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Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra-Karthikeyan N Krishnan
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was run to simulate the high-speed exhaust temperature & low speed knock intensity, this is…


General Motors Technical Center India-Varun Raj TN
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2378
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The need of Diesel as fuel has greatly pressurized the now scarcely available natural resources and is likely to become a luxury for the future generations. This paper aims at finding an alternate for diesel that can hopefully reduce the pressure on its existing demand. This paper presents a comparative study on use of different blends of Jatropha Oil (J) and Ethanol (E) as fuel in a diesel engine to observe its performance and emission characteristics. The findings are later compared with corresponding values of neat Diesel as fuel. Since Jatropha oil is more viscous and has polyunsaturated characteristics in its natural form, its ethyl ester was produced by transesterification process and later blended with Ethanol in different proportions like 90% J 10%E, 80J-20E, 70J-30E and 60J-40E. A Kirloskar make single cylinder Diesel engine coupled with Eddy Current dynamometer was used at a constant speed of 1500 RPM as a test bed to measure the performance characteristics of the blends at various loads of 0, 3, 6, 9 kg. A Crypton make five gas analyzer…

Utilisation Treated Waste Engine oil and Diesohol blends as fuel for Compression Ignition Engine – An Experimental Study

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran B
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2384
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards. Optimal blend (45%ethanol 15% treated waste engine oil & 40% diesel) was tested for performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a diesel engine at…

A mathematical expression to predict the influence of ethanol concentration on distillation behavior of gasoline-ethanol fuel blend and impact of non -ionic surfactant on E20 fuel

Bharat Petroleum Corp., Ltd.-Siddhartha Mitra, Rajendiran Adimoolam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2386
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend. A linear equation is established from the distillation data to predict the impact of % ethanol on % volume recovery and maximum temperature drop in distillation test of gasoline-ethanol fuel blends. Addition of non-ionic surfactant in ethanol blended gasoline (E20) reduces the azeotrope behaviour significantly and flattens the distillation curve. E70, vapour lock index (VLI),…

Influence of addition of ethanol into Non-Edible biodiesel from rice bran oil on the properties and performance – An Experimental Study in Direct Injection VCR diesel engine

Hindustan Institute Of Tech. Science-Prabakaran Balasubramanian, Padmanaba Sundar Shanmuga Sundaram, Hemakumar Manoharan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0160
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Non-edible oil biodiesels and alcohols are the two major liquid fuel sources available to replace diesel to fuel compression ignition engine. This study is to investigate the solubility, properties, and performance of biodiesel from non-edible rice bran oil and ethanol. Solubility test was conducted in three different temperatures 5⁰C, 15⁰C & room temperature (30⁰C approximately). The stable blends were tested for essential properties such as energy content, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, the heat of vaporization, flash point and oxygen content as per ASTM standards. Biodiesel- ethanol blends containing 30% of ethanol was found stable up to 5⁰C. This blend also met the minimum requirement with respect to properties to fuel compression ignition engine. These blends were tested in a compression ignition engine for performance in various load conditions under three compression ratios (16:1, 17:1 & 18:1). Results showed that the compression ratio 18:1 was found suitable for the optimal blend. This blend produced brake thermal efficiency, peak in-cylinder pressure, peak heat release rate, ignition delay, emission of oxides of nitrogen and smoke similar to that…

Study of Fuel Octane Sensitivity Effects on Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Using Optical Diagnostics

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Hao Shi, Yanzhao An, Bengt Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0025
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a low-temperature combustion (LTC) concept that could deliver higher engine efficiency, as well as lower NOx and soot emissions. Gasoline-like fuels are beneficial for air/fuel mixing process under PPC mode because they have superior auto-ignition resistance to prolong ignition delay time. In current experiments, the high octane number gasoline fuel E10 (US market used gasoline, RON=91) and low octane number GCI blend fuel (RON=77) were tested respectively in a full-transparent AVL single cylinder optical compression ignition (CI) engine. Aiming at investigating the fuel sensitivity on engine performances under different combustion modes as well as soot particle emissions, the engine operating parameters and emission data were analyzed from CI to HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) via PPC (partially premixed combustion) by changing fuel injection timing. In addition, in order to get a deep insight of in-cylinder auto-ignition and combustion evolution process, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and high-speed natural flame luminosity (NFL) imaging techniques are used for visualizing fuel distribution, auto-ignition kernel development and combustion processes.

