waste management and also as alternate fuel for possible diesel fuel replacement. The plastic oil blend performance and emissions were nearer to neat diesel fuel. To reduce the NO emissions first EGR is fitted and tested. NO emission reduced by 18% compared to without EGR. Then antioxidant is added in (100 ppm level) with blended test fuel and found the NO emission reduction to be 15%. Performance, combustion and emission analysis were done in a single cylinder, four stroke, 5.2 kW diesel engine. Investigation results showed that the combined effect of EGR and antioxidant additive drastically reduces the NO emissions by 28%.
 

Effect of Injector cone angle and NTP on performance and emissions of CRDe engine for BS6 compliance

Mahindra Research Valley-Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani, Pranav Kumar Sinha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0108
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The quality of combustion is affected by factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, EGR, after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum injection timing. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which decide the selection of perfect injector for an engine. This paper focuses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP which was varied by changing the sealing washer thickness. With all the above injector configuration, the performance and emission were thoroughly analysed at each level. Final configuration was selected based on the Power & Torque, Fuel consumption, smoke, exhaust temperatures.
 

A Review of Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Research in the Context of Realizing a Production SACI Strategy

Clemson University-Dennis Robertson, Robert Prucka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0027
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies have been a keen interest in the automotive industry for over four decades since they offer improved fuel efficiency compared to conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. LTC strategies use high dilution to keep combustion temperatures below about 2000 K to reduce heat transfer losses while avoiding locally rich in-cylinder regions that produce high soot. High dilution also enables an efficiency improvement from reduced pumping work and improved thermodynamic properties, though it requires high ignition energy. Combustion can be achieved by triggering autoignition from compression energy. High compression ratios are typically required to produce this level of ignition energy, which further improves fuel efficiency. The timing of the autoignition event is influenced by fuel properties and mixture composition, and is exponentially sensitive to temperature. Control of autoignition timing is difficult without a direct actuator, and has been a significant obstacle for realizing LTC in production. Spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) addresses this challenge by using a spark plug to initiate chemical reactions that trigger autoignition. The combustion chamber is slightly stratified to promote…
 

Sensitivity Analysis of the Combustion Parameters in a Stratified HCCI Engine with Regard to Performance and Emission

Mazandaran University of Science and Tech-Mohsen Pourfallah, Mahboud Armin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0114
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promised solution to environmental and fuel economy concerns for IC engines. Engine application for HCCI engine depends on an array of parameters such as fuel type, mixture composition, intake condition and engine specification, meaning that controlling an HCCI engine can only be done through the adjustment of these parameters. In this numerical study which is driven from an experimental work, thermal and charge stratification is used to control HCCI combustion. The effect of intake temperature, compression ratio, intake pressure, EGR, reformer gas (CO-H2 mixture) and glow plug temperature on engine performance and emission was investigated using a 3D model on AVL-FIRE parallel with 1D model on GT-Power software. Then AHP model as a multiple Attribute Decision making method has been used to analyze the sensitivity of these parameters on performance and emission. Results indicate that increasing intake temperature causes the operating condition approaches knock which results in a narrower operating region. Increasing EGR ratio makes possible the expanding of operating range rich limit since it causes delayed combustion…
 

Influence of Injection Strategies on Engine Efficiency for a Methanol PPC Engine

Lund University-Erik Svensson, Martin Tuner, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0116
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is one of several advanced combustion concepts for the conventional diesel engine. PPC uses a separation between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, also called ignition dwell, to increase the mixing of fuel and oxidizer. This has been shown to be beneficial for simultaneously reducing harmful emissions and fuel consumption. The ignition dwell can be increased by means of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or lower intake temperature. However, the most effective means is to use a fuel with high research octane number (RON). Methanol has a RON of 109 and a recent study found that methanol can be used effectively in PPC mode, with multiple injections, to yield high brake efficiency. However, the early start of injection (SOI) timings in this study were noted as a potential issue due to increased combustion sensitivity. Therefore, the present study attempts to quantify the changes in engine performance for different injection strategies. Simulations were performed on a heavy-duty multi-cylinder compression ignition engine fueled with methanol. Two operating conditions with different engine load…
 

Experimental Assessment of Ozone Addition Potential in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines

IFP Energies nouvelles-Institut Carnot-Michele Bardi, Guillaume Pilla, Mickaël Matrat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0118
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The potential of ozone addition in compression ignition engines is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experiments were carried out in an optically accessible single cylinder engine equipped with a common rail direct injection system. A commercially available ozone generator (P <100W) was used to add to the intake flow a controlled amount of ozone. EU Diesel fuel (CN 54) and a Naphtha fuel (CN 33) were tested investigating the impact of Ozone in conventional diesel combustion and LTC cases (e.g. high EGR rate). Minimal ozone concentration in the intake flow (10 ppm) demonstrated to reduce significantly the ignition delay. However, the impact observed strongly depends on the engine conditions tested and, in general, this effect observed becomes significant in conditions characterized by a long ignition delay: low intake temperature, high dilution, and low CN fuel. Significant practical benefits of ozone addition were found for engine cold-start, where ozone yields a significant reduction in misfire events during the first cycle and a faster stabilization of the combustion phasing and a reduction of the UHC produced in…