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Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi, Karthikeyan N Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was run to simulate the high-speed exhaust temperature & low speed knock intensity, this is…
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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE USING BLENDS OF ETHYL ESTER OF JATROPHA OIL AND ETHANOL

Varun Raj TN, Vijaykrishna Jayaprakash, Terrance Charles
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2378
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The need of Diesel as fuel has greatly pressurized the now scarcely available natural resources and is likely to become a luxury for the future generations. This paper aims at finding an alternate for diesel that can hopefully reduce the pressure on its existing demand. This paper presents a comparative study on use of different blends of Jatropha Oil (J) and Ethanol (E) as fuel in a diesel engine to observe its performance and emission characteristics. The findings are later compared with corresponding values of neat Diesel as fuel. Since Jatropha oil is more viscous and has polyunsaturated characteristics in its natural form, its ethyl ester was produced by transesterification process and later blended with Ethanol in different proportions like 90% J 10%E, 80J-20E, 70J-30E and 60J-40E. A Kirloskar make single cylinder Diesel engine coupled with Eddy Current dynamometer was used at a constant speed of 1500 RPM as a test bed to measure the performance characteristics of the blends at various loads of 0, 3, 6, 9 kg. A Crypton make five gas analyzer…
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Utilisation Treated Waste Engine oil and Diesohol blends as fuel for Compression Ignition Engine – An Experimental Study

Hindustan Institute of Tech. Science-Prabakaran B
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2384
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards. Optimal blend (45%ethanol 15% treated waste engine oil & 40% diesel) was tested for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a diesel engine at…
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A mathematical expression to predict the influence of ethanol concentration on distillation behavior of gasoline-ethanol fuel blend and impact of non -ionic surfactant on E20 fuel

Bharat Petroleum Corp., Ltd.-Siddhartha Mitra, Rajendiran Adimoolam, Kashinath Sutar, Debashis Ganguli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2386
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend. A linear equation is established from the distillation data to predict the impact of % ethanol on % volume recovery and maximum temperature drop in distillation test of gasoline-ethanol fuel blends. Addition of non-ionic surfactant in ethanol blended gasoline (E20) reduces the azeotrope behaviour significantly and flattens the distillation curve. E70, vapour lock index (VLI),…
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Influence of Addition of Ethanol into Non-Edible Biodiesel from Rice Bran Oil on the Properties and Performance - An Experimental Study in Direct Injection VCR Diesel Engine

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian, Padmanaba Sundar Shanmuga Sundaram, Hemakumar Manoharan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Non-edible oil biodiesels and alcohols are the two major liquid fuel sources available to replace diesel to fuel compression ignition engine. This study is to investigate the solubility, properties and performance of biodiesel from non-edible rice bran oil and ethanol. Solubility test was conducted in three different temperatures 50C, 150C& room temperature (300C approximately). The stable blends were tested for essential properties such as energy content, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, heat of vaporisation, flash point and oxygen content as per ASTM standards. Biodiesel- ethanol blends containing 30% of ethanol was found stable up to 50C. This blend also met the minimum requirement with respect to properties to fuel compression ignition engine. These blends were tested in compression ignition engine for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in various load conditions under two compression ratios (17,1 & 18,1). Results showed that the compression ratio 18:1 was found suitable for the optimal blend. This blend produced brake thermal efficiency, peak incylinder pressure, peak heat release rate, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and smoke similar to that of diesel. However, ignition…
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Knock and Pre-Ignition Limits on Utilization of Ethanol in Octane-on-Demand Concept

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Eshan Singh, Robert Dibble
Saudi Aramco-Kai Morganti
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Octane-on-Demand (OoD) is a promising technology for reducing greenhouse emissions from automobiles. The concept utilizes a low-octane fuel for low and mid load operating conditions, and a high-octane additive is added at high load operating conditions. Researchers have focused on the minimum ethanol content required for operating at high load conditions when the low-octane fuel becomes knock limited. However, it is also widely known that ethanol has a high tendency to pre-ignite, which has been linked with its high laminar flame speed and surface ignition tendency. Moreover, ethanol has a lower stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, requiring a larger injected fuel mass per cycle. A larger fuel mass increases the potential for oil dilution by the liquid fuel, creating precursors for pre-ignition. Hence, the limits on ethanol addition owing to pre-ignition also need consideration before the technology can be implemented. In this regard, experiments were performed using light naphtha (RON 68) and ethanol in direct and port-fuel injection configuration, respectively. The engine load was parametrically swept by simultaneously increasing the intake air and fuel quantity until the…
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Impact of Ethanol and Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Vehicle