Knock and Pre-Ignition Limits on Utilization of Ethanol in Octane–on–Demand Concept

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Eshan Singh, Robert Dibble
Saudi Aramco-Kai Morganti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0108
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Octane-on-Demand (OoD) is a viable technology for reducing global greenhouse emissions from automobiles. The concept utilizes a low-octane fuel for most operating conditions. Previous research has focused on the minimum ethanol content required for achieving a specific load at a given speed as the low-octane fuel becomes knock limited as the load increases. However, it is also widely known that ethanol has a high tendency to pre-ignite, attributed by few to its high laminar flame speed and surface ignition tendency. Moreover, ethanol has a lower calorific value, requiring a larger fuel mass to be injected to achieve similar power. A larger fuel mass increases the oil dilution by the liquid fuel, creating precursors for pre-ignition. Hence the limits on ethanol addition owing to pre-ignition also needs consideration before the technology can be implemented. In this regard, experiments were performed using light naphtha RON 68 gasoline and ethanol, in direct and port injection configuration respectively. Load was parametrically swept by increasing the intake air and fuel quantity, until pre-ignition limited IMEP was reached. Three different engine…

Impact of Ethanol and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content on Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Vehicle

IFP Energies Nouvelles, France-Toni Tahtouh, Arij Ben Amara, Patricia Anselmi, Laurie Starck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0160
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The impact of transport on global and local pollution have resulted in stricter emission limits. More specifically, increasing attention is being paid to particulate emissions at the exhaust gases in spark ignition engines. The particulate formation is mainly affected by: 1-fuel properties, 2-engine and fuel system characteristics and 3-Exhaust after-treatment system. In order to estimate the influence of fuel characteristics on particulate emissions, several research works have proposed fuel indices that correlate some of the fuel physical and chemical properties with engine particulate emissions. This work investigates the impact of fuel composition on particulate emissions and evaluates the Particulate Matter Index (PMI) proposed by Aikawa et. al, and other fuel indices, in terms of agreement with vehicle test bed results for a passenger car. Vehicle tests were performed on New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) by using an E10 euro6 reference fuel and five different fuel blends with 10% to 20% of ethanol and 23% to 35% of aromatic hydrocarbons content by volume. Results illustrate a good correlation…

HCCI with Wet Ethanol: Investigating the Charge Cooling Effect of a High Latent Heat of Vaporization Fuel.

Stony Brook Univ.-Brian Gainey, James Gohn, Ziming Yan, Khurram Malik, Mozhgan Rahimi Boldaji, Benjamin Lawler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0024
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The combustion phasing of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion is incredibly sensitive to intake temperature. Controlling the intake temperature on a cycle-to-cycle basis is one-way control combustion phasing, however accomplishing this with an intake air heater/intercooler is unfeasible. One possible way to control the intake temperature is through the direct injection of fuel. The direct injection of fuel during the intake stroke cools the charge via evaporative cooling. Some heat is absorbed from the incoming air, lowering the in-cylinder temperature, while some heat is absorbed from the piston/cylinder walls if the spray reaches the walls. The amount of heat that is absorbed from the air vs. the walls depends on the injection timing during the intake. Therefore, if a high latent heat of vaporization fuel is used, the intake temperature will become very sensitive to injection timing, allowing for cycle-to-cycle control of combustion phasing. Ethanol is a fuel with a high latent heat of vaporization and therefore possesses a large charge cooling potential. Wet ethanol, a mixture of ethanol and water, offers an even higher…

On the HCCI Octane Boosting Effects of γ-Valerolactone

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Binod Giri, Gani Issayev, Bengt Johansson, Aamir Farooq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0026
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Transportation sector is almost entirely powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs) burning petroleum-based liquid fuels. This makes the transportation sector the main culprit of global warming due to the large quantity of CO2 emission from burning these petroleum-based fuels. Over the last few decades, there are growing concerns over global warming and diminishing petroleum reserves. Such concerns have led to concentrated efforts directed at a paradigm shift from conventional fuels to renewable alternatives which can promote cleaner combustion. Therefore, future research directions should orient towards exploring new fuels suitable for future ICEs to achieve better engine efficiency and significantly less harmful emissions. One way to achieve these objectives is to focus on improving the combustion technology by developing new fuel-engine systems. Consequently, scientists and engineers are showing growing interest towards non-petroleum-based fuels coming from renewable resources. Among bio-derived fuels, γ-Valerolactone (GVL), a fuel derived from lignocellulosic biomass, has recently attracted considerable attention due to its potential for increasing the octane number and reducing harmful emissions. This study aims to examine GVL as an octane booster…