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Study of OBD stageII Misfire Detection System for Small Motorcycles

Aisan Industry Co., Ltd.-Satoshi MIWA, Yuki IIBOSHI, Hirotaka FUKUTA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0511
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the shift to Fuel Injection (FI) system for motorcycles has been accelerated in response to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulations and the improvement of fuel efficiency for global environmental protection. In addition, On Board Diagnostics (OBD) was introduced to inform users of vehicle abnormalities and failures and prevent from emission failure in the market. OBD stageII requires enlargement of requirements and threshold detection. Seven items are presented in the EU5, Bharat Stage 6 (BS6). The misfire detection in small motorcycles has several problems.First, for the small motorcycle, a single-cylinder engine is the main and its combustion behavior cannot be compared with other cylinders. Consequently, it is difficult to detect misfire. For misfire detection, we focused on the difference in crank angular velocity during combustion stroke between normal combustion and misfire. The greatest gap was in crank angular velocity occurs at 0-180° crank angle [°CA]. With that, misfire detection control is established.We confirmed from the above control that misfire could be detected in the whole engine speed or load within the regulation.…
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Reduction of a diesel engine NO emissions using the exhaust gas recirculation technique

Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte - UniBH-Alex de Oliveira, Alexandre Pinheiro Bernardes, Flávio Ferreira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0067
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper analyses the effects of the application of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technique in a stationary, single cylinder engine aiming to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The engine was operated with diesel oil containing 8% biodiesel (B8) for different load and EGR rates. The engine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) operating without the EGR system were compared with the operation with EGR rates of 15% and 25%. The results revealed that the increase in the EGR rate increased the exhaust gas temperature, the engine specific fuel consumption and the CO and CO2 emissions, but with reduction of up to 72% of NO emissions, when using 25% of EGR rate.
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The effective use of ethanol for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in a diesel engine

Brunel University London-Wei Guan, Hua Zhao
General Motors-Ian May
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0157
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Regulations have been established for the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption from the transport sector. Low carbon fuels combined with new powertrain technologies have the potential to provide significant reductions in GHG emissions while decreasing the dependence on fossil fuel. In this study, a lean-burn ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion strategy has been used as means to improve upon the efficiency and emissions of a conventional diesel engine. Experiments have been performed on a 2.0 dm3 single cylinder heavy-duty engine equipped with port fuel injection of ethanol and a high-pressure common rail diesel injection system. Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption have been measured at a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and various steady-state loads between 0.3 and 2.4 MPa net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Compared to a baseline diesel-only operation, the ethanol-diesel dual-fuel engine yielded up to 57% lower well-to-wheels GHG emissions. Moreover, the dual-fuel combustion strategy attained higher net indicated efficiency than the conventional diesel mode from 0.6 to 2.4 MPa IMEP, with a maximum value of 47.2%…
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Effects of operation temperature on exhaust emissions in a spark ignition system using pre-chamber stratified system

Universidade Federal de Lavras-Carlos Eduardo Castilla Alvarez
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Marcelo Augusto Maia Pires, Vinícius Rückert Roso, Vinícius Faria Duarte, Nathália Duarte Souza Alvarenga Santos, Ramón Molina Valle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0130
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Atmospheric pollution is the major public health issue in many cities around the world. Internal combustion engines (ICE) and industries are common sources of pollutants that aggravate this situation. Aiming to overcome this problem, increasingly restrictive legislation on combustion pollutant emissions has been formulated and new technologies are being developed to ensure compliance with such restrictions. In this scenario, the lean mixtures appear as a possible alternative, but also bring some inconveniences such as combustion instabilities. Pre-chamber ignition systems (PCIS) enable a more stable combustion process due to high kinetic, thermal and chemical energy of the gases from the pre-chamber (PC), which pass through nozzles and begin the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture contained in the main combustion chamber (MC). However, some challenges still have to be overcome in the development of these systems, one of the main ones being hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Therefore, the main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of operating temperature on the pollutants emissions from an ICE with stratified pre-chamber ignition system (SPCIS) and to verify…
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Exhaust Emission Analysis of a Spark Ignition Engine Operating with Hydrogen Injection in a Pre-Combustion Chamber

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais-Fausto Torres Magalhães Avelar
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Vinícius Faria Duarte, Carlos Eduardo Castilla Alvarez, Marcelo Augusto Maia Pires, Nathália Duarte Souza Alvarenga Santos, Ramon Molina Valle, Vinícius Rückert Roso
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0121
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Due to the large negative impact of combustion gas emissions on air quality and the more stringent environmental legislation, research on internal combustion engines (ICE) are being developed to reduce emissions of pollutant gases to the atmosphere. One of the research fronts is the use of lean mixtures with the pre-chamber ignition system (PCIS). This system consists of a pre-chamber (PC) connected to the main chamber by one or more interconnecting holes. A spark plug initiates combustion of the mixture present in the pre-chamber, which is propagated as gas jet into the main chamber, igniting the lean mixture present therein. The gas jets have high thermal and kinetic energy, which promote faster combustion duration, making the system less prone to knock and with lower cyclic variability of the IMEP, enabling the lean limit extension. The pre-chamber system can be assisted with a supplementary liquid or gaseous fuel injection, enabling the charge stratification. In this context, this paper aims to evaluate the reduction in exhaust emissions from an ICE adapted with a stratified PCIS operating with…
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Improvement in PEMS performance for RDE testing at high and varying altitudes