IFP Energies Nouvelles, France-Toni Tahtouh, Arij Ben Amara, Patricia Anselmi, Laurie Starck
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The impact of transport on global and local pollution has resulted in stricter emission limits. More specifically, increasing attention is being paid to exhaust gas particulate emissions in spark ignition engines. The particulate formation is mainly affected by: 1-engine and fuel system characteristics, 2-fuel properties and 3-exhaust aftertreatment system. In order to estimate the influence of fuel characteristics on particulate emissions, several research works have proposed fuel indices that correlate some of the fuel physical and chemical properties with engine particulate emissions.This work investigates the impact of fuel composition on particulate emissions and evaluates the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) proposed by Aikawa et al. and other fuel indices in terms of agreement with vehicle test bed results for a passenger car.Vehicle tests were performed on New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) by using an E10 Euro VI reference fuel and five different fuel blends with 10% to 20% of ethanol and 23% to 35% of aromatic hydrocarbons content by volume. The effect of aromatic hydrocarbons composition on…
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HCCI with Wet Ethanol: Investigating the Charge Cooling Effect of a High Latent Heat of Vaporization Fuel in LTC

Stony Brook Univ.-Brian Gainey, James Gohn, Ziming Yan, Khurram Malik, Mozhgan Rahimi Boldaji, Benjamin Lawler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0024
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The combustion phasing of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion is incredibly sensitive to intake temperature. Controlling the intake temperature on a cycle-to-cycle basis is one-way to control combustion phasing, however accomplishing this with an intake air heater/intercooler is unfeasible. One possible way to control the intake temperature is through the direct injection of fuel. The direct injection of fuel during the intake stroke cools the charge via evaporative cooling. Some heat is absorbed from the incoming air, lowering the in-cylinder temperature, while some heat is absorbed from the piston/cylinder walls if the spray reaches the walls. The amount of heat that is absorbed from the air vs. the walls depends on the spray penetration length. The available spray penetration length can be controlled by the injection timing during the intake stroke. Therefore, if a high latent heat of vaporization fuel is used, the intake valve closing temperature will become very sensitive to injection timing, allowing for cycle-to-cycle control of combustion phasing.Ethanol is a fuel with a high latent heat of vaporization and therefore possesses a…
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On the HCCI Octane Boosting Effects of γ-Valerolactone

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Binod Giri, Gani Issayev, Bengt Johansson, Aamir Farooq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0026
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This study examined the octane boosting effects of γ-valerolactone, a fuel derived from lignocellulosic biomass, under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion mode. The experiments were performed in a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine under four sets of conditions defined by the combinations of intake temperatures and rotation speed. Octane boosting effects were rated with FACE (Fuel for Advanced Combustion Engine) J gasoline as a base fuel. Due to the non-miscibility of γ-valerolactone into FACE J, a new approach was proposed in which the octane boosting effect of a mixture comprised up of two-third γ-valerolactone and one-third ethanol was investigated. To evaluate the effect of γ-valerolactone, the octane boosting effect of pure ethanol into FACE J was also investigated such that comparison can be drawn. Further attempts were made to extract the octane boosting effects of pure γ-valerolactone. For convenience, both volumetric and molar approaches were considered to rationalize the experimental results. The results showed that γ-valerolactone is a good octane booster, and that it possesses higher octane enhancement potential than ethanol for a low…
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Biogenous Ethanol: CO2 Savings and Operation in a Dual-Fuel Designed Diesel Engine

Vienna University of Technology-Aleksandar Aleksandrov Damyanov, Peter Hofmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0040
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The usage of ethanol and two different mixtures of ethanol and gasoline (E85 and E65) wаs investigated on a modified diesel engine designed to work in a dual-fuel combustion mode with intake manifold alcohol injection. The maximum ratio of alcohol to diesel fuel was limited by irregular combustion phenomena like degrading combustion quality and poor process controllability at low load and knock as well as auto-ignition at high load. With rising alcohol amount, a significant reduction of soot mass and particle number was observed. At some testing points, substituting diesel with ethanol, E65 or E85 led to a reduction of NOx emissions; however, the real benefit concerning the nitrogen oxides was introduced by the mitigation of the soot-NOx trade-off. The indicated engine efficiency in dual-fuel mode showed an extended tolerance against high EGR rates. It was significantly improved with enhanced substitution ratios at high loads, whereas it dropped at low loads. A simulation model was built for the test engine and selected operation points of the engine test bed measurements were implemented into the model…
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