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Feasibility Study of the Fuel Magnetizer in Flex-Fuel Cars

Centro Universitário FAESA and SENAI-ES-Pablo A. Amorim, Luiz F. De N. Mattos, Everton L. P. Almeida, Gustavo C. Pellacani, Luiz A. M. M. Marques
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0238
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The topic of energy efficiency is currently a subject widely debated in industrial sectors because of its high relevance due to the finite life time of fossil fuels and the need for reduction in consumption and consequently the emissions of gases and the environmental impact. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of fuel magnetizers, a product marketed that, according to suppliers, guarantees an improvement in combustion efficiency, representing a saving of 10% to 22% of fuel. For the analysis of the efficiency of the magnetizer, consumption tests were carried out on engine test bench with and without the use of the product in idling speed, 2000 rpm and 2700 rpm. The conclusions obtained showed that the use of magnetizers did not achieve a satisfactory result in the efficiency of internal combustion engines, a possible factor responsible is the high content of ethanol in Brazilian gasoline.
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Analysis of ethanol spray behavior into a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais-Márcio Expedito Guzzo, Rafael Lara Franco, Fernando Antonio Rodrigues Filho
Universidade Federal de Itajubá-Carlos Alberto Gomes Júnior, Roberto Berlini Rodrigues da Costa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0223
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The work focuses on studying ethanol spray behavior injected directly inside a spark ignited internal combustion engine in the compression stroke. An experimental procedure for measuring spray penetration and spray overall cone angle produced by a multi-hole direct injector was developed by means of computational codes written in Matlab environment for working with images of spray injections and to acquire calculated results in an automatic way. The shadowgraph technique with back continuous illumination associated with a high speed recording image process was used in a single cylinder optical research engine for acquiring images of Brazilian ethanol fuel injected at 120° before the top dead center of compression stroke. The process of spray injections occurred with engine speeds of 1000 rpm, 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm. The results showed that spray penetrations decrease and spray cone angle increase when the engine speed is raised. The rising pressure behavior in the compression stroke with the upward air flow induced by piston bowl ascendant movement possible decreased the rate of spray penetrations at the end of injections. In…
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Optical Laser Diagnostics and Chemical Kinetics Investigation of Laminar Flame Speed for Hydrous Ethanol

Laboratory of Combustion, Propulsion and Energy, Aeronautica-Fernanda Pinheiro Martins, Pedro Teixeira Lacava, Claudia Regina de Andrade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0060
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Recently, the advance of computational fluid dynamics simulation applied on design of internal combustion engines (ICE) has highlighted the need of reliable chemical kinetics models for most common fuels applied on ICE operation, such as ethanol, gasoline and blends. Therefore, the mainly motivation for this study is determine and evaluate the influence of the water content on ethanol flames for laminar flame speed and chemical kinetics. For this goal, laminar flame speed measurements by OH-Emission and OH-PLIF were conducted on anhydrous and hydrous ethanol premixed flames at atmospheric pressure. Distinct fuel samples were evaluated at several equivalence ratios. Chemical kinetic simulation considering Marinov´s mechanism was performed in order to match velocities obtained from experimental data versus values obtained through numerical simulation, and to verify the characteristics of hydroxyl production at conditions studied. A sensitivity analysis for defined species was performed for the test conditions and the images obtained by laser techniques were correlated to simulated cases.
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The effective use of ethanol for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in a diesel engine

Brunel University London-Wei Guan, Hua Zhao
General Motors-Ian May
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0157
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Regulations have been established for the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption from the transport sector. Low carbon fuels combined with new powertrain technologies have the potential to provide significant reductions in GHG emissions while decreasing the dependence on fossil fuel. In this study, a lean-burn ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion strategy has been used as means to improve upon the efficiency and emissions of a conventional diesel engine. Experiments have been performed on a 2.0 dm3 single cylinder heavy-duty engine equipped with port fuel injection of ethanol and a high-pressure common rail diesel injection system. Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption have been measured at a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and various steady-state loads between 0.3 and 2.4 MPa net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Compared to a baseline diesel-only operation, the ethanol-diesel dual-fuel engine yielded up to 57% lower well-to-wheels GHG emissions. Moreover, the dual-fuel combustion strategy attained higher net indicated efficiency than the conventional diesel mode from 0.6 to 2.4 MPa IMEP, with a maximum value of 47.2%…
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Chemical kinetic mechanisms for HCCI combustion of wet ethanol with exhaust gas recirculation

Chemical Engineering Department – UFSM-Jean L. S. Fagundez, Nina P. G. Salau
Mechanical Engineering Department – UFSM-Filipe A. Herzer, Mario E. S. Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0293
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This work compares the accuracy of in-cylinder pressure and apparent heat release rate (AHRR) diagrams to the experimental data and the use of different chemical kinetics models applied to the GT-Power® software. The engine computational model is based on a naturally aspirated diesel engine with three cylinders, one of them modified to operate with hydrous ethanol with port fuel injection and HCCI combustion achieved with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of the Diesel cylinders. Operating points chosen to perform the comparison to experimental tests were 1800 rpm, 300 kPa of indicated mean effective pressure and fuels with 10% and 20% of water-in-ethanol by volume. The kinetic mechanisms for ethanol oxidation evaluated were the detailed NUI Galway and a Skeletal model based on it. With either model, cylinder pressure diagrams were not very different from the experimental values. The detailed mechanism was, on average, 9 times slower to process each case than the Skeletal mechanism. The quality of data obtained with the Skeletal mechanism and its lower computational cost makes it a good solution for a…
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Variable Camshaft Valve Timing and its Effects to Hydrous Ethanol (E100) Combustion during Engine Warm up Phase

