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Effect of Prechamber on Exhaust Emission and Efficiency of a SI Small Engine Fuelled with Gaseous and Liquid Fuels

Istituto Motori CNR-Paolo Sementa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0035
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline combustion process by means of a passive/active prechamber. The improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition is an opportunity to give further use of Spark Ignition (SI) engine. A commercial small Spark Ignition (SI) engine was modified with a proper designed prechamber fuelled with methane. Engine performance in terms of indicated Mean effective pressure, heat release rate and fuel Consumption were evaluated as well as gaseous emissions. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were measured. Several engine operative conditions were investigated at full load varying the engine speeds for stoichiometric and lean conditions and with different prechamber types. The results were compared with those obtained with the engine equipped with the standard spark plug. The results indicated that both performance and emissions were strongly influenced by the prechamber.
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Impact of Thermal Management of the Three-Way Catalyst on the Energy Efficiency of a P2 Gasoline FHEV

Università del Salento-Marco Benegiamo, Andrea Valletta, Antonio Carlucci
Università di Roma Tor Vergata-Vincenzo Mulone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0019
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FHEVs) are recognized as a cost-effective solution to comply with upcoming emissions legislation. However, several studies have highlighted that frequent start-and-stops worsen the HC tail-pipe emissions, especially when the light-off temperature of the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not been reached. In fact, strategies only addressing the minimization of fuel consumption tend to delay engine activation and hence TWC warming, especially during urban driving. Goal of the present research is therefore to develop an on-line powertrain management strategy accounting also for TWC temperature, in order to reduce the time needed to reach TWC light-off temperature. A catalyst model is incorporated into the model of the powertrain where torque-split is performed by an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS). The developed A-ECMS operates on a domain of power-split combinations between electric machine and internal combustion engine, which, aside from satisfying the torque demand, also ensure a controlled ICE torque derivative as well as a controlled ICE start-and-stop frequency. Hence, the algorithm which is extended for TWC thermal management, incorporates a penalty on…
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Influence of Port Water Injection on the Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Yadong Fan, Tianbao Wu, Xuesong Li, Min Xu, David Hung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0294
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that engine downsizing is still the main energy-saving technology for spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. However, with the continuous increase of the boosting ratio, the gasoline engine is often accompanied by the occurrence of knocking, which has the drawback to run the engine at retarded combustion phasing. Besides, in order to protect the turbine blades from being sintered by high exhaust temperature, the strategies of fuel enrichment are often taken to reduce the combustion temperature, which ultimately leads to a high level of particulate number emission. Therefore, to address the issues discussed above, the port water injection (PWI) techniques on a 1.2-L turbocharged, three-cylinder, SIDI engine were investigated.Measurements indicate that the optimization of spark timing has a significant impact on its performance. The two factors of the water substance itself and spark advance caused by the knock mitigation are trade-offs, which eventually affect the combustion performance. Under knock limited spark advance (KLSA) condition, we find that the application of port water injection could effectively advance the combustion phasing and reduce exhaust gas…
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How well can mPEMS measure gas phase motor vehicle exhaust emissions?

Ford Motor Company-Diep Vu, Joseph Szente, Michael Loos, Matti Maricq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
“Real world emissions” is an emerging area of focus in motor vehicle related air quality. These emissions are commonly recorded using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) designed for regulatory application, which are large, complex and costly. Miniature PEMS (mPEMS) is a developing technology that can significantly simplify on-board emissions measurement and potentially promote widespread use. Whereas full PEMS use analyzers to record NOx, CO, and HCs similar to those in emissions laboratories, mPEMS tend to use electrochemical sensors and compact spectroscopic detectors for their small size and low cost. The present work evaluates this approach by comparing measurements of NOx, CO, CO2 and HC emissions from five commercial mPEMS to both laboratory and full regulatory PEMS measurements. It further examines the use of vehicle on-board diagnostics data to calculate exhaust flow, as an alternative to on-vehicle exhaust flow measurement. The evaluations include two vehicle types, gasoline direct injection and diesel, and employ the US EPA and Worldwide Harmonized Light duty drive cycles. The results show that two classes of electrochemical NOx sensors are capable of…
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Hybrid phenomenological and mathematical-based modeling approach for diesel engine emission predictio

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Thaddaeus Delebinski
IAV GmbH-Reza Rezaei, Christopher Hayduk, Emre Alkan, Thomas Kemski, Christoph Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0660
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the negative health effects associated with engine pollutants, environmental problems caused by combustion engine emissions and the current strict emission standards, it is essential to better understand and model the emission formation process in order to reduce them. Further development of emission models, improves the accuracy of the model-based optimization approach, which is used as a decisive tool for combustion system development and engine-out emission reduction. The numerical approaches for emission simulation are closely coupled to the combustion model. Using a detailed emission model, considering the 3D mixture preparation simulation incl. chemical reactions, demands high computational effort. Phenomenological models, used in 1-D approaches for model-based system optimization can deliver heat release rate and using a two-zone approach can estimate the NOx emissions. Due to the lack in modeling of 3D mixture preparation phenomena, such models are not capable to predict soot or HC emissions. However, employing physical-based air-path and combustion modeling, these models can predict the engine behavior outside of the training points. Mathematical models are very fast and accurate enough in the…
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Analysis of Drivability Influence on Tailpipe Emissions in Early Stages of a Vehicle Development Program by Means of Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Michael Görgen, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Christian Heusch, Daniel Guse, Frank Dorscheidt, Johannes Claßen, Timm Fahrbach, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to increasing environmental awareness, standards for pollutant and CO2 emissions are getting stricter in most markets around the world. In important markets such as Europe, also the emissions during real road driving, so called “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), are now part of the type approval process for passenger cars. In addition to the proceeding hybridization and electrification of vehicles, the complexity and degrees of freedom of conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines (ICE) are also continuing to increase in order to comply with stricter exhaust emission standards. Besides the different requirements placed on vehicle emissions, the drivability capabilities of passenger vehicles desired by customers, are essentially important and vary between markets. As the interactions between different hardware and software parts of the powertrain strongly influence the drivability characteristics of a vehicle, a high degree of maturity of test vehicles is required to execute drivability calibration tasks with a reliable evidence. Hence, these calibration and evaluation tasks are generally conducted in late phases of the vehicle development process where the engines base calibration is already…
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Study of thermal efficiency improvement by multi-hole nozzle