HORIBA, Ltd.-Shun Fukami, Haruhisa Mohara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2200
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
RDE (Real Driving Emissions) by definition is performed under a wide range of conditions. Altitude, as well as temperature, is one of the boundary conditions that depends on the area where the test is performed, which will vary from country to country. These boundary conditions not only affect the exhaust emissions from the vehicle, they also affect the accuracy of the PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System).The effect of barometric pressure changes on a PEMS was evaluated by altitude simulation chamber and means of an RDE test on Mt. Fuji. This paper describes the challenges for PEMS measurement with barometric pressure variations and the advanced system that has been developed to meet them.
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Emission Prediction with Detailed Chemistry

Toyota Motor Corporation-Kazuhiro Uehara, Yasushi Noguchi
Toyota Motor North America, Research and Development-Tenghua Shieh, Oana Nitulescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2215
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Numerical modeling of engine combustion products requires detailed chemistry and therefore large computational resources and time. This becomes a constraint when engine optimization at system level is desired. In this paper, a 1D modeling approach is proposed for fast computation to predict emission level at various engine running conditions. A new chemical solver within 1D framework is developed along with suitable reduced chemical mechanism. The reduced reaction scheme is validated against detailed chemistry on 0D and 1D reactors. It is confirmed that the new fast 1D solver achieves more than 100X speed improvement. Now larger mechanisms can be used for better accuracy with reasonable turnaround time. This methodology allows virtual engine emission map generation, with a refined emission map completed within 12 hours of computational time. When a transient response is considered, the critical first 600 seconds of FTP driving cycle is calculated within 1 hour, based on a reduced fast running 1D model.
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Modeling Three-Way Catalyst Converters During Cold Starts And Potential Improvements

AZAPA Co. LTD-Katunori Umezawa, Yasuhiro Kondo
Waseda University-Xieyang Yan, Ryota Sone, Ryoya Inoue, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2326
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Three-way catalyst (TWC) converters are often used to purify toxic substances contained in exhaust emissions from gasoline engines. However, a large amount of CO, NOx and THC may be emitted before the TWC reaches its light-off temperature during a cold start. In this work, a numerical model was developed for studying the purification performance of a close-coupled TWC converter during the cold start period. The TWC model was built using axisuite, commercial software by Exothermia S.A. Model gas experiments were designed for calibrating the chemical reaction scheme and corresponding reaction rate parameters in the TWC model. The TWC model was able to simulate the purification performance of CO, NOx and THC under both lean and rich air-fuel equivalence ratios (λ) for different conditions. The light-off temperature and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) behavior were also successfully validated in the model. Vehicle tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer to verify the TWC model. The simulation achieved good agreement with the experimental data during a cold start. Based on the validated model, a parametric analysis was conducted…
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Particle and Gaseous Emissions from a Heavy-Duty SI Gas Engine over WHTC Driving Cycles

Istituto Motori, CNR-Pierpaolo Napolitano, Chiara Guido, Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli, Salvatore Alfuso
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2222
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The use of gaseous fuels in internal combustion engines is increasing, due to several reasons, first of all their low environmental impact, large availability and low cost. Nevertheless, the need to reduce emissions also from gas engines is an important aspect to be considered in order to comply with future engine emissions regulations.In this scenario, an extensive experimental activity was performed to fully characterize an heavy duty spark ignition engine, under development for Euro VI compliance and designed to run with gaseous fuels. Two separate sets of experiments were carried out, in order to analyze the engine behavior when burning LPG and CNG, respectively. To this aim, the engine was installed on a dynamic test bench, accurately instrumented to characterize the combustion evolution, performance and exhaust pollutant emissions, along the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC), the new European driving homologation cycle.The main part of the manuscript addresses the analysis of the exhaust particulate emissions, in terms of soot concentration, particle number (PN) and particle size distribution function (PSDF). More in detail, a photo-acoustic sensor and…
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Optimisation of Low Temperature Combustion Technology, for Future Drive Cycles, using a Factorial Design of Experiments

University of the West of England-A.S. van Niekerk, P.J. Kay, B. Drew, N. Larsen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2171
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Automotive manufacturers are facing increased pressure to meet more stringent emissions legislation and new legislative driving cycles. One technology that has the potential to meet future legislation is Low Temperature Combustion (LTC), which has the potential to significantly reduce NOx over conventional diesel combustion. Most studies reported in the literature evaluating this technology only change ’one- factor-at-a-time’ at steady state conditions. This paper addresses these issues and presents a methodology utilising DoE analysis to optimise a validated multi- fidelity engine simulation for LTC over a transient cycle (WLTP) which makes the results more applicable to real world driving conditions.A validated simulation for a 2.4-litre compression ignition engine was developed in Ricardo WAVE. To increase the fidelity of the model, empirical data such as 3D scans of the inlet geometry were included. The simulation was validated against experimental engine emissions and performance data. A characterization study using a full factorial DoE was performed on the whole engine simulation to minimise vehicle emissions using LTC. The vehicle simulation was tested against the WLTP and the response of…
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