Ford Motor Company Brazil-Gustavo C. Passarini, Marcos Fregoneze, Fernando Sarracini Júnior
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0147
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder airflow has significant impact in mixture formation and burn in internal combustion engines. Exhaust valve closing retard and early intake valve opening have large contribution for the in-cylinder airflow. It may reduce pumping work (energy lost to pump exhaust gases out of the cylinder and to draw the fresh air-fuel mixture), hurt combustion stability due to the excess of residual gas in the combustion chamber or still contribute to cylinder scavenging, increasing the amount of fresh air resulting in higher burn efficiency and more work extracted from the cycle. Brazilian market has large Hydrous Ethanol fuel (E100) usage. Due to E100 fuel properties, the intake and exhaust valves opening and closing time must be carefully defined during the engine warm up phase to avoid negative effects on the combustion. The objective of this work is to analyze the effects in performance, combustion stability and emissions, of exhaust valve timing at different engine temperatures when using E100 fuel in a Ford 1.5L naturally aspirated 3-cylinder engine with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and dual variable valve…
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Comparison between the WLTC and the FTP-75 driving cycles applied to a 1.4 L light-duty vehicle running on ethanol

Federal University of Santa Maria-Maria F. P. Mazer, Leonardo S. Hatschbach, Igor R. dos Santos, Juliano P. Silveira, Roberto A. Garlet, Mario E. S. Martins, Macklini Dalla Nora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0144
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The forecast scenarios regarding the environmental pollution raises a question whether the current vehicle emission certification is reliable enough to assure fleet agreement with the legal limits. Type approval tests have been performed on chassis dynamometer in order to evaluate the emission factors and fuel consumption for passenger cars. Standardized procedures such as the FTP-75 proposed in the United States (currently incorporated in the Brazilian legislation) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), a transient driving cycle model designed by the European Union to overcome the shortcomings of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), are discussed in this paper. Both cycles were performed in a chassis dynamometer with a flex-fuel passenger car running on ethanol blend (E92W08). The driver, vehicle and fuel were kept constant so the comparison between the cycles would not be compromised. The vehicle chosen was a 1.4 dm3 displaced volume FIAT sedan with maximum power of 60 kW at 5500 rpm and maximum torque of 122 Nm at 2250 rpm. The cycle dynamics and the engine operation points were…
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Comparing Knock between the CFR Engine and a Single Cylinder Research Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Andre Swarts, Garrett L. Anderson, Julian M. Wallace
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2156
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The confluence of increasing fuel economy requirements and increased use of ethanol as a gasoline blend component has led to various studies into the efficiency and performance benefits of higher octane numbers and high ethanol content fuels in modern engines. As part of a comprehensive study of the autoignition of different fuels in both the CFR octane rating engine and a modern, direct injection, turbocharged spark ignited engine, a series of fuel blends were prepared with varying composition, octane numbers and ethanol blend levels. The paper reports on the second part of this study where cylinder pressures were recorded for fuels under knocking conditions in both a single cylinder research engine (SCRE), utilizing a GM LHU head and piston, as well as the CFR engines used for octane ratings. In the SCRE, spark timing and air-fuel ratios were adjusted to achieve a consistent level of knock based on peak-to-peak values of the filtered cylinder pressures, over a range of engine speeds and manifold air pressures. The CFR engines were operated at standard RON and MON…
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CI Methanol and Ethanol combustion using ignition improver

Chalmers University of Technology-Saccullo Michael, Benham Timothy, Denbratt Ingemar
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology-Johansson Bengt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2232
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To act on global warming, CO2 emissions must be reduced. This will require a reduction in the use of fossil fuels for transportation. Because of the large quantities of fossil fuels used in transportation, sources of renewable fuels other than biomass will have to be explored, such as electrofuels synthesized from CO2 using renewable electricity. Potential electrofuels include methanol and ethanol, which have shown promising results in SI engines. However, their low cetane numbers make these fuels unsuitable for CI engines because of their poor auto-ignition qualities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using methanol and ethanol in CI engines at compression ratios of 16.7 and 20 with a pilot-main injection strategy in the PPC/CI regime. Single cylinder engine tests on a heavy duty engine were performed under medium load conditions (1262 rpm and 172 Nm). The higher compression ratio generated significantly better indicated thermal efficiencies, lower brake-specific NOx emissions, and less combustion noise. Soot emissions were well below current tailpipe emission limits in all cases.
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Influence of ethanol blending on knocking in a lean burn SI engine

Keio University-Kazuki Kaneko, Yuki Yasutake, Takeshi Yokomori, Norimasa Iida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2152
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Lean burn is one method for improving thermal efficiency in spark ignition (SI) engines. Suppression of knocking provides higher thermal efficiency, and ethanol blending is considered an effective way to suppress knocking due to its high octane and high latent heat of evaporation.We investigate the effect of ethanol blending on knocking in an SI engine under lean operating conditions. The Livengood-Wu (LW) integral was performed based on ignition delay duration estimated from a zero-dimensional detailed chemical reaction calculation with pressure and temperature histories.Knocking was suppressed and thermal efficiency increased with ethanol-gasoline blending fuel, even at 0.5 equivalence ratio. Decrease in unburned gas temperature by latent heat of evaporation had a comparable influence on knocking suppression, which was supported by LW integral analysis.
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