Hino Motors Ltd.-Kazunori Yoshitomi, Yoshihiro Funayama, Mori Ishii, Hiroshi Nakajima
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0304
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A truck and bus transportation which support logistics and people, diesel engines are highly expected to have high thermal efficiency and low exhaust emissions over the next few decades. Effective methods to achieve even higher thermal efficiency are to reduce a cooling loss from combustion chamber wall. A multi-hole diesel injector has a significant impact on improving engine thermal efficiency by enhancing a combustion activity and reducing a cooling loss. In this study, two types of diesel injectors – 8-hole and 14-hole - with the same flow rate were tested under heavy-duty diesel engine condition. Heat release rate, energy balance and engine emissions were investigated using the single-cylinder engine with displacement of 1,478 cc. Furthermore, an optical engine was used to observe quantitative spray penetration and flame development from shadowgraph imaging and analyze flame temperature by a two-color method. The results of the single-cylinder engine showed that the 14-hole injector exhibited higher indicated thermal efficiency thanks to lower cooling loss than 8-hole results. However, we observed a slightly higher exhaust loss in the case of…
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Effect of Driving Cycles on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Debbie Rosenblatt, Jonathan Stokes
Evoke Management Consulting-Kevin F. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effects of driving cycles and fuel composition on emissions from on-road motorcycles were studied with the objectives of understanding the effects of established drive cycles, quantifying the emissions from a more rigorous drive cycle, and determining the emission differences between various certification test fuels. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted on three motorcycles with engine displacements of 300 cc, 750 cc and 1200 cc. All of the motorcycles were Class II North American certified motorcycles with fuel injection and three-way catalysts. The motorcycles were tested using the North American certification cycle, also known as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP); the World Motorcycle Transit Cycle (WMTC); and a trial cycle based on real-world motorcycle driving, informally named the ‘Real World Driving Cycle’ (RWDC). Per cycle exhaust emissions characterization included the following: carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, total particulate matter, and a calculated determination of fuel economy. Along with an analysis of test cycle phase contributions and cumulative emissions over the test cycles. Engine torque was plotted against engine speed for each motorcycle…
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Nonlinear Identification Modeling for PCCI Engine Emissions Prediction Using Unsupervised Learning and Neural Networks

RWTH Aachen University-Wang Pan, Metin Korkmaz, Joachim Beeckmann, Heinz Pitsch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0558
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI) is an advanced combustion strategy, which has the potential to achieve ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions at high thermal efficiencies. PCCI combustion is characterized by a complex nonlinear chemical-physical process, which indicates that a physical description involves significant development times and also high computation cost. This paper presents a method to use cylinder pressure data and engine operations parameters for prediction of PCCI engine emissions by unsupervised learning and nonlinear identification techniques. The proposed method first uses principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimension of the cylinder-pressure data. Based on the PCA analysis, a multi-input multi-out model was developed for nitrogen oxide and soot emission prediction by multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network. Before the training process, a second principal component analysis was done to reduce the input dimension with hyper-parameters thereby reducing memory requirements of the models. The algorithm is applied to an experimental data set from a single-cylinder light-duty engine with piezo injection system. By comparing the model predictions with experimental results, it is shown that the…
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Evaluation of an On-Board, Real-Time Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor Using Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engine Platform

EmiSense Technologies LLC-Patrick Thompson, Leta Woo
Southwest Research Institute-Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0385
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
California Air Resources Board (CARB) has instituted requirements for on-board diagnostics (OBD) that makes a spark-plug sized exhaust particulate matter (PM) sensor a critical component of the OBD system to detect diesel particulate filter (DPF) failure. Currently, non-real-time resistive-type sensors are used by engine OEMs onboard vehicles. Future OBD regulations are likely to lower PM OBD thresholds requiring higher sensitivity sensors with better data yield for OBD decision making. The focus of this work was on the experimental evaluation of a real-time PM sensor manufactured by EmiSense Technologies, LLC that may offer such benefits. A 2011 model year on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed DPF followed by urea-based selective catalytic reducer (SCR) and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts was used for this program. With the aid of an exhaust bypass, sensors were examined for their accuracy and variability at emission level of ~ 0.02 g/hp-hr (mid-way between Laboratory and OBD thresholds) using multiple repeats of various transient drive cycles. Seven sensors were benchmarked simultaneously against state-of-the-art laboratory particle…